renaissance and reformation renaissance:1350-1500 reformation:1500-1600
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DESCRIPTIONSection 1: Renaissance Renaissance means “rebirth” It was an age of recovery from the disasters of the Middle Ages such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power. Also, there was a high regard for human worth and a realization of what individuals could achieve.
Renaissance and Reformation
Black Death• Renaissance began at end of Black Death
–Plague in which 1/3 of Europe’s population died
Section 1: Renaissance• Renaissance means “rebirth”• It was an age of recovery from
the disasters of the Middle Ages such as the plague, political instability, and a decline of Church power.
• Also, there was a high regard for human worth and a realization of what individuals could achieve.
Italian City-states • The Renaissance began in
Italy.– The major cities of influence
were Rome, Milan, Venice, and Florence.
– Each of these cities played crucial role in politics.
– Niccolo Machiavelli’s book The Prince became one of the most influential works on political power.• He believed that a ruler should keep
his power by whatever means necessary.
• Renaissance Society– During the Middle Ages, society
was divided into 3 categories. These categories continued with the Renaissance• Nobility: 2 – 3% of the population;
held important political posts and were advisers to the king
• Clergy: church officials• Peasants and Townspeople: most of
the population were in this classification; urban poverty increased throughout Europe
• Family and Marriage– Parents carefully arranged
marriages to strengthen business or family ties
– A father’s authority over his children was absolute until he died or formally freed them. Therefore, the age of adulthood varied from early teens to the late twenties.
Section 2: The Intellectual and Artistic Renaissance• Italian Renaissance Humanism
– Emphasis on the individual – Studied things like grammar,
poetry, philosophy, and history• Vernacular Literature
– Writers began to write in the language spoken in their own regions (vernacular)
– Dante and Geoffrey Chaucer helped make vernacular literature more popular
• Education– The humanist movement had a
huge effect on education.– Humanists wrote books on
education and opened schools.• They stressed in importance of
history, poetry, mathematics, astronomy, music, and physical education.
• Humanist education was a preparation for life as well as creating great scholars and complete citizens.
Printing Press• Johnannes Gutenberg• Movable metal type• Printed BIBLE first in 1455
• The Arts– Perspective allowed painters to
create the illusion of three dimensions
– Masters of the High Renaissance• Leonardo da Vinci• Raphael• Michelangelo• Donatello
Section 3: The Protestant Reformation• Religious
reform movement that divided the western Church into Catholic and Protestant groups
• Desiderius Erasmus criticized the abuses in the Church in his work, The Praise of Folly.
• Prior to the Reformation, clergy were:– more concerned with politics and
worldly interests– concerned with money and
advanced their personal careers and wealth
– failing to meet the needs of their followers
– sold indulgences
Martin Luther• On October 31,
1517, Luther nailed a list of Ninety-five Theses to the church door in Wittenberg, Germany.
• Thousands of copies were printed and spread to all parts of Germany.
• In January of 1521, the Church excommunicated him.
• The Edict of Worms made him an outlaw within the empire.
Peace of Augsburg• formally accepted
division of Christianity in Germany
• German states could choose between Catholicism & Lutheranism
• No choice for individuals, but German ruler could choose for his people
Spread of Lutheranism• While in hiding, Luther gained
the support of German rulers who established state churches that followed Luther’s teachings.
• Lutheranism was the first Protestant faith.
Section 4: The Spread of Protestantism and the Catholic Response• Division among
the Protestants appeared throughout Europe.
• In Switzerland, Ulrich Zwingli pushed for religious reform:– Removal of
relics and paintings
– New sermons that replaced Catholic mass
• After Zwingli died in battle, John Calvin took leadership of the reformation in Switzerland.
• The thought of predestination became one of the major differences among the protestant faiths.
• In England, King Henry VIII sought a divorce from his wife.
• At his request, Parliament broke from the Catholic Church and established the Anglican Church.
The Anabaptists• Viewed as radical• Believed in
– Adult baptism– Equality/freedom– Complete separation of church
*Many came as Pilgrims to United States
Catholic Reformation• The Catholic Church went through a
period of reform that gave it new strength and allowed it to regain what it lost.– The Jesuits (Society of Jesus) took a
vow of obedience to the Pope and helped spread the Catholic teachings.
– The Papacy rededicated itself to the people
– The Council of Trent reaffirmed the Catholic teachings• Faith and good works needed for salvation• Seven sacraments upheld• Clerical celibacy affirmed• Use of indulgences strengthened