rene magritte (2)

58
8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2) http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 1/58  THE DEFENDANT BY G. K. CHESTERTON AUTHOR OF 'THE WILD KNIGHT' AND 'GREYBEARDS AT PLAY' SECOND EDITION LONDON. MDCCCCII R. BRIMLEY JOHNSON * * * * *  The 'Defence' !f "h#ch $h# %!&(e # c!()!e h+%e +))e+,e #n -The S)e+e,-/ +n +,e he,e ,e),#n$e/ +f$e, ,e%##!n +n +()&#0c+$#!n/ 12 )e,(##!n !f $he E#$!,. P!,$#!n !f 'The Defence !f P1&#c#$2' +))e+,e #n -The D+#&2 Ne"-.  -Oc$!1e,-/ 3453. * * * * * CONTENTS IN DEFENCE OF A NEW EDITION INTRODUCTION A DEFENCE OF PENNY DREADFULS A DEFENCE OF RASH 6OWS A DEFENCE OF SKELETONS A DEFENCE OF PUBLICITY A DEFENCE OF NONSENSE A DEFENCE OF PLANETS A DEFENCE OF CHINA SHEPHERDESSES

Upload: bojana998877

Post on 01-Jun-2018

234 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 1/58

 THE DEFENDANT

BY G. K. CHESTERTON

AUTHOR OF 'THE WILD KNIGHT' AND 'GREYBEARDS AT PLAY'

SECOND EDITION

LONDON. MDCCCCII

R. BRIMLEY JOHNSON

* * * * *

 The 'Defence' !f "h#ch $h# %!&(e # c!()!e h+%e +))e+,e #n -The

S)e+e,-/ +n +,e he,e ,e),#n$e/ +f$e, ,e%##!n +n +()&#0c+$#!n/ 12

)e,(##!n !f $he E#$!,. P!,$#!n !f 'The Defence !f P1&#c#$2'

+))e+,e #n -The D+#&2 Ne"-.

 -Oc$!1e,-/ 3453.

* * * * *

CONTENTS

IN DEFENCE OF A NEW EDITION

INTRODUCTION

A DEFENCE OF PENNY DREADFULS

A DEFENCE OF RASH 6OWS

A DEFENCE OF SKELETONS

A DEFENCE OF PUBLICITY

A DEFENCE OF NONSENSE

A DEFENCE OF PLANETS

A DEFENCE OF CHINA SHEPHERDESSES

Page 2: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 2/58

A DEFENCE OF USEFUL INFORMATION

A DEFENCE OF HERALDRY

A DEFENCE OF UGLY THINGS

A DEFENCE OF FARCE

A DEFENCE OF HUMILITY

A DEFENCE OF SLANG

A DEFENCE OF BABY7WORSHIP

A DEFENCE OF DETECTI6E STORIES

A DEFENCE OF PATRIOTISM

* * * * *

 -IN DEFENCE OF A NEW EDITION

 The ,e#e !f + e,#e !f e+2 ! e)he(e,+& +n e%en )e,8! (+2

ee( +$ $he 0,$ 9&+nce $! ,e:#,e !(e e;ce< ),!1+1&2 $he 1e$

e;ce # $h+$ $he2 "#&& h+%e 1een c!()&e$e&2 f!,9!$$en/ +n $he,ef!,e(+2 1e ,e+ +9+#n "#$h en$#,e&2 ne" en+$#!n. I +( n!$ ,e/ h!"e%e,/

$h+$ $h# c&+#( # ! (!e$ + #$ !n/ f!, I f+nc2 $h+$ Sh+e)e+,e

+n B+&=+c/ #f (!%e $! ),+2e,/ (#9h$ n!$ + $! 1e ,e(e(1e,e/ 1$ $!

1e f!,9!$$en/ +n f!,9!$$en $h< f!, #f $he2 "e,e f!,9!$$en $he2 "!&

1e e%e,&+$#n9&2 ,e7#c!%e,e +n ,e7,e+. I$ # + (!n!$!n! (e(!,2

"h#ch ee) #n $he (+#n f,!( ee#n9 $h#n9 + )&en# + $he2 +,e.

 The +nc#en$ "e,e n!$ ",!n9 "hen $he2 (+e Le$he $he 1!n+,2 !f +

1e$$e, &+n< )e,h+) $he !n&2 8+" #n $he#, 2$e( # $h+$ + (+n "h! h+

1+$he #n $he ,#%e, !f f!,9e$f&ne "!& 1e + &#e&2 + n!$ $! c&#(1

1+c )!n $he 1+n !f $he e+,$h +n f+nc2 h#(e&f #n E&2#(.

If/ $he,ef!,e/ I +( ce,$+#n $h+$ (!$ en#1&e )e!)&e h+%e f!,9!$$en

$he e;#$ence !f $h# 1!!77I ! n!$ )e+ #n (!e$2 !, #n ),#e77I

"#h !n&2 $! $+$e + #()&e +n !(e"h+$ 1e+$#f& f+c$. In !ne ,e)ec$

$he )+#n9 !f $he )e,#! ,#n9 "h#ch + 1!! c+n 1e c!n#e,e c,,en$

h+ +>#c$e (e "#$h !(e (e&+nch!&2/ f!, I h+ #n$ene $! ",#$e

+n!n2(!&2 #n !(e +#&2 )+)e, + $h!,!9h +n c,h#n9 e;)!,e !f $he

Page 3: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 3/58

"!, #n)#,e (!$&2 12 + ce,$+#n +,$#$#c #()+$#ence !f $he $!!

#n&9en$ $!ne !f $he c,#$#:e +n $he (+nne, #n "h#ch + %+$ n(1e, !f 

(2 (!$ (!n$,! f+&&+c#e h+%e )+e nch+&&en9e. I "#&& n!$ ,e)e+$

$h+$ )!"e,f& +,$#c&e he,e/ f!, #$ c+nn!$ 1e nece+,2 $! ! +n2$h#n9

(!,e $h+n "+,n $he ,e+e, +9+#n$ $he )e,fec$&2 #nefen#1&e &#ne !f 

+,9(en$ +!)$e +$ $he en !f ). ?@. I +( +&! c!nc#! $h+$ $he $#$&e!f $he 1!! #/ $,#c$&2 )e+#n9/ #n+cc,+$e. I$ # + &e9+& (e$+)h!,/

+n/ )e+#n9 &e9+&&2/ + efen+n$ # n!$ +n en$h#+$ f!, $he

ch+,+c$e, !f K#n9 J!hn !, $he !(e$#c %#,$e !f $he ),+#,#e7!9. He #

!ne "h! efen h#(e&f/ + $h#n9 "h#ch $he ),een$ ",#$e,/ h!"e%e,

)!#!ne h# (#n (+2 1e "#$h )+,+!;/ ce,$+#n&2 ne%e, ,e+(e !f 

+$$e()$#n9.

C,#$#c#( )!n $he 1!! c!n#e,e + &#$e,+$,e/ #f #$ c+n 1e !

c!n#e,e/ I h!&/ !f c!,e/ ne%e, ,e+( !f #c#n9770,$&2/

1ec+e #$ # ,##c&! $! ! !< +n/ ec!n&2/ 1ec+e $he,e "+/ #n

(2 !)#n#!n/ (ch $#ce #n ch c,#$#c#(.

B$ $he,e # !ne (+$$e, !n "h#ch +n +$h!, # 9ene,+&&2 c!n#e,e +

h+%#n9 + ,#9h$ $! e;)&+#n h#(e&f/ #nce #$ h+ n!$h#n9 $! ! "#$h

c+)+c#$2 !, #n$e&&#9ence/ +n $h+$ # $he :e$#!n !f h# (!,+&.

I +( ),! $! +2 $h+$ + f,#!/ nc!(),!(##n9/ +n %e,2 eec$#%e

+$$+c "+ (+e )!n "h+$ "+ +&&e9e $! 1e $he $$e, #((!,+&#$2 !f $h#

1!! 12 (2 e;ce&&en$ f,#en M,. C.F.G. M+$e,(+n/ #n $he 'S)e+e,.' The

$enenc2 !f $h+$ c,#$#c#( "+ $! $he eec$ $h+$ I "+ #c!,+9#n9

#(),!%e(en$ +n #9##n9 c+n+& 12 (2 !en#%e !)$#(#(. !$#n9$he )++9e #n "h#ch I +# $h+$ '#+(!n "e,e $! 1e f!n #n $he

$71#n/' he +# 'The,e # n! #c&$2 #n 0n#n9 9!! #n "h+$

h(+n#$2 ,eec$. The #c&$2 # $! 0n #$ #n "h+$ h(+n#$2 +cce)$.

 The #+(!n # e+2 en!9h $! 0n #n $he $71#n. The #c&$2 # $!

0n #$ #n $he ,+"#n97,!!(.' I ($ +(#$/ f!, (2 )+,$/ "#$h!$ $he

&#9h$e$ h+(e/ $h+$ I h+%e f!n + 9,e+$ (+n2 %e,2 e;ce&&en$ $h#n9 #n

,+"#n97,!!(. F!, e;+()&e/ I f!n M,. M+$e,(+n #n + ,+"#n97,!!(. B$

I (e,e&2 (en$#!n $h# ),e&2 e$h#c+& +$$+c #n !,e, $! $+$e/ #n + fe"

en$ence + )!#1&e/ (2 #e,ence f,!( $he $he!,2 !f !)$#(#( +n

),!9,e $he,e#n ennc#+$e. A$ 0,$ #9h$ #$ "!& ee( $h+$ $he)e#(#$ enc!,+9e #(),!%e(en$. B$ #n ,e+&#$2 #$ # + #n9&+, $,$h

$h+$ $he e,+ #n "h#ch )e#(#( h+ 1een c,#e f,!( $he h!e7$!) #

+&! $h+$ #n "h#ch +&(!$ +&& ,ef!,( h+ $+9n+$e +n f+&&en #n$!

ec+2. The ,e+!n !f $h# # n!$ #c&$ $! #c!%e,. N! (+n e%e, #/

+n n! (+n e%e, c+n/ c,e+$e !, e#,e $! (+e + 1+ $h#n9 9!! !, +n

9&2 $h#n9 1e+$#f&. The,e ($ 1e !(e 9e,( !f 9!! $! 1e &!%e/ !(e

f,+9(en$ !f 1e+$2 $! 1e +(#,e. The (!$he, "+he +n ec !$ $he

Page 4: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 4/58

#,$2 !, c+,e&e ch#&/ 1$ n! !ne c+n + he, $! "+h +n ec !$ +

9!1&#n "#$h + he+,$ &#e he&&. N! !ne c+n #&& $he f+$$e c+&f f!,

Me)h#$!)he&e. The c+e "h#ch # 1&!c#n9 +&& ),!9,e $!+2 # $he

1$&e ce)$#c#( "h#ch "h#)e, #n + (#&&#!n e+, $h+$ $h#n9 +,e n!$

9!! en!9h $! 1e "!,$h #(),!%#n9. If $he "!,& # 9!! "e +,e

,e%!&$#!n+,#e/ #f $he "!,& # e%#& "e ($ 1e c!ne,%+$#%e. Theee+2/ f$#&e + $he2 +,e c!n#e,e + e,#! &#$e,+$,e/ +,e 2e$

e$h#c+&&2 #nce,e/ #nce $he2 ee $! ,e(#n (en $h+$ $h#n9 ($ 1e

&!%e 0,$ +n #(),!%e +f$e,"+,.

G. K. C-.

* * * * *

 THE DEFENDANT

INTRODUCTION

In ce,$+#n en&e )&+n/ )&+n &#e 9,e+$ 8+$ 9!ne #==2/ &!)e

$h+$ ee( $! c!n$,+#c$ $he #e+ $h+$ $he,e # e%en ch + $h#n9 + +

&e%e&/ +n (+e +&& ,e+&#=e $h+$ "e &#%e !n + )&+ne$ "#$h + &!)#n9

,!!f/ 2! "#&& c!(e f,!( $#(e $! $#(e )!n "h!&e %+&&e2 0&&e "#$h

&!!e ,!c +n 1!&e,/ ! 1#9 + $! 1e &#e (!n$+#n 1,!en &!!e.

 The "h!&e (#9h$ 1e +n e;)e,#(en$+& c,e+$#!n h+$$e,e +n c+$ +"+2. I$

# !f$en #c&$ $! 1e&#e%e $h+$ ch c!(#c ,efe c+n h+%e c!(e

$!9e$he, e;ce)$ 12 h(+n (e+n. The (#&e$ +n (!$ c!cne2 #(+9#n+$#!n

c!nce#%e $he )&+ce $! 1e $he cene !f !(e "+, !f 9#+n$. T! (e #$ #+&"+2 +!c#+$e "#$h !ne #e+/ ,ec,,en$ +n +$ &+$ #n$#nc$#%e. The

cene "+ $he cene !f $he $!n#n9 !f !(e ),eh#$!,#c ),!)he$/ +

),!)he$ + (ch (!,e 9#9+n$#c $h+n +f$e,7),!)he$ + $he 1!&e, +,e

(!,e 9#9+n$#c $h+n $he )e11&e. He )!e !(e "!,77"!, $h+$ ee(e

h+(ef& +n $,e(en!77+n $he "!,&/ #n $e,,!,/ 1,#e h#( ne, +

"#&e,ne !f $!ne. The )&+ce # $he (!n(en$ !f +n +nc#en$ fe+,.

If "e f!&&!"e $he +(e (!! !f f+nc2/ #$ "!& he (!,e #c&$ $!

#(+9#ne "h+$ +"f& h#n$ !, "#& )#c$,e !f $he n#%e,e c+&&e f!,$h

$h+$ ),#(+& )e,ec$#!n/ "h+$ ec,e$ !f en+$#!n+& $h!9h$ &#e 1,#ene, $he 1,$+& $!ne. F!, #n !, $#(e $he 1&+)he(#e +,e $h,e+1+,e.

Pe#(#( # n!" )+$en$&2/ + #$ +&"+2 "+ een$#+&&2/ (!,e

c!((!n)&+ce $h+n )#e$2. P,!f+n#$2 # n!" (!,e $h+n +n +ec$+$#!n77#$ #

+ c!n%en$#!n. The c,e +9+#n$ G! # E;e,c#e I. #n $he ),#(e, !f 

(#n!, )!e$,2. I$ "+ n!$/ +,e&2/ f!, ch 1+12#h !&e(n#$#e $h+$

!, #(+9#n+,2 ),!)he$ "+ $!ne #n $he (!,n#n9 !f $he "!,&. If "e

"e#9h $he (+$$e, #n $he f+&$&e c+&e !f #(+9#n+$#!n/ #f "e ee "h+$

Page 5: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 5/58

# $he ,e+& $,en !f h(+n#$2/ "e h+&& fee& #$ (!$ ),!1+1&e $h+$ he

"+ $!ne f!, +2#n9 $h+$ $he 9,+ "+ 9,een +n $h+$ $he 1#, +n9

#n ),#n9< f!, $he (##!n !f +&& $he ),!)he$ f,!( $he 1e9#nn#n9 h+

n!$ 1een ! (ch $he )!#n$#n9 !$ !f he+%en !, he&& + ),#(+,#&2 $he

)!#n$#n9 !$ !f $he e+,$h.

Re&#9#!n h+ h+ $! ),!%#e $h+$ &!n9e$ +n $,+n9e$ $e&ec!)e77$he

$e&ec!)e $h,!9h "h#ch "e c!& ee $he $+, )!n "h#ch "e "e&$. F!,

$he (#n +n e2e !f $he +%e,+9e (+n $h# "!,& # + &!$ + Een +n

+ nen + A$&+n$#. The,e ,n + $,+n9e &+" $h,!9h $he &en9$h !f 

h(+n h#$!,277$h+$ (en +,e c!n$#n+&&2 $en#n9 $! ne,%+&e $he#,

en%#,!n(en$/ $! ne,%+&e $he#, h+))#ne/ $! ne,%+&e $he(e&%e.

 The 9,e+$ #n !f (+n#n/ $he #n $2)#0e 12 $he f+&& !f A+(/ # $he

$enenc2/ n!$ $!"+, ),#e/ 1$ $!"+, $h# "e#, +n h!,,#1&e

h(#&#$2.

 Th# # $he 9,e+$ f+&&/ $he f+&& 12 "h#ch $he 0h f!,9e$ $he e+/ $he

!; f!,9e$ $he (e+!"/ $he c&e, f!,9e$ $he c#$2/ e%e,2 (+n f!,9e$ h#

en%#,!n(en$ +n/ #n $he f&&e$ +n (!$ &#$e,+& ene/ f!,9e$ h#(e&f.

 Th# # $he ,e+& f+&& !f A+(/ +n #$ # + )#,#$+& f+&&. I$ # +

$,+n9e $h#n9 $h+$ (+n2 $,&2 )#,#$+& (en/ ch + Gene,+& G!,!n/

h+%e +c$+&&2 )en$ !(e h!, #n )ec&+$#n9 )!n $he ),ec#e &!c+$#!n

!f $he G+,en !f Een. M!$ ),!1+1&2 "e +,e #n Een $#&&. I$ # !n&2

!, e2e $h+$ h+%e ch+n9e.

 The )e#(#$ # c!((!n&2 )!en !f + $he (+n #n ,e%!&$. He # n!$.

F#,$&2/ 1ec+e #$ ,e:#,e !(e chee,f&ne $! c!n$#ne #n ,e%!&$/+n ec!n&2/ 1ec+e )e#(#( +))e+& $! $he "e+e, #e !f e%e,21!2/

+n $he )e#(#$/ $he,ef!,e/ ,#%e + ,!+,#n9 + $,+e + $he )1&#c+n.

 The )e,!n "h! # ,e+&&2 #n ,e%!&$ # $he !)$#(#$/ "h! 9ene,+&&2 &#%e

+n #e #n + e)e,+$e +n #c#+& e!,$ $! )e,+e +&& $he !$he,

)e!)&e h!" 9!! $he2 +,e. I$ h+ 1een ),!%e + hn,e $#(e !%e, $h+$

#f 2! ,e+&&2 "#h $! en,+9e )e!)&e +n (+e $he( +n9,2/ e%en n$!

e+$h/ $he ,#9h$ "+2 $! ! #$ # $! $e&& $he( $h+$ $he2 +,e +&& $he !n

!f G!. Je Ch,#$ "+ c,c#0e/ #$ (+2 1e ,e(e(1e,e/ n!$ 1ec+e !f 

+n2$h#n9 he +# +1!$ G!/ 1$ !n + ch+,9e !f +2#n9 $h+$ + (+n c!&

#n $h,ee +2 )&& !"n +n ,e1#& $he Te()&e. E%e,2 !ne !f $he 9,e+$,e%!&$#!n#$/ f,!( I+#+h $! She&&e2/ h+%e 1een !)$#(#$. The2 h+%e

1een #n#9n+n$/ n!$ +1!$ $he 1+ne !f e;#$ence/ 1$ +1!$ $he

&!"ne !f (en #n ,e+&#=#n9 #$ 9!!ne. The ),!)he$ "h! # $!ne #

n!$ + 1,+"&e, !, + (+,)&!$. He # #()&2 + ,eec$e &!%e,. He e,

f,!( +n n,e:#$e +$$+ch(en$ $! $h#n9 #n 9ene,+&.

I$ 1ec!(e #nc,e+#n9&2 +))+,en$/ $he,ef!,e/ $h+$ $he "!,& # #n +

Page 6: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 6/58

)e,(+nen$ +n9e, !f 1e#n9 (#9e. Th+$ $h# # n! f+nc#f& !,

(2$#c+& #e+ (+2 1e $e$e 12 #()&e e;+()&e. The $"! +1!&$e&2 1+#c

"!, '9!!' +n '1+/' ec,#)$#%e !f $"! ),#(+& +n #ne;)&#c+1&e

en+$#!n/ +,e n!$/ +n ne%e, h+%e 1een/ e ),!)e,&2. Th#n9 $h+$ +,e

1+ +,e n!$ c+&&e 9!! 12 +n2 )e!)&e "h! e;)e,#ence $he(< 1$ $h#n9

$h+$ +,e 9!! +,e c+&&e 1+ 12 $he n#%e,+& %e,#c$ !f h(+n#$2.

Le$ (e e;)&+#n + &#$$&e Ce,$+#n $h#n9 +,e 1+ ! f+, + $he2 9!/ ch

+ )+#n/ +n n! !ne/ n!$ e%en + &n+$#c/ c+&& + $!!$h7+che 9!! #n

#$e&f< 1$ + n#fe "h#ch c$ c&(#&2 +n "#$h #c&$2 # c+&&e +

1+ n#fe/ "h#ch #$ ce,$+#n&2 # n!$. I$ # !n&2 n!$ ! 9!! + !$he,

n#%e $! "h#ch (en h+%e 9,!"n +cc$!(e. A n#fe # ne%e, 1+ e;ce)$

!n ch ,+,e !cc+#!n + $h+$ #n "h#ch #$ # ne+$&2 +n c#en$#0c+&&2

)&+n$e #n $he (#&e !f !ne' 1+c. The c!+,e$ +n 1&n$e$ n#fe

"h#ch e%e, 1,!e + )enc#& #n$! )#ece #n$e+ !f h+,)en#n9 #$ # + 9!!

$h#n9 #n ! f+, + #$ # + n#fe. I$ "!& h+%e +))e+,e + (#,+c&e #n

$he S$!ne A9e. Wh+$ "e c+&& + 1+ n#fe # + 9!! n#fe n!$ 9!! en!9h

f!, < "h+$ "e c+&& + 1+ h+$ # + 9!! h+$ n!$ 9!! en!9h f!, <

"h+$ "e c+&& 1+ c!!e,2 # 9!! c!!e,2 n!$ 9!! en!9h f!, < "h+$ "e

c+&& + 1+ c#%#&#=+$#!n # + 9!! c#%#&#=+$#!n n!$ 9!! en!9h f!, .

We ch!!e $! c+&& $he 9,e+$ (+ !f $he h#$!,2 !f (+n#n 1+/ n!$

1ec+e #$ # 1+/ 1$ 1ec+e "e +,e 1e$$e,. Th# # )+&)+1&2 +n nf+#,

),#nc#)&e. I%!,2 (+2 n!$ 1e ! "h#$e + n!"/ 1$ $he "h!&e A,c$#c

c!n$#nen$ !e n!$ (+e #%!,2 1&+c.

N!" #$ h+ +))e+,e $! (e nf+#, $h+$ h(+n#$2 h!& 1e en9+9e

)e,)e$+&&2 #n c+&&#n9 +&& $h!e $h#n9 1+ "h#ch h+%e 1een 9!! en!9h$! (+e !$he, $h#n9 1e$$e,/ #n e%e,&+$#n9&2 #c#n9 !"n $he &+e, 12

"h#ch #$ h+ c&#(1e. I$ h+ +))e+,e $! (e $h+$ ),!9,e h!& 1e

!(e$h#n9 e&e 1e#e + c!n$#n+& )+,,#c#e< $he,ef!,e I h+%e

#n%e$#9+$e $he $7he+) !f h(+n#$2/ +n f!n + $,e+,e #n +&& !f 

$he(. I h+%e f!n $h+$ h(+n#$2 # n!$ #nc#en$+&&2 en9+9e/ 1$

e$e,n+&&2 +n 2$e(+$#c+&&2 en9+9e/ #n $h,!"#n9 9!& #n$! $he 9$$e,

+n #+(!n #n$! $he e+. I h+%e f!n $h+$ e%e,2 (+n # #)!e $!

c+&& $he 9,een &e+f !f $he $,ee + &#$$&e &e 9,een $h+n #$ #/ +n $he

n!" !f Ch,#$(+ + &#$$&e &e "h#$e $h+n #$ #< $he,ef!,e I h+%e

#(+9#ne $h+$ $he (+#n 1#ne !f + (+n/ h!"e%e, h(1&e/ # efence. Ih+%e c!nce#%e $h+$ + efen+n$ # ch#e82 ,e:#,e "hen "!,&&#n9

e)#e $he "!,&77$h+$ + c!ne& f!, $he efence "!& n!$ h+%e 1een

!$ !f )&+ce #n $h+$ $e,,#1&e +2 "hen $he n "+ +,ene !%e, C+&%+,2

+n M+n "+ ,eec$e !f (en.

* * * * *

Page 7: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 7/58

A DEFENCE OF PENNY DREADFULS

One !f $he $,+n9e$ e;+()&e !f $he e9,ee $! "h#ch !,#n+,2 &#fe #ne,%+&e # $he e;+()&e !f )!)&+, &#$e,+$,e/ $he %+$ (+ !f "h#ch

"e c!n$en$e&2 ec,#1e + %&9+,. The 1!2' n!%e&e$$e (+2 1e #9n!,+n$

#n + &#$e,+,2 ene/ "h#ch # !n&2 &#e +2#n9 $h+$ + (!e,n n!%e& #

#9n!,+n$ #n $he che(#c+& ene/ !, $he ec!n!(#c ene/ !, $he

+$,!n!(#c+& ene< 1$ #$ # n!$ %&9+, #n$,#n#c+&&277#$ # $he +c$+&

cen$,e !f + (#&&#!n 8+(#n9 #(+9#n+$#!n.

In f!,(e, cen$,#e $he ec+$e c&+ #9n!,e $he ,c !f %&9+,

&#$e,+$,e. The2 #9n!,e/ +n $he,ef!,e # n!$/ ),!)e,&2 )e+#n9/

e)#e #$. S#()&e #9n!,+nce +n #n#e,ence !e n!$ #n8+$e $he

ch+,+c$e, "#$h ),#e. A (+n !e n!$ "+& !"n $he $,ee$ 9#%#n9 +

h+9h$2 $"#,& $! h# (!$+che +$ $he $h!9h$ !f h# )e,#!,#$2 $!

!(e %+,#e$2 !f ee)7e+ 0he. The !& ch!&+, &ef$ $he "h!&e

ne,7"!,& !f )!)&+, c!()!#$#!n #n + #(#&+, +,ne.

 T!7+2/ h!"e%e,/ "e h+%e ,e%e,e $h# ),#nc#)&e. We ! e)#e %&9+,

c!()!#$#!n/ +n "e ! n!$ #9n!,e $he(. We +,e #n !(e +n9e, !f 

1ec!(#n9 )e$$2 #n !, $2 !f )e$$#ne< $he,e # + $e,,#1&e C#,ce+n

&+" #n $he 1+c9,!n $h+$ #f $he !& $!!) $!! !$en$+$#!&2 $!

e;+(#ne +n2$h#n9 #$ ne%e, 9e$ ) +9+#n. The,e # n! c&+ !f %&9+,

)1&#c+$#!n +1!$ "h#ch $he,e #/ $! (2 (#n/ (!,e $$e,&2 ,##c&!e;+99e,+$#!n +n (#c!nce)$#!n $h+n $he c,,en$ 1!2' &#$e,+$,e !f $he

&!"e$ $,+$(. Th# c&+ !f c!()!#$#!n h+ ),e(+1&2 +&"+2 e;#$e/

+n ($ e;#$. I$ h+ n! (!,e c&+#( $! 1e 9!! &#$e,+$,e $h+n $he

+#&2 c!n%e,+$#!n !f #$ ,e+e, $! 1e 0ne !,+$!,2/ !, $he

&!9#n97h!e +n $ene(en$ $he2 #nh+1#$ $! 1e 1&#(e +,ch#$ec$,e.

B$ )e!)&e ($ h+%e c!n%e,+$#!n/ $he2 ($ h+%e h!e/ +n $he2 ($

h+%e $!,#e. The #()&e nee f!, !(e #n !f #e+& "!,& #n "h#ch

0c$#$#! )e,!n )&+2 +n nh+()e,e )+,$ # #n0n#$e&2 ee)e, +n

!&e, $h+n $he ,&e !f 9!! +,$/ +n (ch (!,e #()!,$+n$. E%e,2 !ne !f 

#n ch#&h!! h+ c!n$,c$e ch +n #n%##1&e -,+(+$# )e,!n+e-/1$ #$ ne%e, !cc,,e $! !, n,e $! c!,,ec$ $he c!()!#$#!n 12

c+,ef& c!()+,#!n "#$h B+&=+c. In $he E+$ $he ),!fe#!n+&

$!,27$e&&e, 9!e f,!( %#&&+9e $! %#&&+9e "#$h + (+&& c+,)e$< +n I

"#h #nce,e&2 $h+$ +n2!ne h+ $he (!,+& c!,+9e $! ),e+ $h+$ c+,)e$

+n #$ !n #$ #n L9+$e C#,c. B$ #$ # n!$ ),!1+1&e $h+$ +&& $he

$+&e !f $he c+,)e$71e+,e, +,e &#$$&e 9e( !f !,#9#n+& +,$#$#c

"!,(+nh#). L#$e,+$,e +n 0c$#!n +,e $"! en$#,e&2 #e,en$ $h#n9.

Page 8: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 8/58

L#$e,+$,e # + &;,2< 0c$#!n # + nece#$2. A "!, !f +,$ c+n h+,&2

1e $!! h!,$/ f!, #$ c&#(+; # #$ (e,#$. A $!,2 c+n ne%e, 1e $!!

&!n9/ f!, #$ c!nc&#!n # (e,e&2 $! 1e e)&!,e/ &#e $he &+$

h+&f)enn2 !, $he &+$ )#)e&#9h$. An !/ "h#&e $he #nc,e+e !f $he

+,$#$#c c!nc#ence $en #n (!,e +(1#$#! "!, $! 1,e%#$2 +n

#(),e#!n#(/ %!&(#n! #n$,2 $#&& (+, $he ),!ce, !f $he $,e,!(+n$#c $,+h. The,e "+ n! en $! $he 1+&&+ !f R!1#n H!!< $he,e #

n! en $! $he %!&(e +1!$ D#c De+h!$ +n $he A%en9#n9 N#ne. Thee

$"! he,!e +,e e&#1e,+$e&2 c!nce#%e + #((!,$+&.

B$ #n$e+ !f 1+#n9 +&& #c#!n !f $he ),!1&e( )!n $he

c!((!n7ene ,ec!9n#$#!n !f $h# f+c$77$h+$ $he 2!$h !f $he &!"e,

!,e, +&"+2 h+ h+ +n +&"+2 ($ h+%e f!,(&e +n en&e ,!(+n$#c

,e+#n9 !f !(e #n/ +n $hen 9!#n9 !n $! (+e ),!%##!n f!, #$

"h!&e!(ene77"e 1e9#n/ 9ene,+&&2 )e+#n9/ 12 f+n$+$#c +1e !f $h#

,e+#n9 + + "h!&e +n #n#9n+n$ ,),#e $h+$ $he e,,+n71!2 ne,

#c#!n ! n!$ ,e+ 'The E9!#$' +n 'The M+$e, B#&e,.' I$ # $he

c$!(/ )+,$#c&+,&2 +(!n9 (+9#$,+$e/ $! +$$,#1$e h+&f $he c,#(e !f 

$he Me$,!)!&# $! che+) n!%e&e$$e. If !(e 9,#(2 ,ch#n ,n +"+2 "#$h

+n +))&e/ $he (+9#$,+$e h,e"&2 )!#n$ !$ $h+$ $he ch#&' n!"&e9e

$h+$ +))&e +))e+e hn9e, # $,+ce+1&e $! !(e c,#! &#$e,+,2

,ee+,che. The 1!2 $he(e&%e/ "hen )en#$en$/ f,e:en$&2 +cce $he

n!%e&e$$e "#$h 9,e+$ 1#$$e,ne/ "h#ch # !n&2 $! 1e e;)ec$e f,!(

2!n9 )e!)&e )!ee !f n! &#$$&e n+$#%e h(!,. If I h+ f!,9e +

"#&&/ +n c!& !1$+#n 2()+$h2 12 $,+c#n9 $he #nc#en$ $! $he #n8ence

!f M,. Ge!,9e M!!,e' n!%e&/ I h!& 0n $he 9,e+$e$ en$e,$+#n(en$

#n $he #%e,#!n. A$ +n2 ,+$e/ #$ # 0,(&2 0;e #n $he (#n !f (!$)e!)&e $h+$ 9$$e,71!2/ n&#e e%e,21!2 e&e #n $he c!((n#$2/ 0n

$he#, ),#nc#)+& (!$#%e f!, c!nc$ #n ),#n$e 1!!.

N!" #$ # :#$e c&e+, $h+$ $h# !1ec$#!n/ $he !1ec$#!n 1,!9h$ 12

(+9#$,+$e/ h+ n!$h#n9 $! ! "#$h &#$e,+,2 (e,#$. B+ $!,2 ",#$#n9 #

n!$ + c,#(e. M,. H+&& C+#ne "+& $he $,ee$ !)en&2/ +n c+nn!$ 1e )$

#n ),#!n f!, +n +n$#c&#(+;. The !1ec$#!n ,e$ )!n $he $he!,2 $h+$

$he $!ne !f $he (+ !f 1!2' n!%e&e$$e # c,#(#n+& +n e9,+e/

+))e+&#n9 $! &!" c)##$2 +n &!" c,e&$2. Th# # $he (+9#$e,#+&

$he!,2/ +n $h# # ,11#h.

S! f+, + I h+%e een $he(/ #n c!nnec$#!n "#$h $he #,$#e$ 1!!7$+&&

#n $he )!!,e$ #$,#c$/ $he f+c$ +,e #()&2 $hee The "h!&e

1e"#&e,#n9 (+ !f %&9+, %en#&e &#$e,+$,e # c!nce,ne "#$h

+%en$,e/ ,+(1&#n9/ #c!nnec$e +n en&e. I$ !e n!$ e;),e +n2

)+#!n !f +n2 !,$/ f!, $he,e # n! h(+n ch+,+c$e, !f +n2 !,$. I$

,n e$e,n+&&2 #n ce,$+#n 9,!!%e !f &!c+& +n h#$!,#c+& $2)e $he

Page 9: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 9/58

(e#e%+& n#9h$/ $he e#9h$een$h7cen$,2 e&&#$/ +n $he (!e,n c!"1!2/

,ec, "#$h $he +(e $# #()&#c#$2 + $he c!n%en$#!n+& h(+n 09,e

#n +n O,#en$+& )+$$e,n. I c+n :#$e + e+#&2 #(+9#ne + h(+n 1e#n9

#n&#n9 "#& +))e$#$e 12 $he c!n$e()&+$#!n !f h# T,e2 c+,)e$ + 12

ch eh(+n#=e +n n+e n+,,+$#%e + $h#.

A(!n9 $hee $!,#e $he,e +,e + ce,$+#n n(1e, "h#ch e+&

2()+$he$#c+&&2 "#$h $he +%en$,e !f ,!11e,/ !$&+" +n )#,+$e/

"h#ch ),een$ #n + #9n#0e +n ,!(+n$#c &#9h$ $h#e%e +n (,e,e,

&#e D#c T,)#n +n C&+e D%+&. Th+$ # $! +2/ $he2 ! ),ec#e&2 $he

+(e $h#n9 + Sc!$$' 'I%+nh!e/' Sc!$$' 'R!1 R!2/' Sc!$$' 'L+2 !f 

$he L+e/' B2,!n' 'C!,+#,/' W!,"!,$h' 'R!1 R!2' G,+%e/'

S$e%en!n' 'M+c+#,e/' M,. M+; Pe(1e,$!n' 'I,!n P#,+$e/' +n + $h!+n

(!,e "!, #$,#1$e 2$e(+$#c+&&2 + ),#=e +n Ch,#$(+ ),een$.

N!1!2 #(+9#ne $h+$ +n +(#,+$#!n !f L!c&e2 #n 'I%+nh!e' "#&& &e+ +

1!2 $! h!!$ J+)+nee +,,!" +$ $he ee, #n R#ch(!n P+,< n! !ne $h#n

$h+$ $he #nc+$#! !)en#n9 !f W!,"!,$h +$ $he )!e( !n R!1 R!2 "#&&

e$ h#( ) f!, &#fe + + 1&+c(+#&e,. In $he c+e !f !, !"n c&+/ "e

,ec!9n#e $h+$ $h# "#& &#fe # c!n$e()&+$e "#$h )&e+,e 12 $he

2!n9/ n!$ 1ec+e #$ # &#e $he#, !"n &#fe/ 1$ 1ec+e #$ #

#e,en$ f,!( #$. I$ (#9h$ +$ &e+$ c,! !, (#n $h+$/ f!, "h+$e%e,

!$he, ,e+!n $he e,,+n71!2 ,e+ 'The Re Re%en9e/' #$ ,e+&&2 # n!$

1ec+e he # ,#))#n9 "#$h $he 9!,e !f h# !"n f,#en +n ,e&+$#%e.

In $h# (+$$e,/ + #n +&& ch (+$$e,/ "e &!e !, 1e+,#n9 en$#,e&2 12

)e+#n9 !f $he '&!"e, c&+e' "hen "e (e+n h(+n#$2 (#n !,e&%e.

 Th# $,#%#+& ,!(+n$#c &#$e,+$,e # n!$ e)ec#+&&2 )&e1e#+n #$ ##()&2 h(+n. The )h#&+n$h,!)#$ c+n ne%e, f!,9e$ c&+e +n c+&&#n9.

He +2/ "#$h + (!e$ "+99e,/ 'I h+%e #n%#$e $"en$270%e f+c$!,2

h+n $! $e+.' If he +# 'I h+%e #n%#$e $"en$270%e ch+,$e,e

+cc!n$+n$ $! $e+/' e%e,2!ne "!& ee $he h(!, !f ! #()&e +

c&+#0c+$#!n. B$ $h# # "h+$ "e h+%e !ne "#$h $h# &(1e,&+n !f 

f!!&#h ",#$#n9 "e h+%e ),!1e/ + #f #$ "e,e !(e (!n$,! ne"

#e+e/ "h+$ #/ #n f+c$/ n!$h#n9 1$ $he f!!&#h +n %+&#+n$ he+,$ !f 

(+n. O,#n+,2 (en "#&& +&"+2 1e en$#(en$+&#$ f!, + en$#(en$+&#$

# #()&2 + (+n "h! h+ fee&#n9 +n !e n!$ $,!1&e $! #n%en$ + ne"

"+2 !f e;),e#n9 $he(. Thee c!((!n +n c,,en$ )1&#c+$#!n h+%en!$h#n9 een$#+&&2 e%#& +1!$ $he(. The2 e;),e $he +n9#ne +n

he,!#c $,#( !n "h#ch c#%#&#=+$#!n # 1#&$< f!, #$ # c&e+, $h+$

n&e c#%#&#=+$#!n # 1#&$ !n $,#(/ #$ # n!$ 1#&$ +$ +&&.

C&e+,&2/ $he,e c!& 1e n! +fe$2 f!, + !c#e$2 #n "h#ch $he ,e(+, 12

$he Ch#ef J$#ce $h+$ (,e, "+ ",!n9 "+ ,e9+,e + +n !,#9#n+& +n

+==&#n9 e)#9,+(.

Page 10: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 10/58

Page 11: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 11/58

ne%e, h!)e&e. Th+$ # + c&+ ),#%#&e9e/ &#e c#9+,. The#, ,#%e&&#n9

&#$e,+$,e "#&& +&"+2 1e + '1&!! +n $hne,' &#$e,+$,e/ + #()&e +

$he $hne, !f he+%en +n $he 1&!! !f (en.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF RASH 6OWS

If + ),!)e,! (!e,n (+n/ "#$h + h#9h h+$ +n + f,!c7c!+$/ "e,e $!

!&e(n&2 )&e9e h#(e&f 1ef!,e +&& h# c&e, +n f,#en $! c!n$ $he

&e+%e !n e%e,2 $h#, $,ee #n H!&&+n W+&/ $! h!) ) $! $he C#$2 !n !ne

&e9 e%e,2 Th,+2/ $! ,e)e+$ $he "h!&e !f M#&&' 'L#1e,$2' e%en$27#;

$#(e/ $! c!&&ec$ 55 +ne&#!n #n 0e& 1e&!n9#n9 $! +n2!ne !f $he

n+(e !f B,!"n/ $! ,e(+#n f!, $h#,$27!ne h!, h!&#n9 h# &ef$ e+, #n

h# ,#9h$ h+n/ $! #n9 $he n+(e !f +&& h# +n$ #n !,e, !f +9e !n

$he $!) !f +n !(n#1/ !, (+e +n2 ch n+& ne,$+#n9/ "e h!&

#((e#+$e&2 c!nc&e $h+$ $he (+n "+ (+/ !,/ + #$ # !(e$#(e

e;),ee/ "+ '+n +,$#$ #n &#fe.' Ye$ $hee %!" +,e n!$ (!,e

e;$,+!,#n+,2 $h+n $he %!" "h#ch #n $he M#&e A9e +n #n #(#&+,

)e,#! "e,e (+e/ n!$ 12 f+n+$#c (e,e&2/ 1$ 12 $he 9,e+$e$ 09,e

#n c#%#c +n n+$#!n+& c#%#&#=+$#!n7712 #n9/ 9e/ )!e$/ +n

),#e$. One (+n "!,e $! ch+#n $"! (!n$+#n $!9e$he,/ +n $he 9,e+$

ch+#n hn9 $he,e/ #$ "+ +#/ f!, +9e + + (!n(en$ !f $h+$ (2$#c+&

f!&&2. An!$he, "!,e $h+$ he "!& 0n h# "+2 $! Je,+&e( "#$h +

)+$ch !%e, h# e2e/ +n #e &!!#n9 f!, #$. I$ # n!$ e+2 $! ee $h+$

$hee $"! e;)&!#$/ 9e f,!( + $,#c$&2 ,+$#!n+& $+n)!#n$/ +,e +n2+ne, $h+n $he +c$ +1!%e 99e$e. A (!n$+#n # c!((!n&2 + $+$#!n+,2

+n ,e&#+1&e !1ec$ "h#ch #$ # n!$ nece+,2 $! ch+#n ) +$ n#9h$ &#e

+ !9. An #$ # n!$ e+2 +$ 0,$ #9h$ $! ee $h+$ + (+n )+2 + %e,2

h#9h c!()&#(en$ $! $he H!&2 C#$2 12 e$$#n9 !$ f!, #$ ne, c!n#$#!n

"h#ch ,ene, #$ $! $he &+$ e9,ee #(),!1+1&e $h+$ he "#&& e%e, 9e$

$he,e.

B$ +1!$ $h# $he,e # !ne $,##n9 $h#n9 $! 1e n!$#ce. If (en 1eh+%e

#n $h+$ "+2 #n !, $#(e/ "e h!&/ + "e h+%e +#/ ,e9+, $he( +

2(1!& !f $he 'ec+ence.' B$ $he (en "h! # $hee $h#n9 "e,e n!$ec+en$< $he2 1e&!n9e 9ene,+&&2 $! $he (!$ ,!1$ c&+e !f "h+$ #

9ene,+&&2 ,e9+,e + + ,!1$ +9e. A9+#n/ #$ "#&& 1e ,9e $h+$ #f (en

een$#+&&2 +ne )e,f!,(e ch #n+n#$#e/ #$ "+ ne, $he c+),#c#!

#,ec$#!n !f + )e,$#$#! ,e&#9#! 2$e(. Th#/ +9+#n/ "#&& n!$

h!& "+$e,< f!, #n $he ),e&2 $e,,e$,#+& +n e%en en+& e)+,$(en$

!f &#fe/ ch + &!%e +n &$/ $he (e#e%+& ),#nce h!" $he +(e (+

),!(#e +n )e,f!,(+nce/ $he +(e (#h+)en #(+9#n+$#!n +n $he +(e

Page 12: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 12/58

(!n$,! e&f7+c,#0ce. He,e "e h+%e + c!n$,+#c$#!n/ $! e;)&+#n "h#ch

#$ # nece+,2 $! $h#n !f $he "h!&e n+$,e !f %!" f,!( $he 1e9#nn#n9.

An #f "e c!n#e, e,#!&2 +n c!,,ec$&2 $he n+$,e !f %!"/ "e h+&&/

n&e I +( (ch (#$+en/ c!(e $! $he c!nc&#!n $h+$ #$ # )e,fec$&2

+ne/ +n e%en en#1&e/ $! "e+, $! ch+#n (!n$+#n $!9e$he,/ +n $h+$/

#f #n+n#$2 # #n%!&%e +$ +&&/ #$ # + &#$$&e #n+ne n!$ $! ! !.

 The (+n "h! (+e + %!" (+e +n +))!#n$(en$ "#$h h#(e&f +$ !(e

#$+n$ $#(e !, )&+ce. The +n9e, !f #$ # $h+$ h#(e&f h!& n!$ ee)

$he +))!#n$(en$. An #n (!e,n $#(e $h# $e,,!, !f !ne' e&f/ !f $he

"e+ne +n ($+1#&#$2 !f !ne' e&f/ h+ )e,#&!&2 #nc,e+e/ +n #

$he ,e+& 1+# !f $he !1ec$#!n $! %!" !f +n2 #n. A (!e,n (+n

,ef,+#n f,!( "e+,#n9 $! c!n$ $he &e+%e !n e%e,2 $h#, $,ee #n

H!&&+n W+&/ n!$ 1ec+e #$ # #&&2 $! ! ! he !e (+n2 #&&#e,

$h#n9/ 1$ 1ec+e he h+ + ),!f!n c!n%#c$#!n $h+$ 1ef!,e he h+ 9!$

$! $he $h,ee hn,e +n e%en$27n#n$h &e+f !n $he 0,$ $,ee he "!&

1e e;ce#%e&2 $#,e !f $he 1ec$ +n "+n$ $! 9! h!(e $! $e+. In !$he,

"!,/ "e fe+, $h+$ 12 $h+$ $#(e he "#&& 1e/ #n $he c!((!n 1$ h#e!&2

#9n#0c+n$ )h,+e/ -+n!$he, (+n-. N!"/ #$ # $h# h!,,#1&e f+#,2 $+&e

!f + (+n c!n$+n$&2 ch+n9#n9 #n$! !$he, (en $h+$ # $he !& !f $he

Dec+ence. Th+$ J!hn P+$e,!n h!&/ "#$h +))+,en$ c+&(/ &!! f!,"+,

$! 1e#n9 + ce,$+#n Gene,+& B+,e, !n M!n+2/ D,. M+c9,e9!, !n Te+2/

S#, W+&$e, C+,$+#, !n Wene+2/ +n S+( S&99 !n Th,+2/ (+2 ee( +

n#9h$(+,e< 1$ $! $h+$ n#9h$(+,e "e 9#%e $he n+(e !f (!e,n c&$,e. One

9,e+$ ec+en$/ "h! # n!" e+/ )1&#he + )!e( !(e $#(e +9!/ #n

"h#ch he )!"e,f&&2 ((e ) $he "h!&e )#,#$ !f $he (!%e(en$ 12

ec&+,#n9 $h+$ he c!& $+n #n $he ),#!n 2+, +n en$#,e&2 c!(),ehen$he fee&#n9 !f + (+n +1!$ $! 1e h+n9e

'F!, he $h+$ &#%e (!,e &#%e $h+n !ne

M!,e e+$h $h+n !ne ($ #e.'

An $he en !f +&& $h# # $h+$ (+en#n9 h!,,!, !f n,e+&#$2 "h#ch

ecen )!n $he ec+en$/ +n c!()+,e "#$h "h#ch )h2#c+& )+#n

#$e&f "!& h+%e $he f,ehne !f + 2!$hf& $h#n9. The !ne he&& "h#ch

#(+9#n+$#!n ($ c!nce#%e + (!$ he&&#h # $! 1e e$e,n+&&2 +c$#n9 +

)&+2 "#$h!$ e%en $he n+,,!"e$ +n #,$#e$ 9,een,!!( #n "h#ch $! 1eh(+n. An $h# # $he c!n#$#!n !f $he ec+en$/ !f $he +e$he$e/ !f 

$he f,ee7&!%e,. T! 1e e%e,&+$#n9&2 )+#n9 $h,!9h +n9e, "h#ch "e

n!" c+nn!$ c+$he / $! 1e $+#n9 !+$h "h#ch "e n!" c+nn!$ 1#n /

$! 1e ef2#n9 ene(#e "h! "e n!" c+nn!$ c!n:e, 77$h# # $he

9,#nn#n9 $2,+nn2 !f ec+ence "h#ch # c+&&e f,ee!(.

Le$ $,n/ !n $he !$he, h+n/ $! $he (+e, !f %!". The (+n "h! (+e +

Page 13: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 13/58

%!"/ h!"e%e, "#&/ 9+%e + he+&$h2 +n n+$,+& e;),e#!n $! $he

9,e+$ne !f + 9,e+$ (!(en$. He %!"e/ f!, e;+()&e/ $! ch+#n $"!

(!n$+#n $!9e$he,/ )e,h+) + 2(1!& !f !(e 9,e+$ ,e&#ef/ !, &!%e/ !,

+)#,+$#!n. Sh!,$ + $he (!(en$ !f h# ,e!&%e (#9h$ 1e/ #$ "+/ &#e

+&& 9,e+$ (!(en$/ + (!(en$ !f #((!,$+&#$2/ +n $he e#,e $! +2 !f #$

 -e;e9# (!n(en$( !e,e )e,enn#- "+ $he !n&2 en$#(en$ $h+$ "!&+$#f2 h# (#n. The (!e,n +e$he$#c (+n "!&/ !f c!,e/ e+#&2 ee

$he e(!$#!n+& !))!,$n#$2< he "!& %!" $! ch+#n $"! (!n$+#n $!9e$he,.

B$/ $hen/ he "!& :#$e + chee,f&&2 %!" $! ch+#n $he e+,$h $! $he

(!!n. An $he "#$he,#n9 c!nc#!ne $h+$ he # n!$ (e+n "h+$ he +#/

$h+$ he "+/ #n $,$h/ +2#n9 n!$h#n9 !f +n2 9,e+$ #()!,$/ "!& $+e

f,!( h#( e;+c$&2 $h+$ ene !f +,#n9 +c$+&#$2 "h#ch # $he e;c#$e(en$

!f + %!". F!, "h+$ c!& 1e (!,e (+en#n9 $h+n +n e;#$ence #n "h#ch

!, (!$he, !, +n$ ,ece#%e $he #nf!,(+$#!n $h+$ "e "e,e 9!#n9 $!

++#n+$e $he K#n9 !, 1#& + $e()&e !n Ben Ne%# "#$h $he 9en#+&

c!()!,e !f c$!(

 The ,e%!&$ +9+#n$ %!" h+ 1een c+,,#e #n !, +2 e%en $! $he e;$en$

!f + ,e%!&$ +9+#n$ $he $2)#c+& %!" !f (+,,#+9e. I$ # (!$ +(#n9 $!

&#$en $! $he !))!nen$ !f (+,,#+9e !n $h# 1ec$. The2 +))e+, $!

#(+9#ne $h+$ $he #e+& !f c!n$+nc2 "+ + 2!e (2$e,#!&2 #()!e !n

(+n#n 12 $he e%#&/ #n$e+ !f 1e#n9/ + #$ #/ + 2!e c!n#$en$&2

#()!e 12 +&& &!%e, !n $he(e&%e. The2 h+%e #n%en$e +

)h,+e/ + )h,+e $h+$ # + 1&+c +n "h#$e c!n$,+#c$#!n #n $"!

"!,77'f,ee7&!%e'77+ #f + &!%e, e%e, h+ 1een/ !, e%e, c!& 1e/ f,ee.

I$ # $he n+$,e !f &!%e $! 1#n #$e&f/ +n $he #n$#$$#!n !f (+,,#+9e

(e,e&2 )+# $he +%e,+9e (+n $he c!()&#(en$ !f $+#n9 h#( +$ h# "!,.M!e,n +9e !e, $! $he &!%e,/ "#$h +n #&&78+%!,e 9,#n/ $he &+,9e$

&#1e,$#e +n $he f&&e$ #,,e)!n#1#&#$2< 1$ $he2 ! n!$ ,e)ec$ h#(

+ $he !& Ch,ch ,e)ec$e h#(< $he2 ! n!$ ",#$e h# !+$h )!n $he

he+%en/ + $he ,ec!, !f h# h#9he$ (!(en$. The2 9#%e h#( e%e,2

&#1e,$2 e;ce)$ $he &#1e,$2 $! e&& h# &#1e,$2/ "h#ch # $he !n&2 !ne

$h+$ he "+n$.

In M,. Be,n+, Sh+"' 1,#&&#+n$ )&+2 'The Ph#&+ne,e,/' "e h+%e + %#%#

)#c$,e !f $h# $+$e !f $h#n9. Ch+,$e,# # + (+n )e,)e$+&&2

ene+%!,#n9 $! 1e + f,ee7&!%e,/ "h#ch # &#e ene+%!,#n9 $! 1e +(+,,#e 1+che&!, !, + "h#$e ne9,!. He # "+ne,#n9 #n + hn9,2 e+,ch

f!, + ce,$+#n e;h#&+,+$#!n "h#ch he c+n !n&2 h+%e "hen he h+ $he

c!,+9e $! ce+e f,!( "+ne,#n9. Men ne" 1e$$e, $h+n $h# #n !&

$#(e77#n $he $#(e/ f!, e;+()&e/ !f Sh+e)e+,e' he,!e. When

Sh+e)e+,e' (en +,e ,e+&&2 ce&#1+$e $he2 ),+#e $he n!1$e

+%+n$+9e !f ce&#1+c2/ &#1e,$2/ #,,e)!n#1#&#$2/ + ch+nce !f c!n$#n+&

ch+n9e. B$ $he2 "e,e n!$ ch f!!& + $! c!n$#ne $! $+& !f &#1e,$2

Page 14: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 14/58

"hen $he2 "e,e #n ch + c!n#$#!n $h+$ $he2 c!& 1e (+e h+))2 !,

(#e,+1&e 12 $he (!%#n9 !f !(e!ne e&e' e2e1,!". Sc&#n9 c&+e &!%e

"#$h e1$ #n h# ),+#e !f f,ee!(.

'An he $h+$' f+#,&2 !$ !f 1!$h

Of +&& $he "!,& # 1&e$.He &#%e + #n $he 9!&en +9e/

When +&& $h#n9 (+e "e,e c!((!n<

He $+e h# )#)e/ he $+e h# 9&+/

He fe+, n! (+n !, "!(+n.'

 Th# # + )e,fec$&2 )!#1&e/ ,+$#!n+& +n (+n&2 )!#$#!n. B$ "h+$ h+%e

&!%e, $! ! "#$h ,##c&! +ec$+$#!n !f fe+,#n9 n! (+n !, "!(+n

 The2 n!" $h+$ #n $he $,n#n9 !f + h+n $he "h!&e c!(#c en9#ne $! $he

,e(!$e$ $+, (+2 1ec!(e +n #n$,(en$ !f (#c !, +n #n$,(en$ !f 

$!,$,e. The2 he+, + !n9 !&e, $h+n Sc&#n9'/ $h+$ h+ ,%#%e +

hn,e )h#&!!)h#e. 'Wh! # $h# $h+$ &!!e$h !$ !f $he "#n!"/ f+#,

+ $he n/ c&e+, + $he (!!n/ $e,,#1&e + +n +,(2 "#$h 1+nne,'

A "e h+%e +#/ #$ # e;+c$&2 $h# 1+c!!,/ $h# ene !f h+%#n9 +

,e$,e+$ 1eh#n / $h+$ #/ $! !, (#n/ $he $e,#&#=#n9 )#,#$ #n

(!e,n )&e+,e. E%e,2"he,e $he,e # $he )e,#$en$ +n #n+ne +$$e()$

$! !1$+#n )&e+,e "#$h!$ )+2#n9 f!, #$. Th/ #n )!&#$#c $he (!e,n

 J#n9!e ),+c$#c+&&2 +2/ 'Le$ h+%e $he )&e+,e !f c!n:e,!,

"#$h!$ $he )+#n !f !&#e, &e$ #$ !n !f+ +n 1e + h+,2 ,+ce.'

 Th/ #n ,e&#9#!n +n (!,+&/ $he ec+en$ (2$#c +2 'Le$ h+%e $he

f,+9,+nce !f +c,e ),#$2 "#$h!$ $he !,,!" !f e&f7,e$,+#n$< &e$ #n9 h2(n +&$e,n+$e&2 $! $he 6#,9#n +n P,#+).' Th #n &!%e $he

f,ee7&!%e, +2 'Le$ h+%e $he )&en!, !f !e,#n9 !,e&%e

"#$h!$ $he )e,#& !f c!((#$$#n9 !,e&%e< &e$ ee "he$he, !ne c+nn!$

c!((#$ #c#e +n n&#(#$e n(1e, !f $#(e.'

E()h+$#c+&&2 #$ "#&& n!$ "!,. The,e +,e $h,#&&#n9 (!(en$/ !1$&e/

f!, $he )ec$+$!,/ $he +(+$e,/ +n $he +e$he$e< 1$ $he,e # !ne

$h,#&& $h+$ # n!"n !n&2 $! $he !&#e, "h! 09h$ f!, h# !"n 8+9/ $!

$he +ce$#c "h! $+,%e h#(e&f f!, h# !"n #&&(#n+$#!n/ $! $he &!%e,

"h! (+e 0n+&&2 h# !"n ch!#ce. An #$ # $h# $,+n09,#n9e&f7#c#)&#ne $h+$ (+e $he %!" + $,&2 +ne $h#n9. I$ ($ h+%e

+$#0e e%en $he 9#+n$ hn9e, !f $he !& !f + &!%e, !, + )!e$ $! n!"

$h+$ #n c!ne:ence !f !(e !ne #n$+n$ !f ec##!n $h+$ $,+n9e ch+#n

"!& h+n9 f!, cen$,#e #n $he A&) +(!n9 $he #&ence !f $+, +n

n!". A&& +,!n # $he c#$2 !f (+&& #n/ +1!n#n9 #n 1+c"+2

+n ,e$,e+$/ 1$ ,e&2/ !!ne, !, &+$e,/ $he $!"e,#n9 8+(e "#&& ,#e

f,!( $he h+,1!, +nn!nc#n9 $h+$ $he ,e#9n !f $he c!"+, # !%e, +n +

Page 15: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 15/58

(+n # 1,n#n9 h# h#).

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF SKELETONS

S!(e &#$$&e $#(e +9! I $!! +(!n9 #((e(!,#+& En9&#h $,ee $h+$ ee(e

$! $+e h!& )!n $he $+, &#e + 1,!! !f Y9,+#&. A I "+&e +(!n9

$hee &#%#n9 )#&&+, I 1ec+(e 9,++&&2 +"+,e $h+$ $he ,$#c "h! &#%e

+n #e #n $he#, h+!" +!)$e + %e,2 c,#! c!n%e,+$#!n+& $!ne.

 The2 ee(e $! 1e c!n$+n$&2 +)!&!9#=#n9 f!, $he $,ee/ + #f $he2 "e,e

+ %e,2 )!!, h!". Af$e, e&+1!,+$e #n%e$#9+$#!n/ I #c!%e,e $h+$ $he#,

9&!!(2 +n )en#$en$ $!ne "+ $,+ce+1&e $! $he f+c$ $h+$ #$ "+ "#n$e,

+n +&& $he $,ee "e,e 1+,e. I +,e $he( $h+$ I # n!$ ,een$ $he

f+c$ $h+$ #$ "+ "#n$e,/ $h+$ I ne" $he $h#n9 h+ h+))ene 1ef!,e/ +n

$h+$ n! f!,e$h!9h$ !n $he#, )+,$ c!& h+%e +%e,$e $h# 1&!" !f 

e$#n2. B$ I c!& n!$ #n +n2 "+2 ,ec!nc#&e $he( $! $he f+c$ $h+$ #$

 -"+- "#n$e,. The,e "+ e%#en$&2 + 9ene,+& fee&#n9 $h+$ I h+ c+9h$

$he $,ee #n + #n !f #9,+cef& eh+1#&&e/ +n $h+$ $he2 !9h$ n!$

$! 1e een n$#&/ &#e $he 0,$ h(+n #nne,/ $he2 h+ c!%e,e

$he(e&%e "#$h &e+%e. S! #$ # :#$e c&e+, $h+$/ "h#&e %e,2 fe"

)e!)&e +))e+, $! n!" +n2$h#n9 !f h!" $,ee &!! #n "#n$e,/ $he +c$+&

f!,e$e, n!" &e $h+n +n2!ne. S! f+, f,!( $he &#ne !f $he $,ee "hen

#$ # 1+,e +))e+,#n9 h+,h +n e%e,e/ #$ # &;,#+n$&2 #ne0n+1&e $!

+n n+& e9,ee< $he f,#n9e !f $he f!,e$ (e&$ +"+2 &#e + %#9ne$$e. The $!) !f $"! !, $h,ee h#9h $,ee "hen $he2 +,e &e+8e +,e ! !f$

$h+$ $he2 ee( &#e $he 9#9+n$#c 1,!!( !f $h+$ f+1&! &+2 "h! "+

"ee)#n9 $he c!1"e1 ! $he 2. The !$&#ne !f + &e+f2 f!,e$ # #n

c!()+,#!n h+,/ 9,! +n 1&!$ch2< $he c&! !f n#9h$ ! n!$ (!,e

ce,$+#n&2 !1c,e $he (!!n $h+n $h!e 9,een +n (!n$,! c&! !1c,e

$he $,ee< $he +c$+& #9h$ !f $he &#$$&e "!!/ "#$h #$ 9,+2 +n #&%e,

e+ !f &#fe/ # en$#,e&2 + "#n$e, %##!n. S! #( +n e&#c+$e # $he

he+,$ !f $he "#n$e, "!!/ + #n !f 9&#$$e,#n9 9&!+(#n9/ $h+$ + 09,e

$e))#n9 $!"+, #n $he che:e,e $"#&#9h$ ee( + #f he "e,e

1,e+#n9 $h,!9h nf+$h!(+1&e e)$h !f )#e,' "e1.

B$ ,e&2 $he #e+ $h+$ #$ &e+%e +,e $he ch#ef 9,+ce !f + $,ee # +

%&9+, !ne/ !n + )+, "#$h $he #e+ $h+$ h# h+#, # $he ch#ef 9,+ce !f +

)#+n#$. When "#n$e,/ $h+$ he+&$h2 +ce$#c/ c+,,#e h# 9#9+n$#c ,+=!,

!%e, h#&& +n %+&&e2/ +n h+%e +&& $he $,ee &#e (!n/ "e fee&

,e&2 $h+$ $he2 +,e +&& $he (!,e &#e $,ee #f $he2 +,e h!,n/ $ +

! (+n2 )+#n$e, +n (#c#+n "!& 1e +&& $he (!,e &#e (en #f $he2

Page 16: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 16/58

"e,e &e &#e (!). B$ #$ !e +))e+, $! 1e + ee) +n een$#+&

#c&$2 $h+$ (en h+%e +n +1##n9 $e,,!, !f $he#, !"n $,c$,e/ !, !f 

$he $,c$,e !f $h#n9 $he2 &!%e. Th# # fe&$ #(&2 #n $he e&e$!n !f 

$he $,ee #$ # fe&$ ),!f!n&2 #n $he e&e$!n !f $he (+n.

 The #()!,$+nce !f $he h(+n e&e$!n # %e,2 9,e+$/ +n $he h!,,!, "#$h"h#ch #$ # c!((!n&2 ,e9+,e # !(e"h+$ (2$e,#!. W#$h!$ c&+#(#n9

f!, $he h(+n e&e$!n + "h!&&2 c!n%en$#!n+& 1e+$2/ "e (+2 +e,$ $h+$

he # ce,$+#n&2 n!$ 9&#e, $h+n + 1&&7!9/ "h!e )!)&+,#$2 ne%e,

"+ne/ +n $h+$ he h+ + %+$&2 (!,e chee,f& +n #n9,+$#+$#n9

e;),e#!n. B$ $ + (+n # (2$e,#!&2 +h+(e !f $he e&e$!n !f 

$he $,ee #n "#n$e,/ ! he # (2$e,#!&2 +h+(e !f $he e&e$!n !f 

h#(e&f #n e+$h. I$ # + #n9&+, $h#n9 +&$!9e$he,/ $h# h!,,!, !f $he

+,ch#$ec$,e !f $h#n9. One "!& $h#n #$ "!& 1e (!$ n"#e #n + (+n

$! 1e +f,+# !f + e&e$!n/ #nce N+$,e h+ e$ c,#! +n :#$e

#n)e,+1&e !1$+c&e $! h# ,nn#n9 +"+2 f,!( #$.

One 9,!n e;#$ f!, $h# $e,,!, + $,+n9e #e+ h+ #nfec$e h(+n#$2

$h+$ $he e&e$!n # $2)#c+& !f e+$h. A (+n (#9h$ + "e&& +2 $h+$ +

f+c$!,2 ch#(ne2 "+ $2)#c+& !f 1+n,)$c2. The f+c$!,2 (+2 1e &ef$ n+e

+f$e, ,#n/ $he e&e$!n (+2 1e &ef$ n+e +f$e, 1!#&2 #!&$#!n< 1$

1!$h !f $he( h+%e h+ + &#%e&2 +n "!,(+n&#e &#fe !f $he#, !"n/ +&&

$he )&&e2 c,e+#n9/ +&& $he "hee& $,n#n9/ #n $he H!e !f L#%e&#h!!

+ #n $he H!e !f L#fe. The,e # n! ,e+!n "h2 $h# c,e+$,e ne"/ + I

f+nc2/ $! +,$/ $he &#%#n9 e&e$!n/ h!& n!$ 1ec!(e $he een$#+&

2(1!& !f &#fe.

 The $,$h # $h+$ (+n' h!,,!, !f $he e&e$!n # n!$ h!,,!, !f e+$h +$

+&&. I$ # (+n' eccen$,#c 9&!,2 $h+$ he h+ n!$/ 9ene,+&&2 )e+#n9/

+n2 !1ec$#!n $! 1e#n9 e+/ 1$ h+ + %e,2 e,#! !1ec$#!n $! 1e#n9

n#9n#0e. An $he fn+(en$+& (+$$e, "h#ch $,!1&e h#( #n $he

e&e$!n # $he ,e(#ne, $h+$ $he 9,!n7)&+n !f h# +))e+,+nce #

h+(e&e&2 9,!$e:e. I ! n!$ n!" "h2 he h!& !1ec$ $! $h#. He

c!n$en$e&2 $+e h# )&+ce #n + "!,& $h+$ !e n!$ ),e$en $! 1e

9en$ee&77+ &+9h#n9/ "!,#n9/ ee,#n9 "!,&. He ee (#&&#!n !f +n#(+&

c+,,2#n9/ "#$h :#$e + +n#0e &e%#$2/ $he (!$ (!n$,! h+)e +n

+))en+9e/ $he (!$ ),e)!$e,! h!,n/ "#n9/ +n &e9/ "hen $he2 +,enece+,2 $! $#&#$2. He ee $he 9!! $e()e, !f $he f,!9/ $he

n+cc!n$+1&e h+))#ne !f $he h#))!)!$+(. He ee + "h!&e n#%e,e

"h#ch # ,##c&!/ f,!( $he +n#(+&c&e/ "#$h + he+ $!! 1#9 f!, #$

1!2/ ) $! $he c!(e$/ "#$h + $+#& $!! 1#9 f!, #$ he+. B$ "hen #$

c!(e $! $he e&#9h$f& !#$2 !f h# !"n #n#e/ h# ene !f h(!,

,+$he, +1,)$&2 ee,$ h#(.

Page 17: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 17/58

In $he M#&e A9e +n #n $he Ren+#+nce "h#ch "+/ #n ce,$+#n $#(e

+n ,e)ec$/ + (ch 9&!!(#e, )e,#! $h# #e+ !f $he e&e$!n h+ +

%+$ #n8ence #n f,ee=#n9 $he ),#e !$ !f +&& e+,$h&2 )!() +n $he

f,+9,+nce !$ !f +&& 8ee$#n9 )&e+,e. B$ #$ "+ n!$/ ,e&2/ $he

(e,e ,e+ !f e+$h $h+$ # $h#/ f!, $hee "e,e +9e #n "h#ch (en "en$

$! (ee$ e+$h #n9#n9< #$ "+ $he #e+ !f $he e9,++$#!n !f (+n #n $he9,#nn#n9 9&#ne !f h# $,c$,e $h+$ "#$he,e $he %en#&e #n!&ence

!f 1e+$2 +n ),#e. An #n $h# #$ +&(!$ +,e&2 # (!,e 9!! $h+n

h+,(. The,e # n!$h#n9 ! c!& !, ! )#$#&e + 2!$h/ +n 2!$h #n

+,#$!c,+$#c $+$#!n +n +9e $ene $! +n #()ecc+1&e #9n#$2/ +n

en&e ((e, !f cce "h#ch neee $! 1e %e,2 h+,)&2 ,e(#ne !f 

$he c!,n !f $he $+,. I$ "+ "e&& $h+$ ch 8+(1!2+n$ ),#9 h!& 1e

c!n%#nce $h+$ !ne ),+c$#c+& !e/ +$ &e+$/ "!& 1!"& $he( !%e,/ $h+$

$he2 "!& f+&& #n$! !ne 9,#nn#n9 (+n7$,+)/ +n n!$ ,#e +9+#n. Th+$ $he

"h!&e $,c$,e !f $he#, e;#$ence "+ + "h!&e!(e&2 ,##c&! + $h+$

!f + )#9 !, + )+,,!$ $he2 c!& n!$ 1e e;)ec$e $! ,e+&#=e< $h+$ 1#,$h

"+ h(!,!/ c!(#n9 !f +9e h(!,!/ ,#n#n9 +n 09h$#n9 h(!,!/

$he2 "e,e f+, $!! 2!n9 +n !&e(n $! n!". B$ +$ &e+$ $he2 "e,e

$+9h$ $h+$ e+$h "+ h(!,!.

 The,e # + )ec&#+, #e+ +1,!+ $h+$ $he %+&e +n f+c#n+$#!n !f "h+$

"e c+&& N+$,e &#e #n he, 1e+$2. B$ $he f+c$ $h+$ N+$,e # 1e+$#f&

#n $he ene $h+$ + +! !, + L#1e,$2 c,$+#n # 1e+$#f&/ # !n&2 !ne

!f he, ch+,(/ +n +&(!$ +n +cc#en$+& !ne. The h#9he$ +n (!$

%+&+1&e :+&#$2 #n N+$,e # n!$ he, 1e+$2/ 1$ he, 9ene,! +n

e0+n$ 9&#ne. A hn,e #n$+nce (#9h$ 1e $+en. The c,!+#n9 n!#e

!f $he ,!! #/ #n #$e&f/ + h#e! + $he "h!&e he&& !f !n #n +L!n!n ,+#&"+2 $nne&. Ye$ #$ )&#f$ &#e + $,()e$ "#$h #$ c!+,e

#n&#ne +n h!ne$2/ +n $he &!%e, #n 'M+' c!& +c$+&&2 )e,+e

h#(e&f $h+$ $h# +1!(#n+1&e n!#e ,ee(1&e h# &+27&!%e' n+(e. H+

$he )!e$/ f!, "h!( N+$,e (e+n !n&2 ,!e +n &#&#e/ e%e, he+, + )#9

9,n$#n9 I$ # + n!#e $h+$ !e + (+n 9!!77+ $,!n9/ n!,$#n9/

#(),#!ne n!#e/ 1,e+#n9 #$ "+2 !$ !f nf+$h!(+1&e n9e!n $h,!9h

e%e,2 )!#1&e !$&e$ +n !,9+n. I$ (#9h$ 1e $he %!#ce !f $he e+,$h

#$e&f/ n!,#n9 #n #$ (#9h$2 &ee). Th# # $he ee)e$/ $he !&e$/

$he (!$ "h!&e!(e +n ,e&#9#! ene !f $he %+&e !f N+$,e77$he %+&e

"h#ch c!(e f,!( he, #((ene 1+12#hne. She # + $!)7he+%2/ +9,!$e:e/ + !&e(n +n + h+))2 + + ch#&. The (!! !e c!(e "hen "e

ee +&& he, h+)e &#e h+)e $h+$ + 1+12 c,+"& )!n + &+$e77#()&e/

,#(en$+,2/ + (#&&#!n 2e+, !&e, +n $,!n9e, $h+n $he "h!&e #e+e

$h+$ # c+&&e A,$. The !1ec$ !f e+,$h +n he+%en ee( $! c!(1#ne #n$!

+ n,e,2 $+&e/ +n !, ,e&+$#!n $! $h#n9 ee( f!, + (!(en$ ! #()&e

$h+$ + +nc#n9 &n+$#c "!& 1e neee $! ! $#ce $! #$ &c##$2 +n

&e%#$2. The $,ee +1!%e (2 he+ # 8+))#n9 &#e !(e 9#9+n$#c 1#,

Page 18: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 18/58

$+n#n9 !n !ne &e9< $he (!!n # &#e $he e2e !f + C2c&!). An/ h!"e%e,

(ch (2 f+ce c&! "#$h !(1,e %+n#$2/ !, %&9+, %en9e+nce/ !,

c!n$e()$#1&e c!n$e()$/ $he 1!ne !f (2 && 1ene+$h #$ +,e &+9h#n9 f!,

e%e,.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF PUBLICITY

I$ # + %e,2 #9n#0c+n$ f+c$ $h+$ $he f!,( !f +,$ #n "h#ch $he (!e,n

"!,& h+ ce,$+#n&2 n!$ #(),!%e )!n $he +nc#en$ # "h+$ (+2 ,!9h&2 1e

c+&&e $he +,$ !f $he !)en +#,. P1&#c (!n(en$ h+%e ce,$+#n&2 n!$

#(),!%e/ n!, h+ $he c,#$#c#( !f $he( #(),!%e/ + # e%#en$ f,!( $he

f+h#!n !f c!ne(n#n9 ch + &+,9e n(1e, !f $he( + )!()!. An

#n$e,e$#n9 e+2 (#9h$ 1e ",#$$en !n $he en!,(! n(1e, !f "!, $h+$

+,e e + #n&$ "hen $he2 +,e ,e+&&2 c!()&#(en$. I$ # #n #$e&f +

#n9&+, $2 #n $h+$ $enenc2 "h#ch/ + I h+%e +#/ # +&"+2 (+#n9

$h#n9 !$ "!,e $h+n $he2 +,e/ +n nece#$+$#n9 + 2$e(+$#c +$$#$e

!f efence. Th/ f!, e;+()&e/ !(e ,+(+$#c c,#$#c c+$ c!n$e()$ )!n

+ ,+(+$#c )e,f!,(+nce 12 c+&&#n9 #$ $he+$,#c+&/ "h#ch #()&2 (e+n $h+$

#$ # #$+1&e $! + $he+$,e/ +n # + (ch + c!()&#(en$ + c+&&#n9 +

)!e( )!e$#c+&. S#(#&+,&2 "e )e+ #+#nf&&2 !f + ce,$+#n #n !f "!,

+ en$#(en$+&/ "h#ch #()&2 (e+n )!e#n9 $he +(#,+1&e +n

een$#+& :+&#$2 !f en$#(en$. Sch )h,+e +,e +&& )+,$ !f !ne

)e&#n9 +n c!"+,&2 )h#&!!)h2/ +n ,e(#n !f $he +2 "hen'en$h#+$' "+ + $e,( !f ,e),!+ch. B$ !f +&& $h# %!c+1&+,2 !f 

nc!nc#! e&!9#e n!$h#n9 # (!,e $,##n9 $h+n $he "!, ')!()!.'

P,!)e,&2 )e+#n9/ !f c!,e/ + )1&#c (!n(en$ !9h$ $! 1e )!()!.

P!() # #$ %e,2 !1ec$< #$ "!& 1e +1, $! h+%e c!&(n +n )2,+(#

1&h#n9 #n !(e c!2 n!! &#e %#!&e$ #n $he "!! !f ),#n9. An

)1&#c (!n(en$ h+%e #n $h# (+$$e, + 9,e+$ +n (ch7neee &e!n $!

$e+ch. 6+&!, +n (e,c2 +n $he 9,e+$ en$h#+( !9h$ $! 1e + 9,e+$

e+& (!,e )1&#c $h+n $he2 +,e +$ ),een$. We +,e $!! f!n n!"++2 !f 

c!((#$$#n9 $he #n !f fe+, +n c+&&#n9 #$ $he %#,$e !f ,e%e,ence. Weh+%e f!,9!$$en $he !& +n "h!&e!(e (!,+&#$2 !f $he B!! !f P,!%e,1/

'W#!( c,#e$h "#$h!$< he, %!#ce # he+, #n $he $,ee$.' In A$hen

+n F&!,ence he, %!#ce "+ he+, #n $he $,ee$. The2 h+ +n !$!!,

&#fe !f "+, +n +,9(en$/ +n $he2 h+ "h+$ (!e,n c!((e,c#+&

c#%#&#=+$#!n h+ ne%e, h+77+n !$!!, +,$. Re&#9#! e,%#ce/ $he (!$

+c,e !f +&& $h#n9/ h+%e +&"+2 1een he& )1&#c&2< #$ # en$#,e&2 +

ne" +n e1+e n!$#!n $h+$ +nc$#$2 # $he +(e + ec,ec2. A 9,e+$

Page 19: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 19/58

(+n2 (!e,n )!e$/ "#$h $he (!$ +1$,e +n e&#c+$e en#1#&#$#e/

&!%e +,ne/ "hen +&& # +# +n !ne/ (ch f!, $he +(e ,e+!n $h+$

$h#e%e &!%e #$. The (##!n !f + 9,e+$ )#,e !, $+$e h!& 1e $!

$,#e $he )#,#$ "#$h + en ene !f ),#e + "#$h + $hne,1!&$. I$

h!& &#f$ "#$h #$ #n$! $he e()$2 +n enn!1&#n9 +#,. A&!n9 $he 1+e

!f e%e,2 n!1&e (!n(en$/ "h+$e%e, e&e (+2 1e ",#$$en $he,e/ ,n #n#n%##1&e &e$$e, $he &#ne !f S"#n1,ne

'Th# $h#n9 # G!

 T! 1e (+n "#$h $h2 (#9h$/

 T! 9! $,+#9h$ #n $he $,en9$h !f $h2 )#,#$/ +n &#%e

!$ $h2 &#fe #n $he &#9h$.'

If + )1&#c (!n(en$ !e n!$ (ee$ $h# 0,$ ),e(e +n !1%#! nee/

$h+$ #$ h!& 1e )1&#c +n (!n(en$+&/ #$ f+#& f,!( $he !$e$.

 The,e h+ +,#en &+$e&2 + ch!!& !f ,e+&#$#c c&)$,e/ "h#ch (+2

)e,h+) 1e 1e$$e, ec,#1e + + ch!!& !f e$ch2 c&)$,e. Sch +

(!%e(en$ "+ ,#9h$ +n #ne%#$+1&e + + ,e+c$#!n f,!( $he (e+n +n #n92

)!()!#$2 !f En9&#h 6#c$!,#+n $+$+,2. Pe,h+) $he (!$ h#e! +n

e),e#n9 !1ec$ #n $he n#%e,e77f+, (!,e h#e! +n e),e#n9 $h+n

!ne !f M,. H.G. We&&' h+)e&e (!n$e, !f $he &#(e +n n!$ +$ +&&

n&#e $he(77# $he $+$e !f +n En9&#h )h#&+n$h,!)#$. A&(!$ + 1+/

$h!9h/ !f c!,e/ n!$ :#$e + 1+/ +,e $he $+$e !f En9&#h

)!&#$#c#+n #n P+,&#+(en$ F#e&. E+ch !f $he( # c+e #n + c2&#n,#c+&

f,!c7c!+$/ +n e+ch c+,,#e e#$he, + c,!&& !, + 1#!7&!!#n9

9+,(en$ !%e, $he +,( $h+$ (#9h$ 1e e#$he, + 1+$h#n97$!"e& !, + &#9h$9,e+$7c!+$. E+ch !f $he( # #n +n !,+$!,#c+& +$$#$e/ "h#ch h+ +&& $he

#+%+n$+9e !f 1e#n9 +ec$e "#$h!$ e%en +n2 !f $he +%+n$+9e !f 

1e#n9 $he+$,#c+&. Le$ n! !ne ))!e $h+$ ch +1!,$#!n +,#e (e,e&2

f,!( $echn#c+& e(e,#$. In e%e,2 &#ne !f $h!e &e+en !&& # e;),ee

$he f+c$ $h+$ $he2 "e,e n!$ e$ ) "#$h +n2 he+$ !f n+$,+& en$h#+(

f!, 1e+$2 !, #9n#$2. The2 "e,e e$ ) (ech+n#c+&&2/ 1ec+e #$ "!&

ee( #nec!,! !, $#n92 #f $he2 "e,e n!$ e$ ). The2 "e,e e%en e$ )

&#&2/ #n + $#&#$+,#+n +9e "h#ch "+ h+n$e 12 $he $h!9h$ $h+$

$he,e "e,e + 9,e+$ (+n2 (!,e en#1&e "+2 !f )en#n9 (!ne2. S! &!n9 +

$h# # $he !(#n+n$ n+$#!n+& en$#(en$/ $he &+n # 1+,,en/ $+$e +nch,che "#&& n!$ 9,!"77f!, $he2 h+%e $! 9,!"/ + (ch + $,ee +n

8!"e,. B$ $h# (!,+& #+%+n$+9e "h#ch &+2 ! he+%#&2 )!n $he e+,&2

6#c$!,#+n c&)$,e &#e #n + (!#0e e9,ee )!n $h+$ ,!9h/

)#c$,e:e/ c!((!n)&+ce c&)$,e "h#ch h+ 1e9n $! +,#e/ +n !f 

"h#ch $he $+$e !f D+,"#n #n $he S!$h Ken#n9$!n Me( +n $he $+$e

!f G!,!n #n T,+f+&9+, S:+,e +,e +(#,+1&e e;+()&e. I$ # n!$ en!9h

f!, + )!)&+, (!n(en$ $! 1e +,$#$#c/ &#e + 1&+c ch+,c!+& e$ch< #$

Page 20: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 20/58

($ 1e $,##n9< #$ ($ 1e #n $he h#9he$ ene !f $he "!,

en+$#!n+&< #$ ($ $+n f!, h(+n#$2< #$ ($ )e+ f!, $! $he

$+,< #$ ($ ec&+,e #n $he f+ce !f +&& $he he+%en $h+$ "hen $he

&!n9e$ +n 1&+ce$ c+$+&!9e h+ 1een (+e !f +&& !, c,#(e +n

f!&&#e $he,e +,e !(e $h#n9 !f "h#ch "e (en +,e n!$ +h+(e.

 The $"! (!e !f c!((e(!,+$#n9 + )1&#c (+n +,e + $+$e +n +

1#!9,+)h2. The2 +,e +&#e #n ce,$+#n ,e)ec$/ +/ f!, e;+()&e/ #n $he

f+c$ $h+$ ne#$he, !f $he( ,ee(1&e $he !,#9#n+&/ +n $h+$ 1!$h !f $he(

c!((!n&2 $!ne !"n n!$ !n&2 +&& + (+n' %#ce/ 1$ +&& $he (!,e +(#n9

!f h# %#,$e. B$ $he2 +,e $,e+$e #n !ne ,e)ec$ #e,en$&2. We

ne%e, he+, +n2$h#n9 +1!$ 1#!9,+)h2 "#$h!$ he+,#n9 !(e$h#n9 +1!$ $he

+nc$#$2 !f ),#%+$e &#fe +n $he nece#$2 f!, )),e#n9 $he "h!&e !f 

$he (!$ #()!,$+n$ )+,$ !f + (+n' e;#$ence. The c&)$!, !e n!$ "!,

+$ $h# #+%+n$+9e. The c&)$!, !e n!$ &e+%e !$ $he n!e !f +n

e(#nen$ )h#&+n$h,!)#$ 1ec+e #$ # $!! 1e+$#f& $! 1e 9#%en $! $he

)1&#c< he !e n!$ e)#c$ + $+$e(+n "#$h + +c !%e, h# he+ 1ec+e

h# (#&e "+ $!! "ee$ $! 1e en,+1&e #n $he &#9h$ !f +2. B$ #n

1#!9,+)h2 $he $he# # )!)&+,&2 +n !&#&2 (+#n$+#ne/ ! $h+$ #$

,e:#,e !(e c!,+9e e%en $! h#n$ + !1$ !f #$/ $h+$ $he 1e$$e, + (+n

"+/ $he (!,e $,&2 h(+n &#fe he &e/ $he &e h!& 1e +# +1!$ #$.

F!, $h# #e+/ $h# (!e,n #e+ $h+$ +nc$#$2 # #en$#c+& "#$h ec,ec2/

$he,e # !ne $h#n9 +$ &e+$ $! 1e +#. I$ # f!, +&& ),+c$#c+& ),)!e

+n en$#,e&2 ne" #e+< #$ "+ nn!"n $! +&& $he +9e #n "h#ch $he #e+

!f +nc$#$2 ,e+&&2 8!,#he. The ,ec!, !f $he 9,e+$ )#,#$+&

(!%e(en$ !f (+n#n # e+ +9+#n$ $he #e+ $h+$ )#,#$+&#$2 # +),#%+$e (+$$e,. The (!$ +"f& ec,e$ !f e%e,2 (+n' !&/ #$ (!$

&!ne&2 +n #n#%#+& nee/ #$ (!$ ),#(+& +n )2ch!&!9#c+&

,e&+$#!nh#)/ $he $h#n9 c+&&e "!,h#)/ $he c!((n#c+$#!n 1e$"een $he

!& +n $he &+$ ,e+&#$277$h# (!$ ),#%+$e (+$$e, # $he (!$ )1&#c

)ec$+c&e #n $he "!,&. An2!ne "h! ch!!e $! "+& #n$! + &+,9e ch,ch

!n Sn+2 (!,n#n9 (+2 ee + hn,e (en e+ch +&!ne "#$h h# M+e,. He

$+n/ #n $,$h/ #n $he ),eence !f !ne !f $he $,+n9e$ )ec$+c&e #n

$he "!,&77+ (!1 !f he,(#$. An #n $h e0n#$e&2 e)!#n9 )1&#c#$2

12 (+#n9 )1&#c $he (!$ #n$e,n+& (2$e,2/ Ch,#$#+n#$2 +c$ #n

+cc!,+nce "#$h #$ e+,&#e$ !,#9#n +n #$ $e,,#1&e 1e9#nn#n9. I$ "+,e&2 12 n! +cc#en$ $h+$ $he )ec$+c&e "h#ch +,ene $he n +$

n!!n+2 "+ e$ )!n + h#&&. The (+,$2,!( !f $he e+,&2 Ch,#$#+n "e,e

)1&#c n!$ !n&2 12 $he c+),#ce !f $he !)),e!,/ 1$ 12 $he "h!&e e#,e

+n c!nce)$#!n !f $he %#c$#(.

 The (e,e 9,+((+$#c+& (e+n#n9 !f $he "!, '(+,$2,' 1,e+ #n$! )#ece +$

+ 1&!" $he "h!&e n!$#!n !f $he ),#%+c2 !f 9!!ne. The Ch,#$#+n

Page 21: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 21/58

(+,$2,!( "e,e (!,e $h+n e(!n$,+$#!n $he2 "e,e +%e,$#e(en$. In

!, +2 $he ne" $he!,2 !f )#,#$+& e&#c+c2 "!& e#,e $! +&$e, +&&

$h#. I$ "!& )e,(#$ Ch,#$ $! 1e c,c#0e #f #$ "+ nece+,2 $! H#

D#%#ne n+$,e/ 1$ #$ "!& + #n $he n+(e !f 9!! $+$e "h2 He c!&

n!$ 1e c,c#0e #n + ),#%+$e ,!!(. I$ "!& ec&+,e $h+$ $he +c$ !f +

(+,$2, #n 1e#n9 $!,n #n )#ece 12 &#!n "+ %&9+, +n en+$#!n+&/$h!9h/ !f c!,e/ #$ "!& h+%e n! !1ec$#!n $! 1e#n9 $!,n #n )#ece 12

+ &#!n #n !ne' !"n )+,&!, 1ef!,e + c#,c&e !f ,e+&&2 #n$#(+$e f,#en.

I$ #/ I +( #nc&#ne $! $h#n/ + ec+en$ +n #e+e ),#$2 "h#ch h+

#n+9,+$e $h# n!$#!n $h+$ $he +c,e !1ec$ ($ 1e h#en. The $+,

h+%e ne%e, &!$ $he#, +nc$#$2/ +n $he2 +,e (!,e h+(e&e +n n+e

+n n(e,! $h+n +%e,$#e(en$ !f Pe+,' !+). I$ "!& 1e + $,+n9e

"!,& #nee #f N+$,e "+ en&2 $,#cen "#$h $h# e$he,e+& h+(e/

#f $he $,ee 9,e" "#$h $he#, ,!!$ #n $he +#, +n $he#, &!+ !f &e+%e

+n 1&!!( ne,9,!n/ #f $he 8!"e, c&!e +$ +"n +n !)ene +$

ne$/ #f $he n8!"e, $,ne $!"+, $he +,ne/ +n $he 1#,

8e"/ &#e 1+$/ 12 n#9h$.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF NONSENSE

 The,e +,e $"! e:+& +n e$e,n+& "+2 !f &!!#n9 +$ $h# $"#&#9h$ "!,&

!f !, "e (+2 ee #$ + $he $"#&#9h$ !f e%en#n9 !, $he $"#&#9h$ !f (!,n#n9< "e (+2 $h#n !f +n2$h#n9/ !"n $! + f+&&en +c!,n/ + +

ecen+n$ !, + +n +nce$!,. The,e +,e $#(e "hen "e +,e +&(!$

c,he/ n!$ ! (ch "#$h $he &!+ !f $he e%#& + "#$h $he &!+ !f $he

9!!ne !f h(+n#$2/ "hen "e fee& $h+$ "e +,e n!$h#n9 1$ $he

#nhe,#$!, !f + h(#&#+$#n9 )&en!,. B$ $he,e +,e !$he, $#(e "hen

e%e,2$h#n9 ee( ),#(#$#%e/ "hen $he +nc#en$ $+, +,e !n&2 )+, 1&!"n

f,!( + 1!2' 1!n0,e/ "hen $he "h!&e e+,$h ee( ! 2!n9 +n

e;)e,#(en$+& $h+$ e%en $he "h#$e h+#, !f $he +9e/ #n $he 0ne 1#1&#c+&

)h,+e/ # &#e +&(!n7$,ee $h+$ 1&!!(/ &#e $he "h#$e h+"$h!,n 9,!"n

#n M+2. Th+$ #$ # 9!! f!, + (+n $! ,e+&#=e $h+$ he # '$he he#, !f +&&$he +9e' # ),e$$2 c!((!n&2 +(#$$e< #$ # + &e )!)&+, 1$ e:+&&2

#()!,$+n$ )!#n$ $h+$ #$ # 9!! f!, h#( !(e$#(e $! ,e+&#=e $h+$ he #

n!$ !n&2 +n +nce$!,/ 1$ +n +nce$!, !f ),#(+& +n$#:#$2< #$ # 9!!

f!, h#( $! "!ne, "he$he, he # n!$ + he,!/ +n $! e;)e,#ence enn!1&#n9

!1$ + $! "he$he, he # n!$ + !&+, (2$h.

 The (+$$e, "h#ch (!$ $h!,!9h&2 e%!e $h# ene !f $he +1##n9

Page 22: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 22/58

ch#&h!! !f $he "!,& +,e $h!e "h#ch +,e ,e+&&2 f,eh/ +1,)$ +n

#n%en$#%e #n +n2 +9e< +n #f "e "e,e +e "h+$ "+ $he 1e$ ),!!f !f 

$h# +%en$,! 2!$h #n $he n#ne$een$h cen$,2 "e h!& +2/ "#$h +&&

,e)ec$ $! #$ )!,$en$! c#ence +n )h#&!!)h#e/ $h+$ #$ "+ $! 1e

f!n #n $he ,h2(e !f M,. E"+, Le+, +n #n $he &#$e,+$,e !f 

n!nene. 'The D!n9 "#$h $he L(#n! N!e/' +$ &e+$/ # !,#9#n+&/ +$he 0,$ h#) +n $he 0,$ )&!9h "e,e !,#9#n+&.

I$ # $,e #n + ce,$+#n ene $h+$ !(e !f $he 9,e+$e$ ",#$e, $he

"!,& h+ een77A,#$!)h+ne/ R+1e&+# +n S$e,ne77h+%e ",#$$en

n!nene< 1$ n&e "e +,e (#$+en/ #$ # #n + "#e&2 #e,en$ ene.

 The n!nene !f $hee (en "+ +$#,#c77$h+$ # $! +2/ 2(1!&#c< #$ "+

+ #n !f e;1e,+n$ c+)e,#n9 ,!n + #c!%e,e $,$h. The,e # +&& $he

#e,ence #n $he "!,& 1e$"een $he #n$#nc$ !f +$#,e/ "h#ch/ ee#n9 #n

$he K+#e,' (!$+che !(e$h#n9 $2)#c+& !f h#(/ ,+" $he( c!n$#n+&&2

&+,9e, +n &+,9e,< +n $he #n$#nc$ !f n!nene "h#ch/ f!, n! ,e+!n

"h+$e%e,/ #(+9#ne "h+$ $h!e (!$+che "!& &!! &#e !n $he ),een$

A,ch1#h!) !f C+n$e,1,2 #f he 9,e" $he( #n + 0$ !f +1ence !f (#n. We

#nc&#ne $! $h#n $h+$ n! +9e e;ce)$ !, !"n c!& h+%e ne,$!! $h+$

$he +n9&e7W+n9&e (e+n$ +1!&$e&2 n!$h#n9/ +n $he L+n !f $he

 J(1&#e "e,e +1!&$e&2 n!"he,e. We f+nc2 $h+$ #f $he +cc!n$ !f $he

n+%e' $,#+& #n 'A&#ce #n W!ne,&+n' h+ 1een )1&#he #n $he

e%en$een$h cen$,2 #$ "!& h+%e 1een 1,+ce$e "#$h Bn2+n' 'T,#+& !f 

F+#$hf&' + + )+,!2 !n $he S$+$e ),!ec$#!n !f $he $#(e. We f+nc2

$h+$ #f 'The D!n9 "#$h $he L(#n! N!e' h+ +))e+,e #n $he +(e

)e,#! e%e,2!ne "!& h+%e c+&&e #$ + && +$#,e !n O&#%e, C,!("e&&.

I$ # +&$!9e$he, +%#e&2 $h+$ "e :!$e ch#e82 f,!( M,. Le+,'

'N!nene Rh2(e.' T! !, (#n he # 1!$h ch,!n!&!9#c+&&2 +n

een$#+&&2 $he f+$he, !f n!nene< "e $h#n h#( )e,#!, $! Le"#

C+,,!&&. In !ne ene/ #nee/ Le"# C+,,!&& h+ + 9,e+$ +%+n$+9e. We

n!" "h+$ Le"# C+,,!&& "+ #n +#&2 &#fe he "+ + #n9&+,&2 e,#!

+n c!n%en$#!n+& !n/ n#%e,+&&2 ,e)ec$e/ 1$ %e,2 (ch !f + )e+n$

+n !(e$h#n9 !f + Ph#&#$#ne. Th h# $,+n9e !1&e &#fe #n e+,$h +n

#n ,e+(&+n e()h+#=e $he #e+ $h+$ &#e +$ $he 1+c !f n!nene77$he

#e+ !f -ec+)e-/ !f ec+)e #n$! + "!,& "he,e $h#n9 +,e n!$ 0;e

h!,,#1&2 #n +n e$e,n+& +)),!),#+$ene/ "he,e +))&e 9,!" !n )e+,7$,ee/+n +n2 ! (+n 2! (ee$ (+2 h+%e $h,ee &e9. Le"# C+,,!&&/ &#%#n9 !ne

&#fe #n "h#ch he "!& h+%e $hne,e (!,+&&2 +9+#n$ +n2 !ne "h! "+&e

!n $he ",!n9 )&!$ !f 9,+/ +n +n!$he, &#fe #n "h#ch he "!&

chee,f&&2 c+&& $he n 9,een +n $he (!!n 1&e/ "+/ 12 h# %e,2

#%#e n+$,e/ h# !ne f!!$ !n 1!$h "!,&/ + )e,fec$ $2)e !f $he

)!#$#!n !f (!e,n n!nene. H# W!ne,&+n # + c!n$,2 )!)&+$e 12

#n+ne (+$he(+$#c#+n. We fee& $he "h!&e # +n ec+)e #n$! + "!,& !f 

Page 23: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 23/58

(+:e,+e< "e fee& $h+$ #f "e c!& )#e,ce $he#, #9#e/ "e (#9h$

#c!%e, $h+$ H()$2 D()$2 +n $he M+,ch H+,e "e,e P,!fe!, +n

D!c$!, !f D#%#n#$2 en!2#n9 + (en$+& h!&#+2. Th# ene !f ec+)e #

ce,$+#n&2 &e e()h+$#c #n E"+, Le+,/ 1ec+e !f $he c!()&e$ene !f 

h# c#$#=enh#) #n $he "!,& !f n,e+!n. We ! n!$ n!" h# ),!+#c

1#!9,+)h2 + "e n!" Le"# C+,,!&&'. We +cce)$ h#( + + ),e&2 f+1&!09,e/ !n h# !"n ec,#)$#!n !f h#(e&f

'H# 1!2 # )e,fec$&2 )he,#c+&/

He "e+,e$h + ,nc#1&e h+$.'

Wh#&e Le"# C+,,!&&' W!ne,&+n # ),e&2 #n$e&&ec$+&/ Le+,

#n$,!ce :#$e +n!$he, e&e(en$77$he e&e(en$ !f $he )!e$#c+& +n e%en

e(!$#!n+&. C+,,!&& "!, 12 $he ),e ,e+!n/ 1$ $h# # n!$ ! $,!n9 +

c!n$,+$< f!,/ +f$e, +&&/ (+n#n #n $he (+#n h+ +&"+2 ,e9+,e ,e+!n

+ + 1#$ !f + !e. Le+, #n$,!ce h# n(e+n#n9 "!, +n h#

+(!,)h! c,e+$,e n!$ "#$h $he )!() !f ,e+!n/ 1$ "#$h $he ,!(+n$#c

),e&e !f ,#ch he +n h+n$#n9 ,h2$h(.

'F+, +n fe"/ f+, +n fe"/

A,e $he &+n "he,e $he J(1&#e &#%e/'

# +n en$#,e&2 #e,en$ $2)e !f )!e$,2 $! $h+$ e;h#1#$e #n

'J+11e,"!c2.' C+,,!&&/ "#$h + ene !f (+$he(+$#c+& ne+$ne/ (+e h#

"h!&e )!e( + (!+#c !f ne" +n (2$e,#! "!,. B$ E"+, Le+,/ "#$h

(!,e 1$&e +n )&+c# e,!n$e,2/ # +&"+2 #n$,!c#n9 c,+) !f h#

!"n e&%#h #+&ec$ #n$! $he (#&e !f #()&e +n ,+$#!n+& $+$e(en$/n$#& "e +,e +&(!$ $nne #n$! +(#$$#n9 $h+$ "e n!" "h+$ $he2 (e+n.

 The,e # + 9en#+& ,#n9 !f c!((!nene +1!$ ch &#ne +/

'F!, h# +n$ J!1#+ +# E%e,2 !ne n!"

 Th+$ + P!11&e # 1e$$e, "#$h!$ h# $!e/'

"h#ch # 1e2!n $he ,e+ch !f C+,,!&&. The )!e$ ee( ! e+2 !n $he

(+$$e, $h+$ "e +,e +&(!$ ,#%en $! ),e$en $h+$ "e ee h# (e+n#n9/

$h+$ "e n!" $he )ec&#+, #c&$#e !f + P!11&e/ $h+$ "e +,e + !&

$,+%e&&e, #n $he 'G,!(1!!&#+n P&+#n' + he #.

O, c&+#( $h+$ n!nene # + ne" &#$e,+$,e "e (#9h$ +&(!$ +2 + ne"

ene "!& 1e :#$e #nefen#1&e #f n!nene "e,e n!$h#n9 (!,e $h+n +

(e,e +e$he$#c f+nc2. N!$h#n9 1&#(e&2 +,$#$#c h+ e%e, +,#en !$ !f 

(e,e +,$/ +n2 (!,e $h+n +n2$h#n9 een$#+&&2 ,e+!n+1&e h+ e%e, +,#en

!$ !f $he ),e ,e+!n. The,e ($ +&"+2 1e + ,#ch (!,+& !#& f!, +n2

9,e+$ +e$he$#c 9,!"$h. The ),#nc#)&e !f -+,$ f!, +,$' +e- # + %e,2

Page 24: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 24/58

9!! ),#nc#)&e #f #$ (e+n $h+$ $he,e # + %#$+& #$#nc$#!n 1e$"een $he

e+,$h +n $he $,ee $h+$ h+ #$ ,!!$ #n $he e+,$h< 1$ #$ # + %e,2 1+

),#nc#)&e #f #$ (e+n $h+$ $he $,ee c!& 9,!" $ + "e&& "#$h #$

,!!$ #n $he +#,. E%e,2 9,e+$ &#$e,+$,e h+ +&"+2 1een

+&&e9!,#c+&77+&&e9!,#c+& !f !(e %#e" !f $he "h!&e n#%e,e. The 'I&#+'

# !n&2 9,e+$ 1ec+e +&& &#fe # + 1+$$&e/ $he 'O2e2' 1ec+e +&&&#fe # + !,ne2/ $he B!! !f J!1 1ec+e +&& &#fe # + ,#&e. The,e

# !ne +$$#$e #n "h#ch "e $h#n $h+$ +&& e;#$ence # ((e ) #n $he

"!, '9h!$'< +n!$he,/ +n !(e"h+$ 1e$$e, !ne/ #n "h#ch "e $h#n #$

# ((e ) #n $he "!, 'A M#((e, N#9h$' D,e+(.' E%en $he

%&9+,e$ (e&!,+(+ !, e$ec$#%e $!,2 c+n 1e 9!! #f #$ e;),ee

!(e$h#n9 !f $he e&#9h$ #n #n#$e, )!#1#&#$#e77$he he+&$h2 &$ f!,

+,ne +n $e,,!, "h#ch (+2 c!(e !n +n2 n#9h$ #n "+&#n9 !"n +

+, &+ne. If/ $he,ef!,e/ n!nene # ,e+&&2 $! 1e $he &#$e,+$,e !f $he

f$,e/ #$ ($ h+%e #$ !"n %e,#!n !f $he C!(! $! !e,< $he "!,&

($ n!$ !n&2 1e $he $,+9#c/ ,!(+n$#c/ +n ,e&#9#!/ #$ ($ 1e

n!nen#c+& +&!. An he,e "e f+nc2 $h+$ n!nene "#&&/ #n + %e,2

ne;)ec$e "+2/ c!(e $! $he +# !f $he )#,#$+& %#e" !f $h#n9.

Re&#9#!n h+ f!, cen$,#e 1een $,2#n9 $! (+e (en e;&$ #n $he

'"!ne,' !f c,e+$#!n/ 1$ #$ h+ f!,9!$$en $h+$ + $h#n9 c+nn!$ 1e

c!()&e$e&2 "!ne,f& ! &!n9 + #$ ,e(+#n en#1&e. S! &!n9 + "e

,e9+, + $,ee + +n !1%#! $h#n9/ n+$,+&&2 +n ,e+!n+1&2 c,e+$e f!,

+ 9#,+e $! e+$/ "e c+nn!$ ),!)e,&2 "!ne, +$ #$. I$ # "hen "e

c!n#e, #$ + + ),!#9#! "+%e !f $he &#%#n9 !#& ),+"&#n9 ) $! $he

#e f!, n! ,e+!n #n )+,$#c&+, $h+$ "e $+e ! !, h+$/ $! $he

+$!n#h(en$ !f $he )+,7ee)e,. E%e,2$h#n9 h+ #n f+c$ +n!$he, #e $!

#$/ &#e $he (!!n/ $he )+$,!ne !f n!nene. 6#e"e f,!( $h+$ !$he,#e/ + 1#, # + 1&!!( 1,!en &!!e f,!( #$ ch+#n !f $+&/ + (+n +

:+,)e 1e99#n9 !n #$ h#n &e9/ + h!e + 9#9+n$e:e h+$ $! c!%e, +

(+n f,!( $he n/ + ch+#, +n +))+,+$ !f f!, "!!en &e9 f!, + c,#))&e

"#$h !n&2 $"!.

 Th# # $he #e !f $h#n9 "h#ch $en (!$ $,&2 $! )#,#$+& "!ne,.

I$ # #9n#0c+n$ $h+$ #n $he 9,e+$e$ ,e&#9#! )!e( e;#$en$/ $he B!!

!f J!1/ $he +,9(en$ "h#ch c!n%#nce $he #n0e& # n!$ + h+ 1een

,e),een$e 12 $he (e,e&2 ,+$#!n+& ,e&#9#!n#( !f $he e#9h$een$h

cen$,2 + )#c$,e !f $he !,e,e 1ene0cence !f $he C,e+$#!n< 1$/ !n$he c!n$,+,2/ + )#c$,e !f $he h9e +n nec#)he,+1&e n,e+!n !f #$.

'H+$ Th! en$ $he ,+#n )!n $he ee,$ "he,e n! (+n #' Th# #()&e

ene !f "!ne, +$ $he h+)e !f $h#n9/ +n +$ $he#, e;1e,+n$

#ne)enence !f !, #n$e&&ec$+& $+n+, +n !, $,#%#+& e0n#$#!n/

# $he 1+# !f )#,#$+&#$2 + #$ # $he 1+# !f n!nene. N!nene

+n f+#$h $,+n9e + $he c!nnc$#!n (+2 ee( +,e $he $"! ),e(e

2(1!&#c +e,$#!n !f $he $,$h $h+$ $! ,+" !$ $he !& !f $h#n9

Page 25: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 25/58

"#$h + 2&&!9#( # + #()!#1&e + $! ,+" !$ Le%#+$h+n "#$h + h!!.

 The "e&&7(e+n#n9 )e,!n "h!/ 12 (e,e&2 $2#n9 $he &!9#c+& #e !f 

$h#n9/ h+ ec#e $h+$ 'f+#$h # n!nene/' !e n!$ n!" h!" $,&2 he

)e+< &+$e, #$ (+2 c!(e 1+c $! h#( #n $he f!,( $h+$ n!nene #

f+#$h.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF PLANETS

A 1!! h+ +$ !ne $#(e c!(e ne, (2 n!$#ce c+&&e 'Te,,+ F#,(+ $he

E+,$h n!$ + P&+ne$.' The +$h!, "+ + M,. D. W+,&+" Sc!$$/ +n he

:!$e %e,2 e,#!&2 $he !)#n#!n !f + &+,9e n(1e, !f !$he, )e,!n/

!f "h!( "e h+%e ne%e, he+,/ 1$ "h! +,e e%#en$&2 %e,2 #()!,$+n$. M,.

Be+ch !f S!$he+/ f!, e;+()&e/ $h#n $h+$ $he "!,& # 8+$< +n #n

S!$he+ )e,h+) #$ #. I$ # n! )+,$ !f (2 ),een$ #n$en$#!n/ h!"e%e,/

$! f!&&!" M,. Sc!$$' +,9(en$ #n e$+#&. On $he &#ne !f ch

+,9(en$ #$ (+2 1e h!"n $h+$ $he e+,$h # 8+$/ +n/ f!, $he (+$$e, !f 

$h+$/ $h+$ #$ # $,#+n9&+,. A fe" e;+()&e "#&& ce

One !f M,. Sc!$$' !1ec$#!n "+ $h+$ #f + ),!ec$#&e # 0,e f,!( +

(!%#n9 1!2 $he,e # + #e,ence #n $he #$+nce $! "h#ch #$ c+,,#e

+cc!,#n9 $! $he #,ec$#!n #n "h#ch #$ # en$. B$ + #n ),+c$#ce $he,e

# n!$ $he &#9h$e$ #e,ence "h#che%e, "+2 $he $h#n9 # !ne/ #n $he

c+e !f $he e+,$h '"e h+%e + f!,c#1&e !%e,$h,!" !f +&& f+nc#e ,e&+$#%e$! $he (!$#!n !f $he e+,$h/ +n + $,##n9 ),!!f $h+$ $he e+,$h # n!$

+ 9&!1e.'

 Th# # +&$!9e$he, !ne !f $he :+#n$e$ +,9(en$ "e h+%e e%e, een. I$

ne%e, ee( $! !cc, $! $he +$h!,/ +(!n9 !$he, $h#n9/ $h+$ "hen $he

0,#n9 +n f+&&#n9 !f $he h!$ +&& $+e )&+ce )!n $he (!%#n9 1!2/

$he,e # n!$h#n9 "h+$e%e, $! c!()+,e $he( "#$h. A + (+$$e, !f f+c$/ !f 

c!,e/ + h!$ 0,e +$ +n e&e)h+n$ !e +c$+&&2 !f$en $,+%e& $!"+,

$he (+,(+n/ 1$ (ch &!"e, $h+n $he (+,(+n $,+%e&. M,. Sc!$$

),!1+1&2 "!& n!$ &#e $! c!n$e()&+$e $he f+c$ $h+$ $he e&e)h+n$/),!)e,&2 )e+#n9/ "#n9 ,!n +n h#$ $he 1&&e$. T! #$ +))e+,

f&& !f + ,#ch c!(#c h(!,.

I "#&& !n&2 9#%e !ne !$he, e;+()&e !f $he +$,!n!(#c+& ),!!f

'If $he e+,$h "e,e + 9&!1e/ $he #$+nce ,!n $he ,f+ce/ +2/ +$

e9,ee !$h &+$#$e/ c!& n!$ )!#1&2 1e +n2 9,e+$e, $h+n $he +(e

Page 26: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 26/58

&+$#$e n!,$h< 1$ #nce #$ # f!n 12 n+%#9+$!, $! 1e $"#ce $he

#$+nce77$! +2 $he &e+$ !f #$77!, !1&e $he #$+nce #$ !9h$ $! 1e

+cc!,#n9 $! $he 9&!1&+, $he!,2/ #$ # + ),!!f $h+$ $he e+,$h # n!$ +

9&!1e.'

 Th# !,$ !f $h#n9 ,ece (2 (#n $! + )&). I c+n f+#n$&2 ,e#$ "hen+ (+n +2 $h+$ #f $he e+,$h "e,e + 9&!1e c+$ "!& n!$ h+%e f!,

&e9< 1$ "hen he +2 $h+$ #f $he e+,$h "e,e + 9&!1e c+$ "!& n!$

h+%e 0%e &e9 I +( c,he.

B$/ + I h+%e #n#c+$e/ #$ # n!$ #n $he c#en$#0c +)ec$ !f $h#

,e(+,+1&e $he!,2 $h+$ I +( f!, $he (!(en$ #n$e,e$e. I$ # ,+$he, "#$h

$he #e,ence 1e$"een $he 8+$ +n $he ,!n "!,& + c!nce)$#!n #n

+,$ +n #(+9#n+$#!n $h+$ I +( c!nce,ne. I$ # + %e,2 ,e(+,+1&e $h#n9

$h+$ n!ne !f +,e ,e+&&2 C!)e,n#c+n #n !, +c$+& !$&!! )!n

$h#n9. We +,e c!n%#nce #n$e&&ec$+&&2 $h+$ "e #nh+1#$ + (+&&

),!%#nc#+& )&+ne$/ 1$ "e ! n!$ fee& #n $he &e+$ 1,1+n. Men !f 

c#ence h+%e :+,,e&&e "#$h $he B#1&e 1ec+e #$ # n!$ 1+e )!n $he

$,e +$,!n!(#c+& 2$e(/ 1$ #$ # ce,$+#n&2 !)en $! $he !,$h!!; $!

+2 $h+$ #f #$ h+ 1een #$ "!& ne%e, h+%e c!n%#nce +n21!2.

If + #n9&e )!e( !, + #n9&e $!,2 "e,e ,e+&&2 $,+nfe "#$h $he

C!)e,n#c+n #e+/ $he $h#n9 "!& 1e + n#9h$(+,e. C+n "e $h#n !f +

!&e(n cene !f (!n$+#n $#&&ne #n "h#ch !(e ),!)he$ # $+n#n9 #n

+ $,+nce/ +n $hen ,e+&#=e $h+$ $he "h!&e cene # "h#==#n9 ,!n &#e +

=!e$,!)e +$ $he ,+$e !f n#ne$een (#&e + ec!n C!& "e $!&e,+$e $he

n!$#!n !f + (#9h$2 K#n9 e&#%e,#n9 + 1&#(e 0+$ +n $hen ,e(e(1e,$h+$ f!, +&& ),+c$#c+& ),)!e he # h+n9#n9 he+ !"n"+, #n )+ce A

$,+n9e f+1&e (#9h$ 1e ",#$$en !f + (+n "h! "+ 1&ee !, c,e "#$h

$he C!)e,n#c+n e2e/ +n +" +&& (en !n $he e+,$h &#e $#n$+c

c&$e,#n9 ,!n + (+9ne$. I$ "!& 1e #n9&+, $! #(+9#ne h!" %e,2

#e,en$ $he )eech !f +n +99,e#%e e9!#$/ +nn!nc#n9 $he

#ne)enence +n #%#n#$2 !f (+n/ "!& !n #f he "e,e een h+n9#n9 !n

$! $he )&+ne$ 12 h# 1!!$ !&e.

F!,/ e)#$e M,. W+,&+" Sc!$$' h!,,!, +$ $he Ne"$!n#+n +$,!n!(2 +n

#$ c!n$,+#c$#!n !f $he B#1&e/ $he "h!&e #$#nc$#!n # + 9!! #n$+nce!f $he #e,ence 1e$"een &e$$e,

)#,#$< $he &e$$e, !f $he O&

 Te$+(en$ # !))!e $! $he c!nce)$#!n !f $he !&+, 2$e(/ 1$ $he

)#,#$ h+ (ch #nh#) "#$h #$. The ",#$e, !f $he B!! !f Gene# h+

n! $he!,2 !f 9,+%#$+$#!n/ "h#ch $! $he n!,(+& )e,!n "#&& +))e+, + f+c$

!f + (ch #()!,$+nce + $h+$ $he2 h+ n! (1,e&&+. B$ $he $he!,2 !f 

Page 27: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 27/58

9,+%#$+$#!n h+ + c,#!&2 He1,e" en$#(en$ #n #$77+ en$#(en$ !f 

c!(1#ne e)enence +n ce,$+#n$2/ + ene !f 9,+))&#n9 n#$2/ 12 "h#ch

+&& $h#n9 h+n9 )!n !ne $h,e+. 'Th! h+$ h+n9e $he "!,& )!n

n!$h#n9/' +# $he +$h!, !f $he B!! !f J!1/ +n #n $h+$ en$ence

",!$e $he "h!&e +))+&&#n9 )!e$,2 !f (!e,n +$,!n!(2. The ene !f $he

),ec#!ne +n f,+9#&#$2 !f $he n#%e,e/ $he ene !f 1e#n9 #n $heh!&&!" !f + h+n/ # !ne "h#ch $he ,!n +n ,!&&#n9 e+,$h 9#%e #n #$

(!$ $h,#&&#n9 f!,(. M,. W+,&+" Sc!$$' 8+$ e+,$h "!& 1e $he $,e

$e,,#$!,2 f!, + c!(f!,$+1&e +$he#$. N!, "!& $he !& Je" h+%e +n2

!1ec$#!n $! 1e#n9 + (ch )#e !"n + ,#9h$ "+2 ). The2 h+ n!

f!!&#h #e+ +1!$ $he #9n#$2 !f (+n.

I$ "!& 1e +n #n$e,e$#n9 )ec&+$#!n $! #(+9#ne "he$he, $he "!,& "#&&

e%e, e%e&!) + C!)e,n#c+n )!e$,2 +n + C!)e,n#c+n h+1#$ !f f+nc2<

"he$he, "e h+&& e%e, )e+ !f 'e+,&2 e+,$h7$,n' #n$e+ !f 'e+,&2

n,#e/' +n )e+ #n#e,en$&2 !f &!!#n9 ) +$ $he +##e/ !,

&!!#n9 !"n !n $he $+,. B$ #f "e e%e, !/ $he,e +,e ,e+&&2 + &+,9e

n(1e, !f 1#9 +n f+n$+$#c f+c$ +"+#$#n9 / "!,$h2 $! (+e + ne"

(2$h!&!92. M,. W+,&+" Sc!$$/ f!, e;+()&e/ "#$h 9en#ne/ #f nc!nc#!/

#(+9#n+$#!n/ +2 $h+$ +cc!,#n9 $! +$,!n!(e,/ '$he e+ # + %+$

(!n$+#n !f "+$e, (#&e h#9h.' T! h+%e #c!%e,e $h+$ (!n$+#n !f 

(!%#n9 c,2$+&/ #n "h#ch $he 0he 1#& &#e 1#,/ # &#e

#c!%e,#n9 A$&+n$# #$ # en!9h $! (+e $he !& "!,& 2!n9 +9+#n.

In $he ne" )!e$,2 "h#ch "e c!n$e()&+$e/ +$h&e$#c 2!n9 (en "#&& e$ !$

$,#&2 $! c&#(1 ) $he f+ce !f $he e+. If "e !nce ,e+&#=e +&& $h#

e+,$h + #$ #/ "e h!& 0n !,e&%e #n + &+n !f (#,+c&e "e h+&&

#c!%e, + ne" )&+ne$ +$ $he (!(en$ $h+$ "e #c!%e, !, !"n. A(!n9 +&&$he $,+n9e $h#n9 $h+$ (en h+%e f!,9!$$en/ $he (!$ n#%e,+& +n

c+$+$,!)h#c &+)e !f (e(!,2 # $h+$ 12 "h#ch $he2 h+%e f!,9!$$en $h+$

$he2 +,e &#%#n9 !n + $+,.

In $he e+,&2 +2 !f $he "!,&/ $he #c!%e,2 !f + f+c$ !f n+$,+&

h#$!,2 "+ #((e#+$e&2 f!&&!"e 12 $he ,e+&#=+$#!n !f #$ + + f+c$ !f 

)!e$,2. When (+n +"!e f,!( $he &!n9 0$ !f +1en$7(#nene "h#ch #

c+&&e $he +$!(+$#c +n#(+& $+$e/ +n 1e9+n $! n!$#ce $he :ee, f+c$

$h+$ $he 2 "+ 1&e +n $he 9,+ 9,een/ he #((e#+$e&2 1e9+n $! e

$h!e f+c$ 2(1!&#c+&&2. B&e/ $he c!&!, !f $he 2/ 1ec+(e + 2(1!&!f ce&e$#+& h!&#ne< 9,een )+e #n$! $he &+n9+9e + #n#c+$#n9 +

f,ehne %e,9#n9 )!n n#n$e&&#9ence. If "e h+ $he 9!! f!,$ne $!

&#%e #n + "!,& #n "h#ch $he 2 "+ 9,een +n $he 9,+ 1&e/ $he

2(1!&#( "!& h+%e 1een #e,en$. B$ f!, !(e (2$e,#! ,e+!n $h#

h+1#$ !f ,e+&#=#n9 )!e$#c+&&2 $he f+c$ !f c#ence h+ ce+e +1,)$&2

"#$h c#en$#0c ),!9,e/ +n +&& $he c!nf!n#n9 )!,$en$ ),e+che 12

G+&#&e! +n Ne"$!n h+%e f+&&en !n e+f e+,. The2 )+#n$e + )#c$,e !f 

Page 28: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 28/58

$he n#%e,e c!()+,e "#$h "h#ch $he A)!c+&2)e "#$h #$ f+&&#n9 $+,

"+ + (e,e #2&&. The2 ec&+,e $h+$ "e +,e +&& c+,ee,#n9 $h,!9h )+ce/

c&#n9#n9 $! + c+nn!n71+&&/ +n $he )!e$ #9n!,e $he (+$$e, + #f #$ "e,e

+ ,e(+, +1!$ $he "e+$he,. The2 +2 $h+$ +n #n%##1&e f!,ce h!& #n

!, !"n +,(ch+#, "h#&e $he e+,$h h,$&e &#e + 1!!(e,+n9< +n (en

$#&& 9! 1+c $! $2 ,ec!, $! ),!%e $he (e,c2 !f G!. The2 $e&& $h+$ M,. Sc!$$' (!n$,! %##!n !f + (!n$+#n !f e+7"+$e, ,##n9 #n +

!&# !(e/ &#e $he 9&+ (!n$+#n #n $he f+#,27$+&e/ # +c$+&&2 +

f+c$/ +n (en $#&& 9! 1+c $! $he f+#,27$+&e. T! "h+$ $!"e,#n9 he#9h$

!f )!e$#c #(+9e,2 (#9h$ "e n!$ h+%e ,#en #f !n&2 $he )!e$#=#n9 !f 

n+$,+& h#$!,2 h+ c!n$#ne +n (+n' f+nc2 h+ )&+2e "#$h $he

)&+ne$ + n+$,+&&2 + #$ !nce )&+2e "#$h $he 8!"e, We (#9h$ h+%e

h+ + )&+ne$+,2 )+$,#!$#(/ #n "h#ch $he 9,een &e+f h!& 1e &#e +

c!c+e/ +n $he e+ +n e%e,&+$#n9 +nce !f ,(. We (#9h$ h+%e 1een

),! !f "h+$ !, $+, h+ ",!9h$/ +n "!,n #$ he,+&,2 h+9h$#&2 #n

$he 1&#n $!,n+(en$ !f $he )he,e. A&& $h#/ #nee/ "e (+2 ,e&2 !

2e$< f!, "#$h +&& $he (&$#)&#c#$2 !f n!"&e9e $he,e # !ne $h#n9

h+))#&2 $h+$ n! (+n n!" "he$he, $he "!,& # !& !, 2!n9.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF CHINA SHEPHERDESSES

 The,e +,e !(e $h#n9 !f "h#ch $he "!,& !e n!$ &#e $! 1e ,e(#ne/

f!, $he2 +,e $he e+ &!%e !f $he "!,&. One !f $hee # $h+$ 9,e+$en$h#+( f!, $he A,c+#+n &#fe "h#ch/ h!"e%e, (ch #$ (+2 n!" &#e !)en

$! $he nee, !f ,e+&#(/ #/ 1e2!n +&& :e$#!n/ h!& "+2 f!, +n

en!,(! )e,#! !f $he "!,&' h#$!,2/ f,!( $he $#(e $h+$ "e ec,#1e

+ +nc#en$ !"n $! $#(e $h+$ (+2 f+#,&2 1e c+&&e ,ecen$. The

c!nce)$#!n !f $he #nn!cen$ +n h#&+,#! &#fe !f he)he, +n

he)he,ee ce,$+#n&2 c!%e,e +n +1!,1e $he $#(e !f The!c,#$/ !f 

6#,9#&/ !f C+$&&/ !f D+n$e/ !f Ce,%+n$e/ !f A,#!$!/ !f Sh+e)e+,e/

+n !f P!)e. We +,e $!& $h+$ $he 9! !f $he he+$hen "e,e $!ne +n

1,+/ 1$ $!ne +n 1,+ h+%e ne%e, en,e "#$h $he &!n9 en,+nce !f 

$he Ch#n+ She)he,e. The C+$h!&#c Ch,ch +n $he Ie+& She)he, +,e#nee +&(!$ $he !n&2 $h#n9 $h+$ h+%e 1,#9e $he +12 1e$"een $he

+nc#en$ "!,& +n $he (!e,n. Ye$/ + "e +2/ $he "!,& !e n!$ &#e

$! 1e ,e(#ne !f $h# 1!2#h en$h#+(.

B$ #(+9#n+$#!n/ $he fnc$#!n !f $he h#$!,#+n/ c+nn!$ &e$ ! 9,e+$ +n

e&e(en$ +&!ne. B2 $he che+) ,e%!&$#!n+,2 #$ # c!((!n&2 ))!e $h+$

#(+9#n+$#!n # + (e,e&2 ,e1e&&#! $h#n9/ $h+$ #$ h+ #$ ch#ef fnc$#!n

Page 29: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 29/58

#n e%##n9 ne" +n f+n$+$#c ,e)1&#c. B$ #(+9#n+$#!n h+ #$ h#9he$

e #n + ,e$,!)ec$#%e ,e+&#=+$#!n. The $,()e$ !f #(+9#n+$#!n/ &#e $he

$,()e$ !f $he Re,,ec$#!n/ c+&& $he e+ !$ !f $he#, 9,+%e.

I(+9#n+$#!n ee De&)h# "#$h $he e2e !f + G,ee/ Je,+&e( "#$h $he

e2e !f + C,+e,/ P+,# "#$h $he e2e !f + J+c!1#n/ +n A,c+#+ "#$h

$he e2e !f + E)h#$. The ),#(e fnc$#!n !f #(+9#n+$#!n # $! ee !,"h!&e !,e,&2 2$e( !f &#fe + + )#&e !f $,+$#0e ,e%!&$#!n. In

)#$e !f +&& ,e%!&$#!n+,#e #$ ($ 1e +# $h+$ $he fnc$#!n !f 

#(+9#n+$#!n # n!$ $! (+e $,+n9e $h#n9 e$$&e/ ! (ch + $! (+e

e$$&e $h#n9 $,+n9e< n!$ ! (ch $! (+e "!ne, f+c$ + $! (+e

f+c$ "!ne,. T! $he #(+9#n+$#%e $he $,#( +,e +&& )+,+!;e/ #nce

$he2 "e,e )+,+!;e #n $he S$!ne A9e< $! $he( $he !,#n+,2 c!)271!!

1&+=e "#$h 1&+)he(2.

Le$ / $hen/ c!n#e, #n $h# &#9h$ $he !& )+$!,+& !, A,c+#+n #e+&.

B$ 0,$ ce,$+#n&2 !ne $h#n9 ($ 1e e0n#$e&2 ,ec!9n#e. Th#

A,c+#+n +,$ +n &#$e,+$,e # + &!$ en$h#+(. T! $2 #$ # &#e

f(1&#n9 #n $he &!%e7&e$$e, !f + e+ (+n. T! #$ 8!"e, ee( +

$+",2 + c!c+e< $he &+(1 $h+$ +nce $! $he he)he,' )#)e ee( $!

+nce "#$h +&& $he +,$#0c#+&#$2 !f + 1+&&e$. E%en !, !"n ),!+#c $!#&

ee( $! (!,e !2! $h+n $h+$ h!&#+2. Whe,e #$ +nc#en$ e;1e,+nce

)+e $he 1!n !f "#!( +n e%en !f %#,$e/ #$ c+)e,#n9 ee(

f,!=en #n$! $he $#&&ne !f +n +n$#:e f,#e=e. In $h!e 9,+2 !&

)#c$,e + 1+cch+n+& ee( + && + +n +,che+c!n. The#, %e,2 #n

ee( c!&e, $h+n !, ,e$,+#n$.

A&& $h# (+2 1e f,+n&2 ,ec!9n#e +&& $he 1+,,en en$#(en$+&#$2 !f $heA,c+#+n #e+& +n +&& #$ #n!&en$ !)$#(#(. B$ "hen +&& # +# +n

!ne/ !(e$h#n9 e&e ,e(+#n.

 Th,!9h +9e #n "h#ch $he (!$ +,,!9+n$ +n e&+1!,+$e #e+& !f )!"e,

+n c#%#&#=+$#!n he& !$he,"#e n#)$e "+2/ $he #e+& !f $he

)e,fec$ +n he+&$h2 )e++n$ # n!1$e&2 ,e),een$ #n !(e h+)e !,

f!,( $he c!nce)$#!n $h+$ $he,e "+ + #9n#$2 #n #()&#c#$2 +n + #9n#$2

#n &+1!,. I$ "+ 9!! f!, $he +nc#en$ +,#$!c,+$/ e%en #f he c!& n!$

+$$+#n $! #nn!cence +n $he "#!( !f $he e+,$h/ $! 1e&#e%e $h+$ $hee

$h#n9 "e,e $he ec,e$ !f $he ),#e$h!! !f $he )!!,. I$ "+ 9!! f!,h#( $! 1e&#e%e $h+$ e%en #f he+%en "+ n!$ +1!%e h#(/ he+%en "+ 1e&!"

h#(. I$ "+ "e&& $h+$ he h!& h+%e +(# +&& h# 8+(1!2+n$ $,#()h

$he ne%e,7e;$#n9#he en$#(en$ $h+$ $he,e "+ !(e$h#n9 1e$$e, $h+n

h# $,#()h/ $he c!nce)$#!n $h+$ '$he,e ,e(+#ne$h + ,e$.'

 The c!nce)$#!n !f $he Ie+& She)he, ee( +1, $! !, (!e,n #e+.

B$/ +f$e, +&&/ #$ "+ )e,h+) $he !n&2 $,+e !f $he e(!c,+c2 "h#ch "+

Page 30: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 30/58

e:+&#=e "#$h $he $,+e !f $he +,#$!c,+c2 e%en 12 $he +,#$!c,+c2

#$e&f. The he)he, !f )+$!,+& )!e$,2 "+/ "#$h!$ !1$/ %e,2

#e,en$ f,!( $he he)he, !f +c$+& f+c$. Whe,e !ne #nn!cen$&2 )#)e

$! h# &+(1/ $he !$he, #nn!cen$&2 "!,e +$ $he(< +n $he#, #%e,9ence

#n #n$e&&ec$ +n )e,!n+& c&e+n&#ne "+ #((ene. B$ $he #e,ence

1e$"een $he #e+& he)he, "h! +nce "#$h A(+,2&&# +n $he ,e+&he)he, "h! $h,+he he, # n!$ + c,+) 9,e+$e, $h+n $he #e,ence

1e$"een $he #e+& !&#e, "h! #e $! c+)$,e $he c!&!, +n $he ,e+&

!&#e, "h! &#%e $! c&e+n h# +cc!$,e(en$/ 1e$"een $he #e+& ),#e$

"h! # e%e,&+$#n9&2 12 !(e!ne' 1e +n $he ,e+& ),#e$ "h! # + 9&+

+ +n2!ne e&e $! 9e$ $! h# !"n. The,e +,e #e+& c!nce)$#!n +n ,e+&

(en #n e%e,2 c+&&#n9< 2e$ $he,e +,e fe" "h! !1ec$ $! $he #e+&

c!nce)$#!n/ +n n!$ (+n2/ +f$e, +&&/ "h! !1ec$ $! $he ,e+& (en.

 The f+c$/ $hen/ # $h# S! f+, f,!( ,een$#n9 $he e;#$ence #n +,$ +n

&#$e,+$,e !f +n #e+& he)he,/ I 9en#ne&2 ,e9,e$ $h+$ $he he)he, #

$he !n&2 e(!c,+$#c c+&&#n9 $h+$ h+ e%e, 1een ,+#e $! $he &e%e& !f 

$he he,!#c c+&&#n9 c!nce#%e 12 +n +,#$!c,+$#c +9e. S! f+, f,!(

!1ec$#n9 $! $he Ie+& She)he,/ I "#h $he,e "e,e +n Ie+& P!$(+n/ +n

Ie+& G,!ce,/ +n +n Ie+& P&(1e,. I$ # n!1$e&2 $,e $h+$ "e

h!& &+9h +$ $he #e+ !f +n Ie+& P!$(+n< #$ # $,e/ +n #$ ),!%e

$h+$ "e +,e n!$ 9en#ne e(!c,+$.

Un!1$e&2 $he (!e,n 9,!ce,/ #f c+&&e )!n $! +c$ #n +n A,c+#+n

(+nne,/ #f e#,e $! !1&#9e "#$h + 2(1!&#c +nce e;),e#%e !f $he

e&#9h$ !f 9,!ce,2/ !, $! )e,f!,( !n !(e #()&e #n$,(en$ "h#&e h#

+#$+n$ #))e +,!n h#(/ "!& 1e e(1+,,+e/ +n )e,h+) e%en,e&c$+n$. B$ #$ (+2 1e :e$#!ne "he$he, $h# $e()!,+,2 ,e&c$+nce !f 

$he 9,!ce, # + 9!! $h#n9/ !, e%#ence !f + 9!! c!n#$#!n !f )!e$#c

fee&#n9 #n $he 9,!ce,2 1#ne + + "h!&e. The,e ce,$+#n&2 h!& 1e +n

#e+& #(+9e !f he+&$h +n h+))#ne #n +n2 $,+e/ +n #$ ,e(!$ene

f,!( $he ,e+&#$2 # n!$ $he !n&2 #()!,$+n$ :e$#!n. N! !ne ))!e

$h+$ $he (+ !f $,+#$#!n+& c!nce)$#!n !f $2 +n 9&!,2 +,e +&"+2

!)e,+$#%e/ f!, e;+()&e/ #n $he (#n !f + !&#e, !, + !c$!,< $h+$ $he

B+$$&e !f W+$e,&!! +c$+&&2 (+e + ),#%+$e en!2 )#)ec&+2#n9 h#

$,!e,/ !, $h+$ $he 'he+&$h !f h(+n#$2' !f$en $he (!(en$+,2

)h,+e!&!92 !f + )h2#c#+n c+&&e !$ !f 1e +$ $"! !'c&!c #n $he(!,n#n9. B$ +&$h!9h n! #e+& !1&#$e,+$e $he 9&2 ,9e,2 +n e$+#&

!f +n2 c+&&#n9/ $h+$ #e+& !e/ #n $he c+e !f $he !&#e, !, $he

!c$!,/ e;#$ e0n#$e&2 #n $he 1+c9,!n +n (+e $h+$ ,9e,2 "!,$h

"h#&e + + "h!&e. I$ # + e,#! c+&+(#$2 $h+$ n! ch #e+& e;#$ #n

$he c+e !f $he %+$ n(1e, !f h!n!,+1&e $,+e +n c,+f$ !n "h#ch $he

e;#$ence !f + (!e,n c#$2 e)en. I$ # + )#$2 $h+$ c,,en$ $h!9h$

+n en$#(en$ !e, n!$h#n9 c!,,e)!n#n9 $! $he !& c!nce)$#!n !f 

Page 31: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 31/58

)+$,!n +#n$. If $he2 # $he,e "!& 1e + P+$,!n S+#n$ !f P&(1e,/

+n $h# "!& +&!ne 1e + ,e%!&$#!n/ f!, #$ "!& f!,ce $he #n#%#+&

c,+f$(+n $! 1e&#e%e $h+$ $he,e "+ !nce + )e,fec$ 1e#n9 "h! #

+c$+&&2 )&(1.

When +&& # +# +n !ne/ $hen/ "e $h#n #$ (ch !)en $! :e$#!n"he$he, $he "!,& h+ n!$ &!$ !(e$h#n9 #n $he c!()&e$e #+))e+,+nce

!f $he #e+& !f $he h+))2 )e++n$. I$ # f!!&#h en!9h $! ))!e $h+$

$he ,$#c "en$ +1!$ +&& !%e, ,#11!n/ 1$ #$ # 1e$$e, $h+n n!"#n9

$h+$ he 9!e +1!$ +&& !%e, ,+9 +n 1e#n9 #n#e,en$ $! $he f+c$. The

(!e,n ,e+&#$#c $2 !f $he )!!, !e #n ,e+&#$2 &e+ $he $en$

f,$he, +$,+2 $h+n $he !& #2&&#c n!$#!n. F!, "e c+nn!$ 9e$ $he

ch#+,!c,! !f h(1&e &#fe ! &!n9 + #$ %#,$e ee( $! + 9,! +

#$ %#ce +n #$ !2 + &&en + #$ !,,!". P,!1+1&2 +$ $he %e,2

(!(en$ $h+$ "e c+n ee n!$h#n9 1$ + &&7f+ce (+n (!#n9 +n ,#n#n9

he+%#&2 "#$h h# f,#en #n + )!$7h!e/ $he (+n h#(e&f # !n h# !&'

h!&#+2/ c,!"ne "#$h $he 8!"e, !f + )+#!n+$e #&ene/ +n f+, (!,e

&#e $he H+))2 Pe++n$ $h+n $he "!,& "#&& e%e, n!".

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF USEFUL INFORMATION

I$ # n+$,+& +n ),!)e, en!9h $h+$ $he (+e !f e;)&!#%e +((n#$#!n

$!,e ) #n e$ec$#%e $!,#e +n $he ,e)&e$e +n !&# "ee$7$ h!) "h#ch +,e c+&&e en$#(en$+& n!%e&e$$e h!& 1e )!)&+, "#$h $he

!,#n+,2 c$!(e,. I$ # n!$ #c&$ $! ,e+&#=e $h+$ +&& !f /

#9n!,+n$ !, c&$#%+$e/ +,e ),#(+,#&2 #n$e,e$e #n (,e, +n

&!%e7(+#n9. The ,e+&&2 e;$,+!,#n+,2 $h#n9 # $h+$ $he (!$ +))+&&#n9

0c$#!n +,e n!$ +c$+&&2 ! )!)&+, + $h+$ &#$e,+$,e "h#ch e+& "#$h

$he (!$ n#)$e +n e),e#n9 f+c$. Men +,e n!$ +))+,en$&2 !

#n$e,e$e #n (,e, +n &!%e7(+#n9 + $he2 +,e #n $he n(1e, !f 

#e,en$ f!,( !f &+$che2 "h#ch e;#$ #n L!n!n !, $he $#(e $h+$ #$

"!& $+e + 9,+h!))e, $! () f,!( C+#,! $! $he C+)e. The en!,(!

(+ !f f+$! +n e&e $,$h "h#ch 0&& $he (!$ "#e&27c#,c&+$e)+)e,/ ch + -T#$7B#$/ Sc#ence S#f$#n9-/ +n (+n2 !f $he

#&&$,+$e (+9+=#ne/ # ce,$+#n&2 !ne !f $he (!$ e;$,+!,#n+,2 #n

!f e(!$#!n+& +n (en$+& )+1&( !n "h#ch (+n e%e, fe. I$ # +&(!$

#nc,e#1&e $h+$ $hee ),e)!$e,! $+$#$#c h!& +c$+&&2 1e (!,e

)!)&+, $h+n $he (!$ 1&!!7c,&#n9 (2$e,#e +n $he (!$ &;,#!

e1+che !f en$#(en$. T! #(+9#ne #$ # &#e #(+9#n#n9 $he h(!,!

)++9e #n B,+h+"' R+#&"+2 G#e ,e+ +&! !n "#n$e, e%en#n9. I$

Page 32: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 32/58

# &#e c!nce#%#n9 + (+n n+1&e $! )$ !"n +n +%e,$#e(en$ !f M!$he,

Se#9e&' S2,) 1ec+e he "#he $! n!" "h+$ e%en$+&&2 h+))ene $! $he

2!n9 (+n "h! "+ e;$,e(e&2 #&& +$ E#n1,9h. In $he c+e !f che+)

e$ec$#%e $!,#e +n che+) n!%e&e$$e/ "e c+n (!$ !f fee&/ "h+$e%e,

!, e9,ee !f ec+$#!n/ $h+$ #$ (#9h$ 1e )!#1&e $! ,e+ $he( #f "e

9+%e f&& #n&9ence $! + &!"e, +n (!,e f+c#&e )+,$ !f !, n+$,e< +$$he "!,$ "e fee& $h+$ "e (#9h$ en!2 $he( + "e (#9h$ en!2

1&&71+#$#n9 !, 9e$$#n9 ,n. B$ $he &#$e,+$,e !f #nf!,(+$#!n #

+1!&$e&2 (2$e,#! $! . We c+n n! (!,e $h#n !f +(#n9 !,e&%e

"#$h #$ $h+n !f ,e+#n9 "h!&e )+9e !f + S,1#$!n &!c+& #,ec$!,2. T!

,e+ ch $h#n9 "!& n!$ 1e + )#ece !f %&9+, #n&9ence< #$ "!& 1e

+ h#9h&2 +,! +n (e,#$!,#! en$e,),#e. I$ # $h# f+c$ "h#ch

c!n$#$$e + ),!f!n +n +&(!$ nf+$h!(+1&e #n$e,e$ #n $h#

)+,$#c&+, 1,+nch !f )!)&+, &#$e,+$,e.

P,#(+,#&2/ +$ &e+$/ $he,e # !ne ,+$he, )ec&#+, $h#n9 "h#ch ($ #n

 $#ce 1e +# +1!$ #$. The ,e+e, !f $h# $,+n9e c#ence ($ 1e

+&&!"e $! 1e/ )!n $he "h!&e/ + ##n$e,e$e + + ),!)he$ ee#n9

%##!n !, + ch#& ,e+#n9 f+#,27$+&e. He,e/ +9+#n/ "e 0n/ + "e !

!f$en !/ $h+$ "h+$e%e, %#e" !f $h# (+$$e, !f )!)&+, &#$e,+$,e "e c+n

$,$/ "e c+n $,$ &e+$ !f +&& $he c!((en$ +n cen,e c,,en$ +(!n9

$he %&9+, ec+$e. The !,#n+,2 %e,#!n !f $he 9,!n !f $h#

)!)&+,#$2 f!, #nf!,(+$#!n/ "h#ch "!& 1e 9#%en 12 + )e,!n !f 9,e+$e,

c&$#%+$#!n/ "!& 1e $h+$ c!((!n (en +,e ch#e82 #n$e,e$e #n $h!e

!,# f+c$ $h+$ ,,!n $he( !n e%e,2 #e. A %e,2 (+&& e9,ee !f 

e;+(#n+$#!n "#&& h!" $h+$ "h+$e%e, 9,!n $he,e # f!, $he

)!)&+,#$2 !f $hee #n+ne enc2c&!)+e#+/ #$ c+nn!$ 1e $he 9,!n !f $#&#$2. The %e,#!n !f &#fe 9#%en 12 + )enn2 n!%e&e$$e (+2 1e %e,2

(!!n$,c +n n,e&#+1&e/ 1$ #$ # +$ &e+$ (!,e &#e&2 $! c!n$+#n

f+c$ ,e&e%+n$ $! +#&2 &#fe $h+n c!()#&+$#!n !n $he 1ec$ !f $he

n(1e, !f c!"' $+#& $h+$ "!& ,e+ch $he N!,$h P!&e. The,e +,e (+n2

(!,e )e!)&e "h! +,e #n &!%e $h+n $he,e +,e )e!)&e "h! h+%e +n2

#n$en$#!n !f c!n$#n9 !, c!&&ec$#n9 c!"' $+#&. I$ # e%#en$ $! (e

$h+$ $he 9,!n !f $h# "#e),e+ (+ne !f #nf!,(+$#!n f!,

#nf!,(+$#!n' +e ($ 1e !9h$ #n !$he, +n ee)e, )+,$ !f h(+n

n+$,e $h+n $h!e +#&2 nee "h#ch &#e ! ne+, $he ,f+ce $h+$ e%en

!c#+& )h#&!!)he, h+%e #c!%e,e $he( !(e"he,e #n $h+$ ),!f!n +ne$e,n+& #n$#nc$ f!, en$h#+( +n (#n#n9 !$he, )e!)&e' 1#ne

"h#ch (+e 9,e+$ )!)&+, (!%e(en$ &#e $he C,+e !, $he G!,!n

R#!$.

I !nce h+ $he )&e+,e !f n!"#n9 + (+n "h! +c$+&&2 $+&e #n ),#%+$e

&#fe +f$e, $he (+nne, !f $hee )+)e,. H# c!n%e,+$#!n c!n#$e !f 

f,+9(en$+,2 $+$e(en$ +1!$ he#9h$ +n "e#9h$ +n e)$h +n $#(e +n

Page 33: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 33/58

)!)&+$#!n/ +n h# c!n%e,+$#!n "+ + n#9h$(+,e !f &ne. D,#n9 $he

h!,$e$ )+e he "!& + "he$he, h# #n$e,&!c$!, "e,e +"+,e h!"

(+n2 $!n !f ,$ "e,e c,+)e e%e,2 2e+, ! $he Men+# B,#9e/ +n h!"

(+n2 ,#%+& h!) M,. Wh#$e&e2 h+ 1!9h$ ) #nce he !)ene h#

1#ne. The +$$#$e !f h# +c:+#n$+nce $!"+, $h# #ne;h+$#1&e

en$e,$+#ne, %+,#e +cc!,#n9 $! h# ),eence !, +1ence 1e$"een#n#e,ence +n $e,,!,. I$ "+ f,#9h$f& $! $h#n !f + (+n' 1,+#n

1e#n9 $!ce "#$h ch #ne;),e#1&2 ),!0$&e $,e+,e. I$ "+ &#e

%##$#n9 !(e #()!#n9 B,#$#h Me( +n 0n#n9 #$ 9+&&e,#e +n

9&+ c+e 0&&e "#$h )ec#(en !f L!n!n (/ !f c!((!n (!,$+,/ !f 

1,!en "+&#n97$#c +n che+) $!1+cc!. Ye+, +f$e,"+, I #c!%e,e

$h+$ $h# #n$!&e,+1&e ),!+#c 1!,e h+ 1een/ #n f+c$/ + )!e$. I &e+,n$

$h+$ e%e,2 #$e( !f $h# (&$#$#n! #nf!,(+$#!n "+ $!$+&&2 +n

n1&h#n9&2 n$,e/ $h+$ f!, +&& I ne" he h+ (+e #$ ) + he "en$

+&!n9< $h+$ n! $!n !f ,$ +,e c,+)e ! $he Men+# B,#9e/ +n $h+$

$he ,#%+& $,+e(en +n M,. Wh#$e&e2 "e,e c,e+$,e !f $he )!e$' 1,+#n.

In$+n$&2 I c!nce#%e c!n(#n9 ,e)ec$ f!, $he (+n "h! "+ !

c#,c($+n$#+&/ ! (!n!$!n!/ ! en$#,e&2 ),)!e&e + &#+,. W#$h h#(

#$ ($ h+%e 1een + c+e !f +,$ f!, +,$' +e. The !e $+#ne !

9,+%e&2 $h,!9h + ,e)ec$e &#fe$#(e "+ !f $h+$ !,e, !f !e "h#ch #

h+,e "#$h !(n#c#ence. B$ "h+$ $,c (e (!,e c!9en$&2 )!n

,e8ec$#!n "+ $he f+c$ $h+$ $hee #((e+,+1&e $,#%#+&#$#e/ "h#ch h+

$,c (e + $$e,&2 %&9+, +n +,# "hen I $h!9h$ $he2 "e,e $,e/

#((e#+$e&2 1ec+(e )#c$,e:e +n +&(!$ 1,#&&#+n$ "hen I $h!9h$ $he2

"e,e #n%en$#!n !f $he h(+n f+nc2. An he,e/ + #$ ee( $! (e/ I &+#

(2 0n9e, )!n + fn+(en$+& :+&#$2 !f $he c&$#%+$e c&+ "h#ch

),e%en$ #$/ +n "#&&/ )e,h+)/ +&"+2 ),e%en$ #$ f,!( ee#n9 "#$h $hee2e !f )!)&+, #(+9#n+$#!n. The (e,e&2 ec+$e c+n c+,ce&2 e%e, 1e

1,!9h$ $! 1e&#e%e $h+$ $h# "!,& # #$e&f +n #n$e,e$#n9 )&+ce. When

$he2 &!! +$ + "!, !f +,$/ 9!! !, 1+/ $he2 e;)ec$ $! 1e #n$e,e$e/

1$ "hen $he2 &!! +$ + ne")+)e, +%e,$#e(en$ !, + 9,!) #n $he

$,ee$/ $he2 ! n!$/ ),!)e,&2 +n &#$e,+&&2 )e+#n9/ e;)ec$ $! 1e

#n$e,e$e. B$ $! c!((!n +n #()&e )e!)&e $h# "!,& # + "!, !f +,$/

$h!9h #$ #/ &#e (+n2 9,e+$ "!, !f +,$/ +n!n2(!. The2 &!! $! &#fe

f!, #n$e,e$ "#$h $he +(e #n !f chee,f& +n ne,+#c+1&e +,+nce

"#$h "h#ch "e &!! f!, #n$e,e$ +$ + c!(e2 f!, "h#ch "e h+%e )+# (!ne2

+$ $he !!,. T! $he e2e !f $he &$#(+$e ch!!& !f c!n$e()!,+,2f+$##!ne/ $he n#%e,e # #nee +n #&&7,+"n +n !%e,7c!&!,e

)#c$,e/ $he c,+"&#n9 #n c#,c&e !f + 1+12 )!n $he &+$e !f n#9h$<

#$ $+,,2 #e +,e + %&9+, )+$$e,n "h#ch $he2 "!& n!$ h+%e f!, +

"+&&)+)e,/ #$ 8!"e, +n f,#$ h+%e + c!cne2 1,#&&#+nc2/ &#e $he

h!&#+2 h+$ !f + 8!"e,79#,&. Hence/ e9,+e 12 +,$ $! #$ !"n &e%e&/

$he2 h+%e &!$ +&$!9e$he, $h+$ ),#(#$#%e +n $2)#c+& $+$e !f (+n77$he

$+$e f!, ne". B2 $h# een$#+& $+$e f!, ne"/ I (e+n $he )&e+,e #n

Page 34: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 34/58

he+,#n9 $he (e,e f+c$ $h+$ + (+n h+ #e +$ $he +9e !f 335 #n S!$h

W+&e/ !, $h+$ $he h!,e ,+n +"+2 +$ + fne,+& #n S+n F,+nc#c!. L+,9e

(+e !f $he e+,&2 f+#$h +n )!&#$#c !f $he "!,&/ n(1e, !f $he

(#,+c&e +n he,!#c +nec!$e/ +,e 1+e ),#(+,#&2 )!n $h# &!%e !f 

!(e$h#n9 $h+$ h+ $ h+))ene/ $h# #%#ne #n$#$$#!n !f 9!#).

When Ch,#$#+n#$2 "+ n+(e $he 9!! ne"/ #$ ),e+ ,+)#&2/ n!$ !n&21ec+e #$ "+ 9!!/ 1$ +&! 1ec+e #$ "+ ne". S! #$ # $h+$ #f +n2

!f h+%e e%e, )!en $! + n+%%2 #n + $,+#n +1!$ $he +#&2 )+)e,/ "e

h+%e 9ene,+&&2 f!n $he n+%%2 #n$e,e$e/ n!$ #n $h!e $,99&e !f 

P+,&#+(en$ +n $,+e n#!n "h#ch !(e$#(e +,e/ +n +,e +&"+2

))!e $! 1e/ f!, h# 1ene0$< 1$ #n $he f+c$ $h+$ +n n+&&2 &+,9e

"h+&e h+ 1een "+he ) !n $he c!+$ !f O,ne2/ !, $h+$ !(e &e+#n9

(#&&#!n+#,e &#e M,. H+,("!,$h # ,e)!,$e $! 1,e+ + hn,e )#)e +

2e+,. The ec+$e c&+e/ c&!2e +n e(!,+&#=e "#$h $he (e,e

#n&9ence !f +,$ +n (!!/ c+n n! &!n9e, ne,$+n $he #&e +n

)&en# ##n$e,e$ene !f $he ,e+e, !f -Pe+,!n' Wee&2-. He $#&&

ee) !(e$h#n9 !f $h+$ fee&#n9 "h#ch h!& 1e $he 1#,$h,#9h$ !f 

(en77$he fee&#n9 $h+$ $h# )&+ne$ # &#e + ne" h!e #n$! "h#ch "e h+%e

 $ (!%e !, 1+99+9e. An2 e$+#& !f #$ h+ + %+&e/ +n/ "#$h + $,&2

)!,$(+n&#e #n$#nc$/ $he +%e,+9e (+n $+e (!$ )&e+,e #n $he

e$+#& "h#ch +,e (!$ c!()&#c+$e/ #,,e&e%+n$/ +n +$ !nce #c&$

+n e&e $! #c!%e,. Th!e )+,$ !f $he ne")+)e, "h#ch +nn!nce $he

9#+n$ 9!!e1e,,2 +n $he ,+#n#n9 f,!9 +,e ,e+&&2 $he (!e,n

,e),een$+$#%e !f $he )!)&+, $enenc2 "h#ch ),!ce $he h2,+ +n $he

"e,e"!&f +n $he !97he+e (en. F!& #n $he M#&e A9e "e,e n!$

#n$e,e$e #n + ,+9!n !, + 9&#()e !f $he e%#& 1ec+e $he2 $h!9h$

$h+$ #$ "+ + 1e+$#f& ),!e #2&&/ 1$ 1ec+e $he2 $h!9h$ $h+$ #$h+ ,e+&&2 $ 1een een. I$ "+ n!$ &#e ! (ch +,$#$#c &#$e,+$,e/

+ ,ef9e #n#c+$#n9 $he &ne !f $he "!,& #$ "+ +n #nc#en$

)!#n$e&2 #&&$,+$#n9 $he fecn )!e$,2 !f $he "!,&.

 Th+$ (ch c+n 1e +#/ +n # +#/ +9+#n$ $he &#$e,+$,e !f 

#nf!,(+$#!n/ I ! n!$ f!, + (!(en$ en2. I$ # h+)e&e/ #$ # $,#%#+&/

#$ (+2 9#%e +n n,e+& +#, !f n!"&e9e/ #$ n:e$#!n+1&2 &#e +&!n9

"#$h $he ,e$ !f )!)&+, &#$e,+$,e ne, $he 9ene,+& #n#c$(en$ $h+$ #$

(+2 )!#& $he ch+nce !f 1e$$e, "!,/ ce,$+#n&2 12 "+$#n9 $#(e/ )!#1&2

12 ,#n#n9 $+$e. B$ $hee !1%#! !1ec$#!n +,e $he !1ec$#!n "h#ch"e he+, ! )e,#$en$&2 f,!( e%e,2!ne $h+$ !ne c+nn!$ he&) "!ne,#n9

"he,e $he )+)e, #n :e$#!n ),!c,e $he#, (2,#+ !f ,e+e,. The

n+$,+& nece#$2 +n n+$,+& 9!! ne,&2#n9 ch c,e #n$#$$#!n #

f+, &e !f$en + 1ec$ !f )ec&+$#!n< 2e$ $he he+&$h2 hn9e, "h#ch

&#e +$ $he 1+c !f $he h+1#$ !f (!e,n e(!c,+c2 +,e ,e&2 "!,$h2 !f 

$he +(e 2()+$he$#c $2 $h+$ "e 9#%e $! $he !9(+ !f $he f+n+$#c

&!n9 e$h,!ne +n $he #n$,#9e !f c!((!n"e+&$h &!n9 !1&#$e,+$e f,!(

Page 35: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 35/58

$he e+,$h. An $h# # $he 1+e +n c!n#e,+$#!n "h#ch I h+%e $! !e,

$h+$ )e,h+) $he $+$e f!, h,e +n )+$che !f !,n+&#$#c c#ence

+n h#$!,2 # n!$/ + # c!n$#n+&&2 +e,$e/ $he %&9+, +n en#&e

c,#!#$2 !f + )e!)&e $h+$ h+ 9,!"n !&/ 1$ #()&2 $he 1+12#h +n

#n#c,#(#n+$e c,#!#$2 !f + )e!)&e $#&& 2!n9 +n en$e,#n9 h#$!,2

f!, $he 0,$ $#(e. In !$he, "!,/ I 99e$ $h+$ $he2 !n&2 $e&& e+ch!$he, #n (+9+=#ne $he +(e #n !f $!,#e !f c!((!n)&+ce )!,$en$ +n

c!n%en$#!n+& eccen$,#c#$#e "h#ch/ #n +n2 c+e/ $he2 "!& $e&& e+ch

!$he, #n $+%e,n. Sc#ence #$e&f # !n&2 $he e;+99e,+$#!n +n

)ec#+&#=+$#!n !f $h# $h#,$ f!, e&e f+c$/ "h#ch # $he (+, !f $he

2!$h !f (+n. B$ c#ence h+ 1ec!(e $,+n9e&2 e)+,+$e f,!( $he (e,e

ne" +n c+n+& !f 8!"e, +n 1#,< (en h+%e ce+e $! ee $h+$ +

)$e,!+c$2& "+ + f,eh +n n+$,+& + + 8!"e,/ $h+$ + 8!"e, # +

(!n$,! + + )$e,!+c$2&. The ,e1#&#n9 !f $h# 1,#9e 1e$"een

c#ence +n h(+n n+$,e # !ne !f $he 9,e+$e$ nee !f (+n#n. We

h+%e +&& $! h!" $h+$ 1ef!,e "e 9! !n $! +n2 %##!n !, c,e+$#!n "e c+n

1e c!n$en$e "#$h + )&+ne$ !f (#,+c&e.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF HERALDRY

 The (!e,n %#e" !f he,+&,2 # ),e$$2 +cc,+$e&2 ,e),een$e 12 $he

"!, !f $he f+(! 1+,,#$e, "h!/ +f$e, c,!7e;+(#n#n9 f!, !(e $#(e +

%ene,+1&e #9n#$+,2 !f He,+&' C!&&e9e/ ((e ) h# ,e&$ #n $he,e(+, $h+$ '$he #&&2 !& (+n #n'$ e%en ne,$+n h# !"n #&&2 !&

$,+e.'

He,+&,2 ),!)e,&2 ! c+&&e "+/ !f c!,e/ + "h!&&2 &#(#$e +n

+,#$!c,+$#c $h#n9/ 1$ $he ,e(+, nee + #n !f :+&#0c+$#!n n!$

c!((!n&2 ,e+&#=e. In + ene $he,e "+ + )&e1e#+n he,+&,2/ #nce e%e,2

h!) "+/ &#e e%e,2 c+$&e/ #$#n9#he n!$ 12 + n+(e/ 1$ + #9n.

 The "h!&e 2$e( +$e f,!( + $#(e "hen )#c$,e7",#$#n9 $#&& ,e+&&2

,&e $he "!,&. In $h!e +2 fe" c!& ,e+ !, ",#$e< $he2 #9ne

$he#, n+(e "#$h + )#c$!,#+& 2(1!&/ + c,!77+n + c,! # + 9,e+$#(),!%e(en$ !n (!$ (en' n+(e.

N!"/ $he,e # !(e$h#n9 $! 1e +# f!, $he )ec&#+, #n8ence !f 

)#c$!,#+& 2(1!& !n (en' (#n. A&& &e$$e,/ "e &e+,n/ "e,e !,#9#n+&&2

)#c$!,#+& +n he,+&#c $h $he &e$$e, A # $he )!,$,+#$ !f +n !;/ 1$

$he )!,$,+#$ # n!" ,e),!ce #n ! #(),e#!n#$ + (+nne, $h+$ 1$

&#$$&e !f $he ,,+& +$(!)he,e c+n 1e +1!,1e 12 c!n$e()&+$#n9 #$. B$

Page 36: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 36/58

+ &!n9 + !(e )#c$!,#+& +n )!e$#c :+&#$2 ,e(+#n #n $he 2(1!&/ $he

c!n$+n$ e !f #$ ($ ! !(e$h#n9 f!, $he +e$he$#c ec+$#!n !f 

$h!e e()&!2#n9 #$. P1&#c7h!e +,e n!" +&(!$ $he !n&2 h!) $h+$ e

$he +nc#en$ #9n/ +n $he (2$e,#! +$$,+c$#!n "h#ch $he2 e;e,c#e (+2

1e 12 $he !)$#(#$#c e;)&+#ne #n $h# (+nne,. The,e +,e $+%e,n "#$h

n+(e ! ,e+(&#e +n e;:##$e $h+$ e%en S#, W#&f,# L+"!n (#9h$"+%e, !n $he $h,eh!& f!, + (!(en$/ e,#n9 $he )!e$ $! $,99&e "#$h

$he (!,+&#$. S! #$ "+ "#$h $he he,+&#c #(+9e. I$ # #()!#1&e $!

1e&#e%e $h+$ $he ,e &#!n !f Sc!$&+n +c$e )!n $h!e e()&!2#n9 #$

(e,e&2 + + n+e c!n%en#ence &#e + n(1e, !, + &e$$e,< #$ #

#()!#1&e $! 1e&#e%e $h+$ $he K#n9 !f Sc!$&+n "!& h+%e chee,f&&2

+cce)$e $he 1$#$$e !f + )#9 !, + f,!9. The,e +,e/ + "e +2/

ce,$+#n ,e+& +%+n$+9e #n )#c$!,#+& 2(1!&/ +n !ne !f $he( # $h+$

e%e,2$h#n9 $h+$ # )#c$!,#+& 99e$/ "#$h!$ n+(#n9 !, e0n#n9. The,e

# + ,!+ f,!( $he e2e $! $he he+,$ $h+$ !e n!$ 9! $h,!9h $he

#n$e&&ec$. Men ! n!$ :+,,e& +1!$ $he (e+n#n9 !f ne$< $he2 ne%e,

#)$e $h+$ $he h+"$h!,n +2 $he 1e$ +n "#$$#e$ $h#n9 +1!$ $he

),#n9.

 Th #n $he !& +,#$!c,+$#c +2 $he,e e;#$e $h# %+$ )#c$!,#+&

2(1!&#( !f +&& $he c!&!, +n e9,ee !f +,#$!c,+c2. When $he 9,e+$

$,()e$ !f e:+&#$2 "+ 1&!"n/ +&(!$ #((e#+$e&2 +f$e,"+, "+ (+e

!ne !f $he 9,e+$e$ 1&ne, #n $he h#$!,2 !f (+n#n. F!, +&& $h#

),#e +n %#%+c#$2/ +&& $hee $!"e,#n9 2(1!& +n 8+(1!2+n$ c!&!,/

h!& h+%e 1een e;$ene $! (+n#n. The $!1+cc!n#$ h!& h+%e h+ +

c,e$/ +n $he cheee(!n9e, + "+,7c,2. The 9,!ce, "h! !& (+,9+,#ne +

1$$e, h!& h+%e fe&$ $h+$ $he,e "+ + $+#n !n $he ec$che!n !f $heH#99#ne. In$e+ !f !#n9 $h#/ $he e(!c,+$ (+e $he +))+&&#n9

(#$+e77+ (#$+e +$ $he ,!!$ !f $he "h!&e (!e,n (+&+277!f ec,e+#n9

$he h(+n (+9n#0cence !f $he )+$ #n$e+ !f #nc,e+#n9 #$. The2 #

n!$ +2/ + $he2 h!& h+%e !ne/ $! $he c!((!n c#$#=en/ 'Y! +,e +

9!! + $he De !f N!,f!&/' 1$ e $h+$ (e+ne, e(!c,+$#c f!,(&+/

'The De !f N!,f!& # n! 1e$$e, $h+n 2! +,e.'

F!, #$ c+nn!$ 1e en#e $h+$ $he "!,& &!$ !(e$h#n9 0n+&&2 +n (!$

nf!,$n+$e&2 +1!$ $he 1e9#nn#n9 !f $he n#ne$een$h cen$,2. In f!,(e,

$#(e $he (+ !f $he )e!)&e "+ c!nce#%e + (e+n +n c!((!n)&+ce/ 1$!n&2 + c!()+,+$#%e&2 (e+n +n c!((!n)&+ce< $he2 "e,e "+,fe +n

ec&#)e 12 ce,$+#n h#9h $+$#!n +n )&en# c+&&#n9. B$ "#$h $he

6#c$!,#+n e,+ c+(e + ),#nc#)&e "h#ch c!nce#%e (en n!$ + c!()+,+$#%e&2/

1$ + )!#$#%e&2/ (e+n +n c!((!n)&+ce. A (+n !f +n2 $+$#!n "+

,e),een$e + 1e#n9 12 n+$,e + #n92 +n $,#%#+& )e,!n77+ )e,!n

1!,n/ + #$ "e,e/ #n + 1&+c h+$. I$ 1e9+n $! 1e $h!9h$ $h+$ #$ "+

,##c&! f!, + (+n $! "e+, 1e+$#f& 9+,(en$/ #n$e+ !f #$

Page 37: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 37/58

1e#n977+/ !f c!,e/ #$ #77,##c&! f!, h#( $! e&#1e,+$e&2 "e+,

9&2 !ne. I$ "+ c!n#e,e +ec$e f!, + (+n $! )e+ 1!& +n he,!#c

"!,/ "he,e+/ !f c!,e/ #$ # e(!$#!n+& )eech "h#ch # n+$,+&/ +n

!,#n+,2 c#%#& )eech "h#ch # +ec$e. The "h!&e ,e&+$#!n !f 1e+$2

+n 9&#ne/ !f #9n#$2 +n #9n!(#n2 "e,e $,ne )#e !"n. Be+$2

1ec+(e +n e;$,+%+9+nce/ + #f $!)7h+$ +n (1,e&&+ "e,e n!$ $he ,e+&e;$,+%+9+nce77+ &+nc+)e f,!( $he &+n !f $he 9!1&#n. D#9n#$2 1ec+(e +

f!,( !f f!!&e,2 +n h+(e&ene/ + #f $he %e,2 eence !f + f!!& "e,e

n!$ + &+c !f #9n#$2. An $he c!ne:ence # $h+$ #$ # ),+c$#c+&&2

(!$ #c&$ $! ),!)!e +n2 ec!,+$#!n !, )1&#c #9n#$2 f!, (!e,n

(en "#$h!$ (+#n9 $he( &+9h. The2 &+9h +$ $he #e+ !f c+,,2#n9

c,e$ +n c!+$7!f7+,( #n$e+ !f &+9h#n9 +$ $he#, !"n 1!!$ +n

nec$#e. We +,e f!,1#en $! +2 $h+$ $,+e(en h!& h+%e + )!e$,2 !f 

$he#, !"n/ +&$h!9h $he,e # n!$h#n9 ! )!e$#c+& + $,+e. A 9,!ce,

h!& h+%e + c!+$7!f7+,( "!,$h2 !f h# $,+n9e (e,ch+n#e 9+$he,e

f,!( #$+n$ +n f+n$+$#c &+n< + )!$(+n h!& h+%e + c!+$7!f7+,(

c+)+1&e !f e;),e#n9 $he $,+n9e h!n!, +n ,e)!n#1#&#$2 !f $he (+n

"h! c+,,#e (en' !& #n + 1+9< $he che(#$ h!& h+%e + c!+$7!f7+,(

2(1!&#=#n9 !(e$h#n9 !f $he (2$e,#e !f $he h!e !f he+&#n9/ $he

c+%e,n !f + (e,c#f& "#$chc,+f$.

 The,e "e,e #n $he F,ench Re%!&$#!n + c&+ !f )e!)&e +$ "h!( e%e,21!2

&+9he/ +n +$ "h!( #$ "+ ),!1+1&2 #c&$/ + + ),+c$#c+& (+$$e,/

$! ,ef,+#n f,!( &+9h#n9. The2 +$$e()$e $! e,ec$/ 12 (e+n !f h9e

"!!en $+$e +n 1,+n7ne" fe$#%+&/ $he (!$ e;$,+!,#n+,2 ne"

,e&#9#!n. The2 +!,e $he G!e !f Re+!n/ "h! "!& +))e+,/ e%en

"hen $he f&&e$ +&&!"+nce h+ 1een (+e f!, $he#, (+n2 %#,$e/ $! 1e$he e#$2 "h! h+ &e+$ (#&e )!n $he(. B$ $hee c+)e,#n9 (+n#+c/

#!"ne +&#e 12 $he !& "!,& +n $he ne"/ "e,e (en "h! h+ een +

9,e+$ $,$h nn!"n +&#e $! $he ne" "!,& +n $he !&. The2 h+ een

$he $h#n9 $h+$ "+ h#en f,!( $he "#e +n ne,$+n#n9/ f,!( $he

"h!&e (!e,n e(!c,+$#c c#%#&#=+$#!n !"n $! $he ),een$ $#(e. The2

,e+&#=e $h+$ e(!c,+c2 ($ h+%e + he,+&,2/ $h+$ #$ ($ h+%e + ),!

+n h#9h7c!&!,e )+9e+n$,2/ #f #$ # $! ee) +&"+2 1ef!,e #$ !"n (#n

#$ !"n 1&#(e (##!n. Unf!,$n+$e&2 f!, $h# #e+&/ $he "!,& h+ #n

$h# (+$$e, f!&&!"e En9&#h e(!c,+c2 ,+$he, $h+n F,ench< +n $h!e "h!

&!! 1+c $! $he n#ne$een$h cen$,2 "#&& +,e&2 &!! 1+c $! #$ + "e&!! 1+c $! $he ,e#9n !f $he P,#$+n/ + $he $#(e !f 1&+c c!+$ +n

1&+c $e()e,. F,!( $he $,+n9e &#fe $he (en !f $h+$ $#(e &e/ $he2

(#9h$ 1e +#$#n9 +$ $he fne,+& !f &#1e,$2 #n$e+ !f +$ #$

ch,#$en#n9. The (!(en$ "e ,e+&&2 1e&#e%e #n e(!c,+c2/ #$ "#&& 1e9#n $!

1&!!(/ + +,#$!c,+c2 1&!!(e/ #n$! 2(1!&#c c!&!, +n h+)e. We

h+&& ne%e, (+e +n2$h#n9 !f e(!c,+c2 n$#& "e (+e f!!& !f !,e&%e.

F!, #f + (+n ,e+&&2 c+nn!$ (+e + f!!& !f h#(e&f/ "e (+2 1e :#$e

Page 38: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 38/58

ce,$+#n $h+$ $he e!,$ # )e,8!.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF UGLY THINGS

 The,e +,e !(e )e!)&e "h! $+$e $h+$ $he e;$e,#!,/ e;/ !, )h2#:e !f 

+n!$he, )e,!n # #n#e,en$ $! $he(/ $h+$ $he2 c+,e !n&2 f!, $he

c!((n#!n !f (#n "#$h (#n< 1$ $hee )e!)&e nee n!$ e$+#n . The,e

+,e !(e $+$e(en$ $h+$ n! !ne e%e, $h#n !f 1e&#e%#n9/ h!"e%e, !f$en

$he2 +,e (+e.

B$ "h#&e n!$h#n9 #n $h# "!,& "!& )e,+e $h+$ + 9,e+$ f,#en !f 

M,. F!,1e R!1e,$!n/ &e$ +2/ "!& e;)e,#ence n! ,),#e !,

#c!(f!,$ +$ ee#n9 h#( en$e, $he ,!!( #n $he 1!#&2 f!,( !f M,.

Ch+)&#n/ $he,e # + c!nf#!n c!n$+n$&2 (+e 1e$"een 1e#n9 +$$,+c$e 12

e;$e,#!,/ "h#ch # n+$,+& +n n#%e,+&/ +n 1e#n9 +$$,+c$e 12 "h+$ #

c+&&e )h2#c+& 1e+$2/ "h#ch # n!$ en$#,e&2 n+$,+& +n n!$ #n $he

&e+$ n#%e,+&. O, ,+$he,/ $! )e+ (!,e $,#c$&2/ $he c!nce)$#!n !f 

)h2#c+& 1e+$2 h+ 1een n+,,!"e $! (e+n + ce,$+#n #n !f )h2#c+&

1e+$2 "h#ch n! (!,e e;h+$ $he )!#1#&#$#e !f e;$e,n+&

+$$,+c$#%ene $h+n $he ,e)ec$+1#&#$2 !f + C&+)h+( 1#&e, e;h+$

$he )!#1#&#$#e !f (!,+& +$$,+c$#%ene.

 The $2,+n$ +n ece#%e, !f (+n#n #n $h# (+$$e, h+%e 1een $heG,ee. A&& $he#, )&en# "!, f!, c#%#&#=+$#!n !9h$ n!$ $! h+%e

"h!&&2 1&#ne $! $he f+c$ !f $he#, 9,e+$ +n $e,,#1&e #n +9+#n$

$he %+,#e$2 !f &#fe. I$ # + ,e(+,+1&e f+c$ $h+$ "h#&e $he Je" h+%e

&!n9 +9! 1een ,e1e&&e +9+#n$ +n +cce !f 1&#9h$#n9 $he "!,& "#$h +

$,#n9en$ +n !ne7#e e$h#c+& $+n+,/ n!1!2 h+ n!$#ce $h+$ $he

G,ee h+%e c!((#$$e $! +n #n0n#$e&2 (!,e h!,,#1&e +ce$#c#(77+n

+ce$#c#( !f $he f+nc2/ + "!,h#) !f !ne +e$he$#c $2)e +&!ne. Je"#h

e%e,#$2 h+ +$ &e+$ c!((!n7ene + #$ 1+#< #$ ,ec!9n#e $h+$ (en

&#%e #n + "!,& !f f+c$/ +n $h+$ #f + (+n (+,,#e "#$h#n $he e9,ee

!f 1&!! ce,$+#n c!ne:ence (#9h$ f!&&!". B$ $he2 # n!$ $+,%e$he#, #n$#nc$ f!, c!n$,+$ +n c!(1#n+$#!n< $he#, ),!)he$ 9+%e $"!

"#n9 $! $he !; +n +n2 n(1e, !f e2e $! $he che,1#( "#$h +&& $he

,#!$! #n9en#$2 !f Le"# C+,,!&&. B$ $he G,ee c+,,#e $he#, )!&#ce

,e9&+$#!n #n$! e&8+n< $he2 %e$!e n!$ $he +c$+& +&$e,#e !f $he

e+,$h 1$ $he "#& "e#n9 !f #e+/ +n f!,1+e $he 1+nn !f $h!9h$.

I$ # e;$,+!,#n+,2 $! "+$ch $he 9,++& e(+c&+$#!n !f $he (!n$e,

Page 39: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 39/58

!f G,ee (2$h ne, $he )e$#&en$ #n8ence !f $he A)!&&! Be&%ee,e. The

ch#(+e,+ "+ + c,e+$,e !f "h!( +n2 he+&$h27(#ne )e!)&e "!& h+%e

1een ),!< 1$ "hen "e ee #$ #n G,ee )#c$,e "e fee& #nc&#ne $! $#e

+ ,#11!n ,!n #$ nec +n 9#%e #$ + +ce, !f (#&. Wh! e%e, fee&

$h+$ $he 9#+n$ #n G,ee +,$ +n )!e$,2 "e,e ,e+&&2 1#9771#9 + !(e

f!&7&!,e 9#+n$ h+%e 1een In !(e Sc+n#n+%#+n $!,2 + he,! "+& f!,(#&e +&!n9 + (!n$+#n ,#9e/ "h#ch e%en$+&&2 $,n !$ $! 1e $he

1,#9e !f $he 9#+n$' n!e. Th+$ # "h+$ "e h!& c+&&/ "#$h + c+&(

c!nc#ence/ + &+,9e 9#+n$. B$ $h# e+,$h:+e f+nc2 $e,,#0e $he

G,ee/ +n $he#, $e,,!, h+ $e,,#0e +&& (+n#n !$ !f $he#, n+$,+&

&!%e !f #=e/ %#$+&#$2/ %+,#e$2/ ene,92/ 9&#ne. N+$,e #n$ene e%e,2

h(+n f+ce/ ! &!n9 + #$ "+ f!,c#1&e/ #n#%#+&/ +n e;),e#%e/ $!

1e ,e9+,e + #$#nc$ f,!( +&& !$he,/ + + )!)&+, # #$#nc$ f,!( +n

!+/ +n +n +))&e7$,ee f,!( + "#&&!". B$ "h+$ $he D$ch 9+,ene, #

f!, $,ee $he G,ee # f!, $he h(+n f!,(< $he2 &!))e +"+2 #$ &#%#n9

+n ),+"&#n9 fe+$,e $! 9#%e #$ + ce,$+#n +c+e(#c h+)e< $he2 h+ce

! n!e +n )+,e !"n ch#n "#$h + 9h+$&2 h!,$#c&$,+& c+&(. An

$he2 h+%e ,e+&&2 cceee ! f+, + $! (+e c+&& !(e !f $he (!$

)!"e,f& +n ene+,#n9 f+ce 9&2/ +n !(e !f $he (!$ #&&2 +n

,e)&#%e f+ce 1e+$#f&. Th# #9,+cef& -%#+ (e#+-/ $h# )#$#f&

ene !f #9n#$2/ h+ 1#$$en f+, ee)e, #n$! $he !& !f (!e,n

c#%#&#=+$#!n $h+n $he e;$e,n+& +n ),+c$#c+& P,#$+n#( !f I,+e&. The

 Je" +$ $he "!,$ $!& + (+n $! +nce #n fe$$e,< $he G,ee )$ +n

e;:##$e %+e )!n h# he+ +n $!& h#( n!$ $! (!%e.

Sc,#)$,e +2 $h+$ !ne $+, #e,e$h f,!( +n!$he, #n 9&!,2/ +n $he

+(e c!nce)$#!n +))&#e $! n!e. T! #n#$ $h+$ !ne $2)e !f f+ce #9&2 1ec+e #$ #e, f,!( $h+$ !f $he 6en !f M#&! # $! &!! +$ #$

en$#,e&2 #n + (#&e+#n9 &#9h$. I$ # $,+n9e $h+$ "e h!& ,een$

)e!)&e #e,#n9 f,!( !,e&%e< "e h!& ,een$ (ch (!,e %#!&en$&2

$he#, ,ee(1&#n9 !,e&%e. Th# ),#nc#)&e h+ (+e + c#en$ h+h !f 

&#$e,+,2 c,#$#c#(/ #n "h#ch #$ # +&"+2 $he c$!( $! c!()&+#n !f $he

&+c !f !n &!9#c #n + f+#,2 $+&e/ +n $he en$#,e +1ence !f $,e

!,+$!,#c+& )!"e, #n + $h,ee7+c$ f+,ce. B$ $! c+&& +n!$he, (+n' f+ce

9&2 1ec+e #$ )!"e,f&&2 e;),ee +n!$he, (+n' !& # &#e

c!()&+#n#n9 $h+$ + c+11+9e h+ n!$ $"! &e9. If "e # !/ $he !n&2

c!,e f!, $he c+11+9e "!& 1e $! )!#n$ !$ "#$h e%e,#$2/ 1$ "#$h!(e h!" !f $,$h/ $h+$ "e "e,e n!$ + 1e+$#f& 9,een +&& !%e,.

B$ $h# f,#9# $he!,2 !f $he 1e+$#f& h+ n!$ cceee #n c!n:e,#n9

$he +,$ !f $he "!,&/ e;ce)$ #n n+(e. In !(e :+,$e,/ #nee/ #$ h+

ne%e, he& "+2. A 9&+nce +$ Ch#nee ,+9!n !, J+)+nee 9! "#&& h!"

h!" #ne)enen$ +,e O,#en$+& !f $he c!n%en$#!n+& #e+ !f f+c#+& +n

1!#&2 ,e9&+,#$2/ +n h!" een +n 0e,2 # $he#, en!2(en$ !f ,e+&

Page 40: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 40/58

1e+$2/ !f 9!99&e e2e/ !f ),+"&#n9 c&+"/ !f 9+)#n9 (!$h +n

",#$h#n9 c!#&. In $he M#&e A9e (en 1,!e +"+2 f,!( $he G,ee

$+n+, !f 1e+$2/ +n &#f$e ) #n +!,+$#!n $! he+%en 9,e+$ $!"e,/

"h#ch ee(e +&#%e "#$h +nc#n9 +)e +n e%#&. In $he f&& ((e, !f 

$echn#c+& +,$#$#c )e,fec$#!n $he ,e%!&$ "+ c+,,#e $! #$ ,e+&

c!n((+$#!n #n $he $2 !f $he f+ce !f (en. Re(1,+n$ ec&+,e $he+ne +n (+n&2 9!)e& $h+$ + (+n "+ #9n#0e/ n!$ "hen he "+ &#e +

G,ee 9!/ 1$ "hen he h+ + $,!n9/ :+,e n!e &#e + c9e&/ +

1!&&271&!ce he+ &#e + he&(e$/ +n + +" &#e + $ee& $,+).

 Th# 1,+nch !f +,$ # c!((!n&2 #(#e + $he 9,!$e:e. We h+%e ne%e,

1een +1&e $! ne,$+n "h2 #$ h!& 1e h(#&#+$#n9 $! 1e &+9h+1&e/

#nce #$ # 9#%#n9 +n e&e%+$e +,$#$#c )&e+,e $! !$he,. If +

9en$&e(+n "h! +" #n $he $,ee$ "e,e en&2 $! 1,$ #n$! $e+, +$

$he (e,e $h!9h$ !f !, e;#$ence/ #$ (#9h$ 1e c!n#e,e #:#e$#n9

+n nc!()&#(en$+,2< 1$ &+9h$e, # n!$ nc!()&#(en$+,2. In $,$h/

h!"e%e,/ $he )h,+e '9,!$e:e' # + (#&e+#n9 ec,#)$#!n !f 9&#ne

#n +,$. I$ !e n!$ f!&&!" $h+$ e#$he, $he Ch#nee ,+9!n !, $he G!$h#c

9+,9!2&e !, $he 9!1&#n#h !& "!(en !f Re(1,+n$ "e,e #n $he &e+$

#n$ene $! 1e c!(#c. The#, e;$,+%+9+nce "+ n!$ $he e;$,+%+9+nce !f 

+$#,e/ 1$ #()&2 $he e;$,+%+9+nce !f %#$+&#$2< +n he,e &#e $he "h!&e

e2 !f $he )&+ce !f 9&#ne #n +e$he$#c. We &#e $! ee + c,+9 $

!$ #n h+(e&e ec##!n f,!( $he c&#/ "e &#e $! ee $he ,e )#ne

$+n ) h+,#&2 )!n + h#9h c&#/ "e &#e $! ee + ch+( c&!%en f,!(

en $! en !f + (!n$+#n. W#$h e:+&&2 n!1&e en$h#+( "e &#e $! ee +

n!e $ !$ ec##%e&2/ "e &#e $! ee $he ,e h+#, !f + f,#en $+n

) h+,#&2 #n 1,#$&e )!n h# he+/ "e &#e $! ee h# (!$h 1,!+ +nc&e+n c$ &#e $he (!n$+#n c,e%+e. A$ &e+$ !(e !f &#e +&& $h#<

#$ # n!$ + :e$#!n !f h(!,. We ! n!$ 1,$ "#$h +(e(en$ +$ $he

0,$ #9h$ !f $he )#ne !, $he ch+(< 1$ "e &#e $he( 1ec+e $he2 +,e

e;),e#%e !f $he ,+(+$#c $#&&ne !f N+$,e/ he, 1!& e;)e,#(en$/

he, e0n#$e e)+,$,e/ he, fe+,&ene +n +%+9e ),#e #n he,

ch#&,en. The (!(en$ "e h+%e n+))e $he )e&& !f c!n%en$#!n+& 1e+$2/

$he,e +,e + (#&&#!n 1e+$#f& f+ce "+#$#n9 f!, e%e,2"he,e/ $ +

$he,e +,e + (#&&#!n 1e+$#f& )#,#$.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF FARCE

I h+%e ne%e, 1een +1&e $! ne,$+n "h2 ce,$+#n f!,( !f +,$ h!& 1e

Page 41: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 41/58

(+,e ! + !(e$h#n9 e1+e +n $,#%#+&. A c!(e2 # )!en !f +

'e9ene,+$#n9 #n$! f+,ce'< #$ "!& 1e f+#, c,#$#c#( $! )e+ !f #$

'ch+n9#n9 #n$! f+,ce'< 1$ + f!, e9ene,+$#n9 #n$! f+,ce/ "e (#9h$

e:+&&2 ,e+!n+1&2 )e+ !f #$ + e9ene,+$#n9 #n$! $,+9e2. A9+#n/ +

$!,2 # )!en !f + '(e&!,+(+$#c/' +n $he )h,+e/ :ee,&2 en!9h/ #

n!$ (e+n$ + + c!()&#(en$. T! )e+ !f !(e$h#n9 + ')+n$!(#(#c' !,'en+$#!n+&' # #nn!cen$&2 ))!e $! 1e 1#$#n9/ He+%en n!" "h2/ f!,

+&& "!, !f +,$ +,e en+$#!n/ +n + 9!! )+n$!(#(e n!" e;$#nc$ #

!ne !f $he )&e++n$e$ en+$#!n !f +&&. 'Th# $ # 0$ f!, +

e$ec$#%e $!,2/' # !f$en +#/ + "h! h!& +2/ 'Th# $ # 0$

f!, +n e)#c.'

Wh+$e%e, (+2 1e $he ,#9h$ +n ",!n9 !f $h# (!e !f c&+#0c+$#!n/

$he,e c+n 1e n! !1$ +1!$ !ne (!$ ),+c$#c+& +n #+$,! eec$ !f 

#$. Thee &#9h$e, !, "#&e, f!,( !f +,$/ h+%#n9 n! $+n+, e$ ) f!,

$he(/ n! 9$ !f 9ene,! +,$#$#c ),#e $! &#f$ $he( )/ ! +c$+&&2

$en $! 1ec!(e + 1+ + $he2 +,e ))!e $! 1e. Ne9&ec$e ch#&,en !f 

$he 9,e+$ (!$he,/ $he2 9,!" ) #n +,ne/ #,$2 +n n&e$$e,e/ +n

"hen $he2 +,e ,#9h$ $he2 +,e ,#9h$ +&(!$ 12 +cc#en$/ 1ec+e !f $he

1&!! #n $he#, %e#n. The c!((!n e$ec$#%e $!,2 !f (2$e,2 +n (,e,

ee( $! $he #n$e&&#9en$ ,e+e, $! 1e &#$$&e e;ce)$ + $,+n9e 9&#()e !f 

+ )&+ne$ )e!)&e 12 c!n9en#$+& ##!$/ "h! c+nn!$ 0n $he en !f $he#,

!"n n!e !, $he ch+,+c$e, !f $he#, !"n "#%e. The c!((!n )+n$!(#(e

ee( &#e !(e h!,,#1&e +$#,#c )#c$,e !f + "!,& "#$h!$ c+e !,

eec$/ + (+ !f '+,,#n9 +$!(/' + ),!&!n9e (en$+& $!,$,e !f 

#,,e&e%+nc2. The !,#n+,2 f+,ce ee( + "!,& !f +&(!$ )#$e!

%&9+,#$2/ "he,e + h+&f7"#$$e +n $n$e c,e+$,e # +f,+# "hen h#"#fe c!(e h!(e/ +n +(e "hen he #$ !"n !n $he !!,$e). A&& $h#

#/ #n + ene/ $,e/ 1$ #$ # $he f+&$ !f n!$h#n9 #n he+%en !, e+,$h

e;ce)$ $he +$$#$e +n $he )h,+e :!$e +$ $he 1e9#nn#n9 !f $h#

+,$#c&e. We h+%e n! !1$ #n $he "!,& $h+$/ #f $he !$he, f!,( !f +,$

h+ 1een e:+&&2 e)#e/ $he2 "!& h+%e 1een e:+&&2 e)#c+1&e. If 

)e!)&e h+ )!en !f '!nne$' "#$h $he +(e +ccen$ "#$h "h#ch $he2

)e+ !f '(#c7h+&& !n9/' + !nne$ "!& h+%e 1een + $h#n9 !

fe+,f& +n "!ne,f& $h+$ "e +&(!$ ,e9,e$ "e c+nn!$ h+%e + )ec#(en< +

,!"2 !nne$ # + $h#n9 $! ,e+( +1!$. If )e!)&e h+ +# $h+$ e)#c

"e,e !n&2 0$ f!, ch#&,en +n n,e(+#/ 'P+,+#e L!$' (#9h$ h+%e1een +n +%e,+9e )+n$!(#(e #$ (#9h$ h+%e 1een c+&&e 'H+,&e:#n S+$+n/

!, H!" A+( 'A 'e(.' F!, "h! "!& $,!1&e $! 1,#n9 $! )e,fec$#!n +

"!, #n "h#ch e%en )e,fec$#!n # 9,!$e:e Wh2 h!& Sh+e)e+,e ",#$e

'O$he&&!' #f e%en h# $,#()h c!n#$e #n $he e&!92/ 'M,. Sh+e)e+,e

# 0$ f!, !(e$h#n9 1e$$e, $h+n ",#$#n9 $,+9e#e'

 The c+e !f f+,ce/ +n #$ "#&e, e(1!#(en$ #n h+,&e:#n+e/ #

Page 42: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 42/58

e)ec#+&&2 #()!,$+n$. Th+$ $hee h#9h +n &e9#$#(+$e f!,( !f +,$/

9&!,#0e 12 A,#$!)h+ne +n M!&#e,e/ h+%e n #n$! ch c!n$e()$ (+2

1e e $! (+n2 c+e I (2e&f h+%e &#$$&e !1$ $h+$ #$ # e $! $he

+$!n#h#n9 +n &#c,! &+c !f 1e&#ef #n h!)e +n h#&+,#$2 "h#ch

(+, (!e,n +e$he$#c/ $! ch +n e;$en$ $h+$ #$ h+ ),e+ e%en $!

$he ,e%!&$#!n#$ !nce $he h!)ef& ec$#!n !f (en/ ! $h+$ e%en $h!e"h! + $! 8#n9 $he $+, #n$! $he e+ +,e n!$ :#$e ,e $h+$ $he2

"#&& 1e +n2 1e$$e, $he,e $h+n $he2 "e,e 1ef!,e. E%e,2 f!,( !f &#$e,+,2

+,$ ($ 1e + 2(1!& !f !(e )h+e !f $he h(+n )#,#$< 1$ "he,e+ $he

)h+e #/ #n h(+n &#fe/ c#en$&2 c!n%#nc#n9 #n #$e&f/ #n +,$ #$

($ h+%e + ce,$+#n )n9enc2 +n ne+$ne !f f!,(/ $! c!()en+$e f!, #$

&+c !f ,e+&#$2. Th +n2 e$ !f 2!n9 )e!)&e ,!n + $e+7$+1&e (+2 h+%e

+&& $he c!(e2 e(!$#!n !f 'Mch A! +1!$ N!$h#n9' !, 'N!,$h+n9e,

A11e2/' 1$ #f $he#, +c$+& c!n%e,+$#!n "e,e ,e)!,$e/ #$ "!&

)!#1&2 n!$ 1e + "!,$h2 +#$#!n $! &#$e,+$,e. An !& (+n #$$#n9 12

h# 0,e (+2 h+%e +&& $he e!&+$e 9,+ne, !f Le+, !, Pe,e G!,#!$/ 1$

#f he c!(e #n$! &#$e,+$,e he ($ ! !(e$h#n9 1e#e #$ 12 $he

0,e. The +,$#$#c $#0c+$#!n/ $hen/ !f f+,ce +n )+n$!(#(e ($

c!n#$ #n $he e(!$#!n !f &#fe "h#ch c!,,e)!n $! $he(. An $hee

e(!$#!n +,e $! +n #nc,e#1&e e;$en$ c,he !$ 12 $he (!e,n

#n#$ence !n $he )+#nf& #e !f &#fe !n&2. P+#n/ #$ # +#/ # $he

!(#n+n$ e&e(en$ !f &#fe< 1$ $h# # $,e !n&2 #n + %e,2 )ec#+& ene.

If )+#n "e,e f!, !ne #n9&e #n$+n$ &#$e,+&&2 $he !(#n+n$ e&e(en$ #n

&#fe/ e%e,2 (+n "!& 1e f!n h+n9#n9 e+ f,!( h# !"n 1e7)!$ 12 $he

(!,n#n9. P+#n/ + $he 1&+c +n c+$+$,!)h#c $h#n9/ +$$,+c$ $he

2!$hf& +,$#$/ $ + $he ch!!&1!2 ,+" e%#& +n e&e$!n +n

(en h+n9#n9. B$ !2 # + f+, (!,e e&#%e +n e&%#h (+$$e,/ #nce #$# !, ,e+!n f!, e;#$#n9/ +n + %e,2 fe(#n#ne ,e+!n< #$ (#n9&e "#$h

e%e,2 1,e+$h "e ,+" +n e%e,2 c) !f $e+ "e ,#n. The &#$e,+$,e !f 

 !2 # #n0n#$e&2 (!,e #c&$/ (!,e ,+,e +n (!,e $,#()h+n$ $h+n $he

1&+c +n "h#$e &#$e,+$,e !f )+#n. An !f +&& $he %+,#e f!,( !f $he

&#$e,+$,e !f !2/ $he f!,( (!$ $,&2 "!,$h2 !f (!,+& ,e%e,ence +n

+,$#$#c +(1#$#!n # $he f!,( c+&&e 'f+,ce'77!, #$ "#&e, h+)e #n

)+n$!(#(e. T! $he :#e$e$ h(+n 1e#n9/ e+$e #n $he :#e$e$ h!e/

$he,e "#&& !(e$#(e c!(e + en +n n(e+n#n9 hn9e, f!, $he

)!#1#&#$#e !, #()!#1#&#$#e !f $h#n9< he "#&& +1,)$&2 "!ne,

"he$he, $he $e+)!$ (+2 n!$ en&2 1e9#n $! )!, !$ h!ne2 !,e+7"+$e,/ $he c&!c $! )!#n$ $! +&& h!, !f $he +2 +$ !nce/ $he

c+n&e $! 1,n 9,een !, c,#(!n/ $he !!, $! !)en )!n + &+e !, +

)!$+$!70e& #n$e+ !f + L!n!n $,ee$. U)!n +n2!ne "h! fee& $h#

n+(e&e +n+,ch#( $he,e ,e$ f!, $he $#(e 1e#n9 $he +1##n9 )#,#$ !f 

)+n$!(#(e. Of $he c&!"n "h! c$ $he )!&#ce(+n #n $"! #$ (+2 1e +#

"#$h n! +,e, (e+n#n9 $h+$ he ,e+&#=e !ne !f !, %##!n. An #$ (+2

1e n!$e he,e $h+$ $h# #n$e,n+& :+&#$2 #n )+n$!(#(e # )e,fec$&2

Page 43: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 43/58

2(1!&#=e +n ),ee,%e 12 $h+$ c!((!n)&+ce !, c!cne2 &+nc+)e +n

+,ch#$ec$,e "h#ch ch+,+c$e,#=e )+n$!(#(e +n f+,ce. If $he "h!&e

++#, h+))ene #n !(e +&#en +$(!)he,e/ #f + )e+,7$,ee 1e9+n $! 9,!"

+))&e !, + ,#%e, $! ,n "#$h "#ne #n !(e $,+n9e f+#,2&+n/ $he eec$

"!& 1e :#$e #e,en$. The $,ee$ +n h!) +n !!,7n!ce, !f $he

h+,&e:#n+e/ "h#ch $! $he %&9+, +e$he$e (+e #$ ee( c!((!n)&+ce/ +,e#n $,$h $he %e,2 eence !f $he +e$he$#c e)+,$,e. I$ ($ 1e +n

+c$+& (!e,n !!, "h#ch !)en +n h$/ c!n$+n$&2 #c&!#n9

#e,en$ #n$e,#!,< #$ ($ 1e + ,e+& 1+e, "h!e &!+%e 82 ) #n$!

$he +#, "#$h!$ h# $!ch#n9 $he(/ !, e&e $he "h!&e #n$e,n+& e;c#$e(en$

!f $h# e&%#h #n%+#!n !f c#%#&#=+$#!n/ $h# +1,)$ en$,+nce !f Pc

#n$! P#(&#c!/ # &!$. S!(e +2/ )e,h+)/ "hen $he ),een$ n+,,!" )h+e

!f +e$he$#c h+ ce+e $! (!n!)!&#=e $he n+(e/ $he 9&!,2 !f + f+,c#c+&

+,$ (+2 1ec!(e f+h#!n+1&e. L!n9 +f$e, (en h+%e ce+e $! ,+)e $he#,

h!e #n 9,een +n 9,+2 +n $! +!,n $he( "#$h J+)+nee %+e/ +n

+e$he$e (+2 1#& + h!e !n )+n$!(#(e ),#nc#)&e/ #n "h#ch +&& $he

!!, h+&& h+%e $he#, 1e&& +n n!ce, !n $he #n#e/ +&& $he

$+#,c+e 1e c!n$,c$e $! %+n#h !n $he ),e#n9 !f + 1$$!n/ +n +&&

$he #nne, h(!,! #nne, #n $he(e&%e c!(e ) c!!e $h,!9h +

$,+)!!,. We +,e %e,2 ,e/ +$ &e+$/ $h+$ #$ # + ,e+!n+1&e $!

,e9&+$e !ne' &#fe +n &!9#n9 12 $h# #n !f +,$ + 12 +n2 !$he,.

 The "h!&e !f $h# %#e" !f f+,ce +n )+n$!(#(e (+2 ee( #n+ne $! < 1$

"e fe+, $h+$ #$ # "e "h! +,e #n+ne. N!$h#n9 #n $h# $,+n9e +9e !f 

$,+n#$#!n # ! e),e#n9 + #$ (e,,#(en$. A&& $he (!$ 1,#&&#+n$ (en

!f $he +2 "hen $he2 e$ +1!$ $he ",#$#n9 !f c!(#c &#$e,+$,e ! #$

ne, !ne e$,c$#%e f+&&+c2 +n #+%+n$+9e $he n!$#!n $h+$ c!(#c&#$e,+$,e # #n !(e !,$ !f "+2 )e,0c#+&. The2 9#%e &#$$&e

n#c7n+c !f $he 1,#$$&ene !f "h#ch $he2 )!#$#%e&2 1!+$/ +&$h!9h

$"! $h!+n 2e+, h+%e 1e+$en + %+#n&2 )!n $he f!&&#e !f $he 'F,!9'

+ !n $he "#!( !f $he 'Re)1&#c.' I$ # +&& + (e+n h+(e !f !2. When

"e c!(e !$ f,!( + )e,f!,(+nce !f $he 'M#((e, N#9h$' D,e+(' "e fee&

+ ne+, $! $he $+, + "hen "e c!(e !$ f,!( 'K#n9 Le+,.' F!, $he !2

!f $hee "!, # !&e, $h+n !,,!"/ $he#, e;$,+%+9+nce # +ne, $h+n

"#!(/ $he#, &!%e # $,!n9e, $h+n e+$h.

 The !& (+$e, !f + he+&$h2 (+ne/ A,#$!)h+ne !, R+1e&+# !,Sh+e)e+,e/ !1$&e h+ (+n2 1,he "#$h $he ),ec##+n !, +ce$#c

!f $he#, +2/ 1$ "e c+nn!$ 1$ fee& $h+$ f!, h!ne$ e%e,#$2 +n

c!n#$en$ e&f7(+ce,+$#!n $he2 "!& +&"+2 h+%e h+ ,e)ec$. B$ "h+$

+12e !f c!,n/ #nc!nce#%+1&e $! +n2 (!e,n/ "!& $he2 h+%e ,ee,%e

f!, +n +e$he$#c $2)e +n (!%e(en$ "h#ch %#!&+$e (!,+&#$2 +n # n!$

e%en 0n )&e+,e/ "h#ch !$,+9e +n#$2 +n c!& n!$ +$$+#n $!

e;1e,+nce/ "h#ch c!n$en$e #$e&f "#$h $he f!!&' c+) "#$h!$ $he

Page 44: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 44/58

Page 45: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 45/58

1e&#e%e $he(e&%e ,#ch "#$h +n #,,e%!c+1&e 1ene#c$#!n "h#ch e$ $he(

+1!%e $he $+,< +n #((e#+$e&2 $he2 #c!%e,e h(#&#$2. I$ "+ !n&2

+n!$he, e;+()&e !f $he +(e #(($+1&e )+,+!;. I$ # +&"+2 $he ec,e

"h! +,e h(1&e.

 Th# )+,$#c&+, #n$+nce ,%#%e #n $he e%+n9e&#c+& ,e%#%+&#$ !f $he$,ee$. The2 +,e #,,#$+$#n9 en!9h/ 1$ n! !ne "h! h+ ,e+&&2 $#e

$he( c+n en2 $h+$ $he #,,#$+$#!n # !cc+#!ne 12 $hee $"! $h#n9/ +n

#,,#$+$#n9 h#&+,#$2 +n +n #,,#$+$#n9 h(#&#$2. Th# c!(1#n+$#!n !f !2

+n e&f7),!$,+$#!n # + 9,e+$ e+& $!! n#%e,+& $! 1e #9n!,e. If 

h(#&#$2 h+ 1een #c,e#$e + + %#,$e +$ $he ),een$ +2/ #$ # n!$

"h!&&2 #,,e&e%+n$ $! ,e(+, $h+$ $h# #c,e#$ h+ +,#en +$ $he +(e

$#(e + + 9,e+$ c!&&+)e !f !2 #n c,,en$ &#$e,+$,e +n )h#&!!)h2.

Men h+%e ,e%#%e $he )&en!, !f G,ee e&f7+e,$#!n +$ $he +(e $#(e

$h+$ $he2 h+%e ,e%#%e $he 1#$$e,ne !f G,ee )e#(#(. A &#$e,+$,e

h+ +,#en "h#ch c!((+n +&& $! +,,!9+$e $! !,e&%e $he &#1e,$2 !f 

e&f7c#n9 e#$#e +$ $he +(e $#(e $h+$ #$ e;h#1#$ $! !,e&%e

+ #n92 (+n#+c "h! !9h$ $! 1e ch+#ne ) &#e !9. I$ # ce,$+#n&2 +

c,#! $+$e !f $h#n9 +&$!9e$he,. When "e +,e 9en#ne&2 h+))2/ "e

$h#n "e +,e n"!,$h2 !f h+))#ne. B$ "hen "e +,e e(+n#n9 + #%#ne

e(+nc#)+$#!n "e ee( $! 1e )e,fec$&2 ce,$+#n $h+$ "e +,e n"!,$h2 !f 

+n2$h#n9.

 The !n&2 e;)&+n+$#!n !f $he (+$$e, ($ 1e f!n #n $he c!n%#c$#!n $h+$

h(#&#$2 h+ #n0n#$e&2 ee)e, ,!!$ $h+n +n2 (!e,n (en ))!e< $h+$

#$ # + (e$+)h2#c+& +n/ !ne (#9h$ +&(!$ +2/ + (+$he(+$#c+& %#,$e.

P,!1+1&2 $h# c+n 1e$ 1e $e$e 12 + $2 !f $h!e "h! f,+n&2#,e9+, h(#&#$2 +n +e,$ $he ),e(e $2 !f )e,fec$#n9 +n

e;),e#n9 !ne' e&f. Thee )e!)&e $en/ 12 + )e,fec$&2 n+$,+&

),!ce/ $! 1,#n9 $he#, !"n 9,e+$ h(+n 9#f$ !f c&$,e/ #n$e&&ec$/ !,

(!,+& )!"e, $! + 9,e+$ )e,fec$#!n/ cce#%e&2 h$$#n9 !$ e%e,2$h#n9

$h+$ $he2 fee& $! 1e &!"e, $h+n $he(e&%e. N!" h$$#n9 !$ $h#n9 #

+&& %e,2 "e&&/ 1$ #$ h+ !ne #()&e c!,!&&+,277$h+$ f,!( e%e,2$h#n9

$h+$ "e h$ !$ "e +,e !,e&%e h$ !$. When "e h$ !, !!, !n $he

"#n/ #$ "!& 1e e:+&&2 $,e $! +2 $h+$ $he "#n h$ #$ !!, !n

. Wh+$e%e, %#,$e + $,#()h+n$ e9!#( ,e+&&2 &e+ $!/ n! !ne c+n

,e+!n+1&2 ),e$en $h+$ #$ &e+ $! n!"&e9e. T,n#n9 + 1e99+, f,!( $he!!, (+2 1e ,#9h$ en!9h/ 1$ ),e$en#n9 $! n!" +&& $he $!,#e $he

1e99+, (#9h$ h+%e n+,,+$e # ),e n!nene< +n $h# # ),+c$#c+&&2

$he c&+#( !f $he e9!#( "h#ch $h#n $h+$ e&f7+e,$#!n c+n !1$+#n

n!"&e9e. A 1ee$&e (+2 !, (+2 n!$ 1e #nfe,#!, $! + (+n77$he (+$$e,

+"+#$ e(!n$,+$#!n< 1$ #f he "e,e #nfe,#!, 12 $en $h!+n f+$h!(/

$he f+c$ ,e(+#n $h+$ $he,e # ),!1+1&2 + 1ee$&e %#e" !f $h#n9 !f "h#ch

+ (+n # en$#,e&2 #9n!,+n$. If he "#he $! c!nce#%e $h+$ )!#n$ !f %#e"/

Page 46: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 46/58

he "#&& c+,ce&2 ,e+ch #$ 12 )e,#$en$&2 ,e%e&&#n9 #n $he f+c$ $h+$ he

# n!$ + 1ee$&e. The (!$ 1,#&&#+n$ e;)!nen$ !f $he e9!#$#c ch!!&/

N#e$=che/ "#$h e+&2 +n h!n!,+1&e &!9#c/ +(#$$e $h+$ $he

)h#&!!)h2 !f e&f7+$#f+c$#!n &e $! &!!#n9 !"n )!n $he "e+/ $he

c!"+,&2/ +n $he #9n!,+n$. L!!#n9 !"n !n $h#n9 (+2 1e + e&#9h$f&

e;)e,#ence/ !n&2 $he,e # n!$h#n9/ f,!( + (!n$+#n $! + c+11+9e/ $h+$ #,e+&&2 -een- "hen #$ # een f,!( + 1+&&!!n. The )h#&!!)he, !f $he e9!

ee e%e,2$h#n9/ n! !1$/ f,!( + h#9h +n ,+,#0e he+%en< !n&2 he ee

e%e,2$h#n9 f!,eh!,$ene !, ef!,(e.

N!" #f "e #(+9#ne $h+$ + (+n "#he $,&2/ + f+, + )!#1&e/ $! ee

e%e,2$h#n9 + #$ "+/ he "!& ce,$+#n&2 ),!cee !n + #e,en$

),#nc#)&e. He "!& ee $! #%e$ h#(e&f f!, + $#(e !f $h!e )e,!n+&

)ec&#+,#$#e "h#ch $en $! #%#e h#( f,!( $he $h#n9 he $#e. I$ #

+ #c&$/ f!, e;+()&e/ f!, + (+n $! e;+(#ne + 0h "#$h!$

e%e&!)#n9 + ce,$+#n %+n#$2 #n )!e#n9 + )+#, !f &e9/ + #f $he2

"e,e $he &+$e$ +,$#c&e !f )e,!n+& +!,n(en$. B$ #f + 0h # $! 1e

+)),!;#(+$e&2 ne,$!!/ $h# )h2#!&!9#c+& +n2#( ($ 1e !%e,c!(e.

 The e+,ne$ $en$ !f 0h (!,+&#$2 "#&&/ )#,#$+&&2 )e+#n9/ ch!)

! h# &e9. An #(#&+,&2 $he $en$ !f 1#, "#&& e&#(#n+$e h#

+,(< $he f,!97&!%e, "#&& "#$h !ne $,!e !f $he #(+9#n+$#!n ,e(!%e +&&

h# $ee$h/ +n $he )#,#$ "#h#n9 $! en$e, #n$! +&& $he h!)e +n fe+,

!f e&&270h "#&& #()&#f2 h# )e,!n+& +))e+,+nce $! + ,e+&&2 +&+,(#n9

e;$en$. I$ "!& +))e+,/ $he,ef!,e/ $h+$ $h# 9,e+$ 1!2 !f !, +n +&&

#$ n+$,+& #n$#nc$/ !f "h#ch "e +,e ),!/ +n $&2 ),!/ #

,+$he, +n enc(1,+nce +$ $he (!(en$ "hen "e +$$e()$ $! +)),ec#+$e $h#n9

+ $he2 h!& 1e +)),ec#+$e. We ! +c$+&&2 9! $h,!9h + ),!ce !f (en$+& +ce$#c#(/ + c+$,+$#!n !f $he en$#,e 1e#n9/ "hen "e "#h $!

fee& $he +1!n#n9 9!! #n +&& $h#n9. I$ # 9!! f!, +$ ce,$+#n

$#(e $h+$ !,e&%e h!& 1e &#e + (e,e "#n!"77+ c&e+,/ +

&(#n!/ +n + #n%##1&e.

In + %e,2 en$e,$+#n#n9 "!,/ !%e, "h#ch "e h+%e ,!+,e #n ch#&h!!/ #$

# $+$e $h+$ + )!#n$ h+ n! )+,$ +n n! (+9n#$e. H(#&#$2 # $he

&;,#! +,$ !f ,ec#n9 !,e&%e $! + )!#n$/ n!$ $! + (+&& $h#n9 !,

+ &+,9e !ne/ 1$ $! + $h#n9 "#$h n! #=e +$ +&&/ ! $h+$ $! #$ +&& $he

c!(#c $h#n9 +,e "h+$ $he2 ,e+&&2 +,e77!f #((e+,+1&e $+$,e. Th+$$he $,ee +,e h#9h +n $he 9,+e h!,$ # + (e,e +cc#en$ !f !, !"n

f!!$7,&e +n !, !"n $+$,e. B$ $! $he )#,#$ "h#ch h+ $,#))e ! 

f!, + (!(en$ #$ !"n #&e $e()!,+& $+n+, $he 9,+ # +n e%e,&+$#n9

f!,e$/ "#$h ,+9!n f!, en#=en< $he $!ne !f $he ,!+ +,e +

#nc,e#1&e (!n$+#n )#&e !ne )!n $he !$he,< $he +ne&#!n +,e &#e

9#9+n$#c 1!n0,e #&&(#n+$#n9 $he &+n +,!n< +n $he he+$h71e&& !n

$he#, $+& +,e &#e )&+ne$ hn9 #n he+%en e+ch h#9he, $h+n $he !$he,.

Page 47: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 47/58

Be$"een !ne $+e !f + )+&#n9 +n +n!$he, $he,e +,e ne" +n $e,,#1&e

&+nc+)e< he,e + ee,$/ "#$h n!$h#n9 1$ !ne (#h+)en ,!c< he,e +

(#,+c&! f!,e$/ !f "h#ch +&& $he $,ee 8!"e, +1!%e $he he+ "#$h $he

he !f ne$< he,e/ +9+#n/ + e+ f&& !f (!n$e, $h+$ D+n$e "!& n!$

h+%e +,e $! ,e+(. Thee +,e $he %##!n !f h#( "h!/ &#e $he ch#& #n

$he f+#,2 $+&e/ # n!$ +f,+# $! 1ec!(e (+&&. Me+n"h#&e/ $he +9e"h!e f+#$h # #n (+9n#$e +n +(1#$#!n #/ &#e + 9#+n$/ 1ec!(#n9

&+,9e, +n &+,9e,/ "h#ch !n&2 (e+n $h+$ $he $+, +,e 1ec!(#n9 (+&&e,

+n (+&&e,. W!,& +f$e, "!,& f+&& f,!( h#( #n$! #n#9n#0c+nce< $he

"h!&e )+#!n+$e +n #n$,#c+$e &#fe !f c!((!n $h#n9 1ec!(e + &!$ $!

h#( + # $he &#fe !f $he #nf!,#+ $! + (+n "#$h!$ + (#c,!c!)e. He

,#e +&"+2 $h,!9h e!&+$e e$e,n#$#e. He (+2 0n ne" 2$e(/ +n

f!,9e$ $he(< he (+2 #c!%e, f,eh n#%e,e/ +n &e+,n $! e)#e $he(.

B$ $he $!"e,#n9 +n $,!)#c+& %##!n !f $h#n9 + $he2 ,e+&&2 +,e77$he

9#9+n$#c +##e/ $he he+%en7c!n(#n9 +ne&#!n/ $he 9,e+$ O2e2 !f 

$,+n9e7c!&!,e !ce+n +n $,+n9e7h+)e $,ee/ !f $ &#e $he ",ec

!f $e()&e/ +n $h#$&e!"n &#e $he ,#n !f $+,77+&& $h# c!&!+&

%##!n h+&& )e,#h "#$h $he &+$ !f $he h(1&e.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF SLANG

 The +,#$!c,+$ !f $he n#ne$een$h cen$,2 h+%e e$,!2e en$#,e&2 $he#,

!ne !&#$+,2 $#&#$2. I$ # $he#, 1#ne $! 1e 8+n$#n9 +n +,,!9+n$<1$ $he2 8+n$ n!1$,#%e&2/ +n $he#, +$$e()$ +$ +,,!9+nce +,e

e),e#n9. The#, ch#ef $2 h#$he,$! h+ 1een $he e%e&!)(en$ !f 

%+,#e$2/ %#%+c#$2/ +n f&ne !f &#fe< !&#9+,ch2 "+ $he "!,&' 0,$

e;)e,#(en$ #n &#1e,$2. B$ n!" $he2 h+%e +!)$e $he !))!#$e #e+& !f 

'9!! f!,(/' "h#ch (+2 1e e0ne + P,#$+n#( "#$h!$ ,e&#9#!n. G!!

f!,( h+ en$ $he( +&& #n$! 1&+c &#e $he $,!e !f + fne,+& 1e&&.

 The2 en9+9e/ &#e M,. G#&1e,$' c,+$e/ #n + "+, !f (#&ne/ +

)!#$#%e c!()e$#$#!n !f !1c,#$2. In !& $#(e $he &!, !f $he e+,$h

!9h$ +1!%e +&& $h#n9 $! 1e #$#n9#he f,!( e+ch !$he,< "#$h $h+$

!1ec$ $he2 e,ec$e !$,+9e! #(+9e !n $he#, he&(e$ +n )+#n$e),e)!$e,! c!&!, !n $he#, h#e&. The2 "#he $! (+e #$ en$#,e&2

c&e+, $h+$ + N!,f!& "+ + #e,en$/ +2/ f,!( +n A,92&& + + "h#$e

&#!n f,!( + 1&+c )#9. B$ $!7+2 $he#, #e+& # ),ec#e&2 $he !))!#$e

!ne/ +n #f + N!,f!& +n +n A,92&& "e,e ,ee ! (ch +&#e $h+$ $he2

"e,e (#$+en f!, e+ch !$he, $he2 "!& 1!$h 9! h!(e +nc#n9 "#$h !2.

 The c!ne:ence !f $h# +,e #ne%#$+1&e. The +,#$!c,+c2 ($ &!e $he#,

Page 48: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 48/58

fnc$#!n !f $+n#n9 $! $he "!,& f!, $he #e+ !f %+,#e$2/ e;)e,#(en$/

+n c!&!,/ +n "e ($ 0n $hee $h#n9 #n !(e !$he, c&+. T! +

"he$he, "e h+&& 0n $he( #n $he (#&e c&+ "!& 1e $! e$ )!n

+c,e (+$$e,. The !n&2 c!nc&#!n/ $he,ef!,e/ # $h+$ #$ # $!

ce,$+#n ec$#!n !f $he &!"e, c&+/ ch#e82/ f!, e;+()&e/ $!

!(n#17c!nc$!,/ "#$h $he#, ,#ch +n ,!c!c! (!e !f $h!9h$/ $h+$ "e($ &!! f!, 9#+nce $!"+, &#1e,$2 +n &#9h$.

 The !ne $,e+( !f )!e$,2 "h#ch # c!n$#n+&&2 8!"#n9 # &+n9. E%e,2

+2 + n+(e&e )!e$ "e+%e !(e f+#,2 $,+ce,2 !f )!)&+, &+n9+9e. I$

(+2 1e +# $h+$ $he f+h#!n+1&e "!,& $+& &+n9 + (ch + $he

e(!c,+$#c< $h# # $,e/ +n #$ $,!n9&2 ))!,$ $he %#e" ne,

c!n#e,+$#!n. N!$h#n9 # (!,e $+,$&#n9 $h+n $he c!n$,+$ 1e$"een $he

he+%2/ f!,(+&/ &#fe&e &+n9 !f $he (+n7+1!$7$!"n +n $he &#9h$/

&#%#n9/ +n 8e;#1&e &+n9 !f $he c!$e,. The $+& !f $he ))e, $,+$+

!f $he ec+$e c&+e # +1!$ $he (!$ h+)e&e/ +#(&e/ +n

h!)e&e &#$e,+,2 ),!c$ $h+$ $he "!,& h+ e%e, een. C&e+,&2 #n $h#/

+9+#n/ $he ))e, c&+e h+%e e9ene,+$e. We h+%e +()&e e%#ence $h+$

$he !& &e+e, !f fe+& "+, c!& )e+ !n !cc+#!n "#$h + ce,$+#n

n+$,+& 2(1!&#( +n e&!:ence $h+$ $he2 h+ n!$ 9+#ne f,!( 1!!.

When C2,+n! e Be,9e,+c/ #n R!$+n' )&+2/ $h,!" !1$ !n $he ,e+&#$2

!f Ch,#$#+n' &ne +n &+c !f c&$,e/ $he &+$$e, ,e)&#e

'B+h !n $,!%e e (!$ :+n !n (!n$e + &'++$<

O#/ '+# n ce,$+#n e),#$ f+c#&e e$ (#&#$+#,e<'

+n $hee $"! &#ne ( ) + $,$h +1!$ $he !& !&#9+,ch. The2 c!&n!$ ",#$e $h,ee &e9#1&e &e$$e,/ 1$ $he2 c!& !(e$#(e )e+

&#$e,+$,e. D!9&+/ "hen he h,&e $he he+,$ !f B,ce #n f,!n$ !f h#(

#n h# &+$ 1+$$&e/ c,#e !$/ 'P+ 0,$/ 9,e+$ he+,$/ + $h! "e,$

e%e, "!n$.' A S)+n#h n!1&e(+n/ "hen c!((+ne 12 $he K#n9 $! ,ece#%e +

h#9h7)&+ce +n n!$!,#! $,+#$!,/ +# 'I "#&& ,ece#%e h#( #n +&&

!1e#ence/ +n 1,n !"n (2 h!e +f$e,"+,.' Th# # &#$e,+$,e

"#$h!$ c&$,e< #$ # $he )eech !f (en c!n%#nce $h+$ $he2 h+%e $!

+e,$ ),!&2 $he )!e$,2 !f &#fe.

An2!ne/ h!"e%e,/ "h! h!& ee f!, ch )e+,& #n $he c!n%e,+$#!n !f + 2!n9 (+n !f (!e,n Be&9,+%#+ "!& h+%e (ch !,,!" #n h# &#fe. I$

# n!$ !n&2 #()!#1&e f!, +,#$!c,+$ $! +e,$ ),!&2 $he )!e$,2 !f 

&#fe< #$ # (!,e #()!#1&e f!, $he( $h+n f!, +n2!ne e&e. I$ #

)!#$#%e&2 c!n#e,e %&9+, f!, + n!1&e(+n $! 1!+$ !f h# +nc#en$

n+(e/ "h#ch #/ "hen !ne c!(e $! $h#n !f #$/ $he !n&2 ,+$#!n+& !1ec$

!f h# e;#$ence. If + (+n #n $he $,ee$ ),!c&+#(e/ "#$h ,e fe+&

,he$!,#c/ $h+$ he "+ $he E+,& !f D!nc+$e,/ he "!& 1e +,,e$e + +

Page 49: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 49/58

&n+$#c< 1$ #f #$ "e,e #c!%e,e $h+$ he ,e+&&2 "+ $he E+,& !f 

D!nc+$e,/ he "!& #()&2 1e c$ + + c+. N! )!e$#c+& ),!e ($ 1e

e;)ec$e f,!( E+,& + + c&+. The f+h#!n+1&e &+n9 # h+,&2 e%en +

&+n9+9e< #$ # &#e $he f!,(&e c,#e !f +n#(+&/ #(&2 #n#c+$#n9

ce,$+#n 1,!+/ "e&&7ne,$!! $+$e !f (#n. 'B!,e/' 'c$ )/'

'!&&2/' ',!$$en/' +n ! !n/ +,e &#e $he "!, !f !(e $,#1e !f +%+9e "h!e %!c+1&+,2 h+ !n&2 $"en$2 !f $he(. If + (+n !f f+h#!n

"#he $! ),!$e$ +9+#n$ !(e !&ec#( #n +n!$he, (+n !f f+h#!n/ h#

$$e,+nce "!& 1e + (e,e $,#n9 !f e$ )h,+e/ + &#fe&e + + $,#n9

!f e+ 0h. B$ +n !(n#1 c!nc$!, 1e#n9 0&&e "#$h $he Me

"!& 1,$ !$ #n$! + !&# &#$e,+,2 e!,$ 'Y!',e + 9en'&e(+n/

+,en'$ 2e, ... 2e, 1!!$ # + &!$ 1,#9h$e, $h+n 2e, 'e...$he,e'

),ec#! &#$$&e !f 2e,/ +n $h+$' c&!$he...$h+$' ,#9h$/ )$ 2e, c#9+,

#n 2e, (!$h 'c! I c+n'$ ee 2e, 1e'#n #$...$+e #$ !$ +9+#n/ ! 2e,

2!',e 2!n9 f!, (!#n'/ 1$ I'%e en$ f!, 2e, (!$he,.... G!#n' !h/

!n'$ ,n +"+2 I "!n'$ '+,( 2e,. I'%e 9!$ + 9!! '+,$/ I '+%e.... D!"n

"#$h c,!!&$2 $! +n#(+&/ I +2/' +n ! !n. I$ # e%#en$ $h+$ $h#

(!e !f )eech # n!$ !n&2 &#$e,+,2/ 1$ &#$e,+,2 #n + %e,2 !,n+$e +n

+&(!$ +,$#0c#+& ene. Ke+$ ne%e, )$ #n$! + !nne$ ! (+n2 ,e(!$e

(e$+)h!, + + c!$e, )$ #n$! + c,e< h# )eech # !ne &!n9

+&&e9!,2/ &#e S)ene,' 'F+e,#e een.'

I ! n!$ #(+9#ne $h+$ #$ # nece+,2 $! e(!n$,+$e $h+$ $h# )!e$#c

+&&#%ene # $he ch+,+c$e,#$#c !f $,e &+n9. Sch +n e;),e#!n +

'Kee) 2!, h+#, !n' # )!#$#%e&2 Me,e#$h#+n #n #$ )e,%e,e +n

(2$e,#! (+nne, !f e;),e#n9 +n #e+. The A(e,#c+n h+%e + "e&&7n!"n

e;),e#!n +1!$ '"e&&e7he+' + + ec,#)$#!n !f e&f7+)),!%+&/ +n$he !$he, +2 I he+, + ,e(+,+1&e f+n$+#+ )!n $h# +#,. An A(e,#c+n

+# $h+$ +f$e, $he Ch#nee W+, $he J+)+nee "+n$e '$! )$ !n $he#,

h+$ "#$h + h!e7h!,n.' Th# # + (!n(en$ !f $he $,e n+$,e !f &+n9/

"h#ch c!n#$ #n 9e$$#n9 f,$he, +n f,$he, +"+2 f,!( $he !,#9#n+&

c!nce)$#!n/ #n $,e+$#n9 #$ (!,e +n (!,e + +n +()$#!n. I$ # ,+$he,

&#e $he &#$e,+,2 !c$,#ne !f $he S2(1!&#$.

 The ,e+& ,e+!n !f $h# 9,e+$ e%e&!)(en$ !f e&!:ence +(!n9 $he &!"e,

!,e, +9+#n 1,#n9 1+c $! $he c+e !f $he +,#$!c,+c2 #n e+,&#e,

$#(e. The &!"e, c&+e &#%e #n + $+$e !f "+,/ + "+, !f "!,. The#,,e+#ne # $he ),!c$ !f $he +(e 0e,2 #n#%#+&#( + $he

,e+#ne !f $he !& 09h$#n9 !&#9+,ch. An2 c+1(+n h+ $! 1e ,e+2 "#$h

h# $!n9e/ + +n2 9en$&e(+n !f $he &+$ cen$,2 h+ $! 1e ,e+2 "#$h

h# "!,. I$ # nf!,$n+$e $h+$ $he )!e$,2 "h#ch # e%e&!)e 12 $h#

),!ce h!& 1e ),e&2 + 9,!$e:e )!e$,2. B$ + $he h#9he, !,e, !f 

!c#e$2 h+%e en$#,e&2 +1#c+$e $he#, ,#9h$ $! )e+ "#$h + he,!#c

e&!:ence/ #$ # n! "!ne, $h+$ $he &+n9+9e h!& e%e&!) 12 #$e&f #n

Page 50: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 50/58

$he #,ec$#!n !f + ,!"2 e&!:ence. The een$#+& )!#n$ # $h+$ !(e1!2

($ 1e +$ "!, +#n9 ne" 2(1!& +n ne" c#,c(&!c$#!n $! +

&+n9+9e.

A&& &+n9 # (e$+)h!,/ +n +&& (e$+)h!, # )!e$,2. If "e )+e f!, +

(!(en$ $! e;+(#ne $he che+)e$ c+n$ )h,+e $h+$ )+ !, &#) e%e,2+2/ "e h!& 0n $h+$ $he2 "e,e + ,#ch +n 99e$#%e + ! (+n2

!nne$. T! $+e + #n9&e #n$+nce "e )e+ !f + (+n #n En9&#h !c#+&

,e&+$#!n '1,e+#n9 $he #ce.' If $h# "e,e e;)+ne #n$! + !nne$/ "e

h!& h+%e 1ef!,e + +, +n 1&#(e )#c$,e !f +n !ce+n !f 

e%e,&+$#n9 #ce/ $he !(1,e +n 1+>#n9 (#,,!, !f $he N!,$he,n n+$,e/

!%e, "h#ch (en "+&e +n +nce +n +$e e+#&2/ 1$ ne, "h#ch $he

&#%#n9 "+$e, ,!+,e +n $!#&e f+$h!( 1e&!". The "!,& !f &+n9 # +

#n !f $!)27$,%e2!( !f )!e$,2/ f&& !f 1&e (!!n +n "h#$e

e&e)h+n$/ !f (en &!#n9 $he#, he+/ +n (en "h!e $!n9e ,n +"+2

"#$h $he(77+ "h!&e ch+! !f f+#,2 $+&e.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF BABY7WORSHIP

 The $"! f+c$ "h#ch +$$,+c$ +&(!$ e%e,2 n!,(+& )e,!n $! ch#&,en +,e/

0,$/ $h+$ $he2 +,e %e,2 e,#!/ +n/ ec!n&2/ $h+$ $he2 +,e #n

c!ne:ence %e,2 h+))2. The2 +,e !&&2 "#$h $he c!()&e$ene "h#ch #

)!#1&e !n&2 #n $he +1ence !f h(!,. The (!$ nf+$h!(+1&e ch!!&+n +9e h+%e ne%e, +$$+#ne $! $he 9,+%#$2 "h#ch "e&& #n $he e2e !f 

+ 1+12 !f $h,ee (!n$h !&. I$ # $he 9,+%#$2 !f +$!n#h(en$ +$ $he

n#%e,e/ +n +$!n#h(en$ +$ $he n#%e,e # n!$ (2$#c#(/ 1$ +

$,+ncenen$ c!((!n7ene. The f+c#n+$#!n !f ch#&,en &#e #n $h#

$h+$ "#$h e+ch !f $he( +&& $h#n9 +,e ,e(+e/ +n $he n#%e,e # )$

+9+#n )!n #$ $,#+&. A "e "+& $he $,ee$ +n ee 1e&!" $h!e

e&#9h$f& 1&1! he+/ $h,ee $#(e $!! 1#9 f!, $he 1!2/ "h#ch (+,

$hee h(+n (h,!!(/ "e !9h$ +&"+2 ),#(+,#&2 $! ,e(e(1e, $h+$ "#$h#n

e%e,2 !ne !f $hee he+ $he,e # + ne" n#%e,e/ + ne" + #$ "+ !n

$he e%en$h +2 !f c,e+$#!n. In e+ch !f $h!e !,1 $he,e # + ne" 2$e(!f $+,/ ne" 9,+/ ne" c#$#e/ + ne" e+.

 The,e # +&"+2 #n $he

&$h2 (#n +n !1c,e ),!()$#n9 $h+$ ,e&#9#!n

$e+che ,+$he, $! #9 $h+n $! c&#(1< $h+$ #f "e c!& !nce ne,$+n

$he c!((!n c&+2 !f e+,$h "e h!& ne,$+n e%e,2$h#n9. S#(#&+,&2/ "e

Page 51: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 51/58

h+%e $he en$#(en$ $h+$ #f "e c!& e$,!2 c$!( +$ + 1&!" +n ee $he

$+, + + ch#& ee $he(/ "e h!& nee n! !$he, +)!c+&2)e. Th# #

$he 9,e+$ $,$h "h#ch h+ +&"+2 &+#n +$ $he 1+c !f 1+127"!,h#)/ +n

"h#ch "#&& ))!,$ #$ $! $he en. M+$,#$2/ "#$h #$ en&e ene,9#e

+n +)#,+$#!n/ (+2 e+#&2 1e c!n%#nce $h+$ #$ "#&& 0n ne" $h#n9 $!

+)),ec#+$e< 1$ #$ "#&& ne%e, 1e c!n%#nce/ +$ 1!$$!(/ $h+$ #$ h+),!)e,&2 +)),ec#+$e "h+$ #$ h+ 9!$. We (+2 c+&e $he he+%en +n 0n

ne" $+, #nn(e,+1&e/ 1$ $he,e # $#&& $he ne" $+, "e h+%e n!$

f!n77$h+$ !n "h#ch "e "e,e 1!,n.

B$ $he #n8ence !f ch#&,en 9!e f,$he, $h+n #$ 0,$ $,#8#n9

e!,$ !f ,e(+#n9 he+%en +n e+,$h. I$ f!,ce +c$+&&2 $! ,e(!e&

!, c!nc$ #n +cc!,+nce "#$h $h# ,e%!&$#!n+,2 $he!,2 !f $he

(+,%e&&!ne !f +&& $h#n9. We ! e%en "hen "e +,e )e,fec$&2 #()&e

!, #9n!,+n$77"e ! +c$+&&2 $,e+$ $+&#n9 #n ch#&,en + (+,%e&&!/

"+&#n9 #n ch#&,en + (+,%e&&!/ c!((!n #n$e&&#9ence #n ch#&,en +

(+,%e&&!. The c2n#c+& )h#&!!)he, f+nc#e he h+ + %#c$!,2 #n $h#

(+$$e,77$h+$ he c+n &+9h "hen he h!" $h+$ $he "!, !, +n$#c !f $he

ch#&/ ! (ch +(#,e 12 #$ "!,h#))e,/ +,e c!((!n en!9h. The f+c$

# $h+$ $h# # ),ec#e&2 "he,e 1+127"!,h#) # ! ),!f!n&2 ,#9h$. An2

"!, +n +n2 +n$#c #n + &() !f c&+2 +,e "!ne,f&/ $he ch#&' "!,

+n +n$#c +,e "!ne,f&/ +n #$ # !n&2 f+#, $! +2 $h+$ $he

)h#&!!)he,' "!, +n +n$#c +,e e:+&&2 "!ne,f&.

 The $,$h # $h+$ #$ # !, +$$#$e $!"+, ch#&,en $h+$ # ,#9h$/ +n

!, +$$#$e $!"+, 9,!"n7) )e!)&e $h+$ # ",!n9. O, +$$#$e $!"+,

!, e:+& #n +9e c!n#$ #n + e,%#&e !&e(n#$2/ !%e,&2#n9 +c!n#e,+1&e e9,ee !f #n#e,ence !, #+#n. O, +$$#$e $!"+,

ch#&,en c!n#$ #n + c!necen#n9 #n&9ence/ !%e,&2#n9 +n

nf+$h!(+1&e ,e)ec$. We 1!" $! 9,!"n )e!)&e/ $+e ! !, h+$ $! $he(/

,ef,+#n f,!( c!n$,+#c$#n9 $he( 8+$&2/ 1$ "e ! n!$ +)),ec#+$e $he(

),!)e,&2. We (+e )))e$ !f ch#&,en/ &ec$,e $he(/ )&& $he#, h+#,/

+n ,e%e,ence/ &!%e/ +n fe+, $he(. When "e ,e%e,ence +n2$h#n9 #n $he

(+$,e/ #$ # $he#, %#,$e !, $he#, "#!(/ +n $h# # +n e+2

(+$$e,. B$ "e ,e%e,ence $he f+&$ +n f!&&#e !f ch#&,en.

We h!& ),!1+1&2 c!(e c!n#e,+1&2 ne+,e, $! $he $,e c!nce)$#!n !f $h#n9 #f "e $,e+$e +&& 9,!"n7) )e,!n/ !f +&& $#$&e +n $2)e/ "#$h

),ec#e&2 $h+$ +, +ec$#!n +n +=e ,e)ec$ "#$h "h#ch "e $,e+$ $he

#nf+n$#&e &#(#$+$#!n. A ch#& h+ + #c&$2 #n +ch#e%#n9 $he (#,+c&e

!f )eech/ c!ne:en$&2 "e 0n h# 1&ne, +&(!$ + (+,%e&&! + h#

+cc,+c2. If "e !n&2 +!)$e $he +(e +$$#$e $!"+, P,e(#e, +n

Ch+nce&&!, !f $he E;che:e,/ #f "e 9en#+&&2 enc!,+9e $he#, $+((e,#n9

+n e&#9h$f& +$$e()$ +$ h(+n )eech/ "e h!& 1e #n + f+, (!,e "#e

Page 52: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 52/58

+n $!&e,+n$ $e()e,. A ch#& h+ + n+c !f (+#n9 e;)e,#(en$ #n &#fe/

9ene,+&&2 he+&$h2 #n (!$#%e/ 1$ !f$en #n$!&e,+1&e #n + !(e$#c

c!((!n"e+&$h. If "e !n&2 $,e+$e +&& c!((e,c#+& 1cc+nee, +n 1()$#!

$2,+n$ !n $he +(e $e,(/ #f "e 9en$&2 ch#e $he#, 1,$+&#$#e +

,+$he, :+#n$ (#$+e #n $he c!nc$ !f &#fe/ #f "e #()&2 $!& $he(

$h+$ $he2 "!& 'ne,$+n "hen $he2 "e,e !&e,/' "e h!& ),!1+1&2 1e+!)$#n9 $he 1e$ +n (!$ c,h#n9 +$$#$e $!"+, $he "e+nee !f 

h(+n#$2. In !, ,e&+$#!n $! ch#&,en "e ),!%e $h+$ $he )+,+!; #

en$#,e&2 $,e/ $h+$ #$ # )!#1&e $! c!(1#ne +n +(ne$2 $h+$ %e,9e !n

c!n$e()$ "#$h + "!,h#) $h+$ %e,9e )!n $e,,!,. We f!,9#%e ch#&,en

"#$h $he +(e #n !f 1&+)he(! 9en$&ene "#$h "h#ch O(+, Kh+22+(

f!,9+%e $he O(n#)!$en$.

 The een$#+& ,ec$#$e !f !, %#e" !f ch#&,en &#e #n $he f+c$ $h+$ "e

fee& $he( +n $he#, "+2 $! 1e )e,n+$,+& "h#&e/ f!, !(e (2$e,#!

,e+!n/ "e ! n!$ fee& !,e&%e !, !, !"n "+2 $! 1e )e,n+$,+&. The

%e,2 (+&&ne !f ch#&,en (+e #$ )!#1&e $! ,e9+, $he( + (+,%e&<

"e ee( $! 1e e+&#n9 "#$h + ne" ,+ce/ !n&2 $! 1e een $h,!9h +

(#c,!c!)e. I !1$ #f +n2!ne !f +n2 $ene,ne !, #(+9#n+$#!n c+n ee

$he h+n !f + ch#& +n n!$ 1e + &#$$&e f,#9h$ene !f #$. I$ # +"f& $!

$h#n !f $he een$#+& h(+n ene,92 (!%#n9 ! $#n2 + $h#n9< #$ # &#e

#(+9#n#n9 $h+$ h(+n n+$,e c!& &#%e #n $he "#n9 !f + 1$$e,82 !, $he

&e+f !f + $,ee. When "e &!! )!n &#%e ! h(+n +n 2e$ ! (+&&/ "e

fee& + #f "e !,e&%e "e,e en&+,9e $! +n e(1+,,+#n9 1#9ne !f 

$+$,e. We fee& $he +(e #n !f !1&#9+$#!n $! $hee c,e+$,e $h+$ +

e#$2 (#9h$ fee& #f he h+ c,e+$e !(e$h#n9 $h+$ he c!& n!$

ne,$+n.

B$ $he h(!,! &!! !f ch#&,en # )e,h+) $he (!$ ene+,#n9 !f +&&

$he 1!n $h+$ h!& $he C!(! $!9e$he,. The#, $!)7he+%2 #9n#$2 #

(!,e $!ch#n9 $h+n +n2 h(#&#$2< $he#, !&e(n#$2 9#%e (!,e h!)e f!,

+&& $h#n9 $h+n + $h!+n c+,n#%+& !f !)$#(#(< $he#, &+,9e +n

&$,! e2e ee( $! h!& +&& $he $+, #n $he#, +$!n#h(en$< $he#,

f+c#n+$#n9 +1ence !f n!e ee( $! 9#%e $! $he (!$ )e,fec$ h#n$ !f 

$he h(!, $h+$ +"+#$ #n $he #n9!( !f he+%en.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF DETECTI6E STORIES

In +$$e()$#n9 $! ,e+ch $he 9en#ne )2ch!&!9#c+& ,e+!n f!, $he

Page 53: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 53/58

)!)&+,#$2 !f e$ec$#%e $!,#e/ #$ # nece+,2 $! ,# !,e&%e !f 

(+n2 (e,e )h,+e. I$ # n!$ $,e/ f!, e;+()&e/ $h+$ $he )!)&+ce ),efe,

1+ &#$e,+$,e $! 9!!/ +n +cce)$ e$ec$#%e $!,#e 1ec+e $he2 +,e

1+ &#$e,+$,e. The (e,e +1ence !f +,$#$#c 1$&e$2 !e n!$ (+e +

1!! )!)&+,. B,+h+"' R+#&"+2 G#e c!n$+#n fe" 9&e+( !f 

)2ch!&!9#c+& c!(e2/ 2e$ #$ # n!$ ,e+ +&! ),!+,#!&2 !n "#n$e,e%en#n9. If e$ec$#%e $!,#e +,e ,e+ "#$h (!,e e;1e,+nce $h+n

,+#&"+2 9#e/ #$ # ce,$+#n&2 1ec+e $he2 +,e (!,e +,$#$#c. M+n2

9!! 1!! h+%e f!,$n+$e&2 1een )!)&+,< (+n2 1+ 1!!/ $#&& (!,e

f!,$n+$e&2/ h+%e 1een n)!)&+,. A 9!! e$ec$#%e $!,2 "!& ),!1+1&2

1e e%en (!,e )!)&+, $h+n + 1+ !ne. The $,!1&e #n $h# (+$$e, # $h+$

(+n2 )e!)&e ! n!$ ,e+&#=e $h+$ $he,e # ch + $h#n9 + + 9!!

e$ec$#%e $!,2< #$ # $! $he( &#e )e+#n9 !f + 9!! e%#&. T! ",#$e +

$!,2 +1!$ + 1,9&+,2 #/ #n $he#, e2e/ + !,$ !f )#,#$+& (+nne, !f 

c!((#$$#n9 #$. T! )e,!n !f !(e"h+$ "e+ en#1#&#$2 $h# # n+$,+&

en!9h< #$ ($ 1e c!nfee $h+$ (+n2 e$ec$#%e $!,#e +,e + f&& !f 

en+$#!n+& c,#(e + !ne !f Sh+e)e+,e' )&+2.

 The,e #/ h!"e%e,/ 1e$"een + 9!! e$ec$#%e $!,2 +n + 1+ e$ec$#%e

$!,2 + (ch/ !,/ ,+$he, (!,e/ #e,ence $h+n $he,e # 1e$"een + 9!!

e)#c +n + 1+ !ne. N!$ !n&2 # + e$ec$#%e $!,2 + )e,fec$&2 &e9#$#(+$e

f!,( !f +,$/ 1$ #$ h+ ce,$+#n e0n#$e +n ,e+& +%+n$+9e + +n +9en$

!f $he )1&#c "e+&.

 The 0,$ een$#+& %+&e !f $he e$ec$#%e $!,2 &#e #n $h#/ $h+$ #$

# $he e+,&#e$ +n !n&2 f!,( !f )!)&+, &#$e,+$,e #n "h#ch #

e;),ee !(e ene !f $he )!e$,2 !f (!e,n &#fe. Men &#%e +(!n9(#9h$2 (!n$+#n +n e$e,n+& f!,e$ f!, +9e 1ef!,e $he2 ,e+&#=e $h+$

$he2 "e,e )!e$#c+&< #$ (+2 ,e+!n+1&2 1e #nfe,,e $h+$ !(e !f !,

ecen+n$ (+2 ee $he ch#(ne27)!$ + ,#ch + ),)&e + $he

(!n$+#n7)e+/ +n 0n $he &+()7)!$ + !& +n n+$,+& + $he $,ee.

Of $h# ,e+&#=+$#!n !f + 9,e+$ c#$2 #$e&f + !(e$h#n9 "#& +n !1%#!

$he e$ec$#%e $!,2 # ce,$+#n&2 $he 'I&#+.' N! !ne c+n h+%e f+#&e $!

n!$#ce $h+$ #n $hee $!,#e $he he,! !, $he #n%e$#9+$!, c,!e L!n!n

"#$h !(e$h#n9 !f $he &!ne&#ne +n &#1e,$2 !f + ),#nce #n + $+&e !f 

e&8+n/ $h+$ #n $he c!,e !f $h+$ #nc+&c&+1&e !,ne2 $he c++&

!(n#1 +(e $he ),#(+& c!&!, !f + f+#,2 h#). The &#9h$ !f $hec#$2 1e9#n $! 9&!" &#e #nn(e,+1&e 9!1&#n e2e/ #nce $he2 +,e $he

9+,#+n !f !(e ec,e$/ h!"e%e, c,e/ "h#ch $he ",#$e, n!" +n $he

,e+e, !e n!$. E%e,2 $"#$ !f $he ,!+ # &#e + 0n9e, )!#n$#n9 $!

#$< e%e,2 f+n$+$#c 2&#ne !f ch#(ne27)!$ ee( "#&&2 +n e,##%e&2

#9n+&&#n9 $he (e+n#n9 !f $he (2$e,2.

 Th# ,e+&#=+$#!n !f $he )!e$,2 !f L!n!n # n!$ + (+&& $h#n9. A c#$2

Page 54: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 54/58

#/ ),!)e,&2 )e+#n9/ (!,e )!e$#c e%en $h+n + c!n$,2#e/ f!, "h#&e

N+$,e # + ch+! !f nc!nc#! f!,ce/ + c#$2 # + ch+! !f c!nc#!

!ne. The c,e$ !f $he 8!"e, !, $he )+$$e,n !f $he &#chen (+2 !, (+2

n!$ 1e #9n#0c+n$ 2(1!&. B$ $he,e # n! $!ne #n $he $,ee$ +n n!

1,#c #n $he "+&& $h+$ # n!$ +c$+&&2 + e&#1e,+$e 2(1!&77+ (e+9e

f,!( !(e (+n/ + (ch + #f #$ "e,e + $e&e9,+( !, + )!$7c+,. Then+,,!"e$ $,ee$ )!ee/ #n e%e,2 c,!! +n $"#$ !f #$ #n$en$#!n/

$he !& !f $he (+n "h! 1#&$ #$/ )e,h+) &!n9 #n h# 9,+%e. E%e,2 1,#c

h+ + h(+n + h#e,!9&2)h + #f #$ "e,e + 9,+%en 1,#c !f B+12&!n< e%e,2

&+$e !n $he ,!!f # + ec+$#!n+& + !c(en$ + #f #$ "e,e + &+$e

c!%e,e "#$h +#$#!n +n 1$,+c$#!n (. An2$h#n9 "h#ch $en/ e%en

ne, $he f+n$+$#c f!,( !f $he (#n$#+e !f She,&!c H!&(e/ $! +e,$

$h# ,!(+nce !f e$+#& #n c#%#&#=+$#!n/ $! e()h+#=e $h# nf+$h!(+1&2

h(+n ch+,+c$e, #n 8#n$ +n $#&e/ # + 9!! $h#n9. I$ # 9!! $h+$

$he +%e,+9e (+n h!& f+&& #n$! $he h+1#$ !f &!!#n9 #(+9#n+$#%e&2 +$

$en (en #n $he $,ee$ e%en #f #$ # !n&2 !n $he ch+nce $h+$ $he e&e%en$h

(#9h$ 1e + n!$!,#! $h#ef. We (+2 ,e+(/ )e,h+)/ $h+$ #$ (#9h$ 1e

)!#1&e $! h+%e +n!$he, +n h#9he, ,!(+nce !f L!n!n/ $h+$ (en' !&

h+%e $,+n9e, +%en$,e $h+n $he#, 1!#e/ +n $h+$ #$ "!& 1e h+,e,

+n (!,e e;c#$#n9 $! hn$ $he#, %#,$e $h+n $! hn$ $he#, c,#(e. B$

#nce !, 9,e+$ +$h!, "#$h $he +(#,+1&e e;ce)$#!n !f S$e%en!n

ec&#ne $! ",#$e !f $h+$ $h,#&&#n9 (!! +n (!(en$ "hen $he e2e !f $he

9,e+$ c#$2/ &#e $he e2e !f + c+$/ 1e9#n $! 8+(e #n $he +,/ "e ($

9#%e f+#, c,e#$ $! $he )!)&+, &#$e,+$,e "h#ch/ +(# + 1+11&e !f 

)e+n$,2 +n ),ec#!#$2/ ec&#ne $! ,e9+, $he ),een$ + ),!+#c !,

$he c!((!n + c!((!n)&+ce. P!)&+, +,$ #n +&& +9e h+ 1een #n$e,e$e

#n c!n$e()!,+,2 (+nne, +n c!$(e< #$ ,ee $he 9,!) +,!n $heC,c#0;#!n #n $he 9+,1 !f F&!,en$#ne 9en$&ef!& !, F&e(#h 1,9he,.

In $he &+$ cen$,2 #$ "+ $he c$!( f!, #$#n9#he +c$!, $!

),een$ M+c1e$h #n + )!"e,e "#9 +n ,>e. H!" f+, "e +,e !,e&%e

#n $h# +9e f,!( ch c!n%#c$#!n !f $he )!e$,2 !f !, !"n &#fe +n

(+nne, (+2 e+#&2 1e c!nce#%e 12 +n2!ne "h! ch!!e $! #(+9#ne +

)#c$,e !f A&f,e $he G,e+$ $!+$#n9 $he c+e ,ee #n $!,#$'

n#ce,1!ce,/ !, + )e,f!,(+nce !f 'H+(&e$' #n "h#ch $he P,#nce

+))e+,e #n + f,!c7c!+$/ "#$h + c,+)e 1+n ,!n h# h+$. B$ $h#

#n$#nc$ !f $he +9e $! &!! 1+c/ &#e L!$' "#fe/ c!& n!$ 9! !n f!,

e%e,. A ,e/ )!)&+, &#$e,+$,e !f $he ,!(+n$#c )!#1#&#$#e !f $he(!e,n c#$2 "+ 1!n $! +,#e. I$ h+ +,#en #n $he )!)&+, e$ec$#%e

$!,#e/ + ,!9h +n ,ef,eh#n9 + $he 1+&&+ !f R!1#n H!!.

 The,e #/ h!"e%e,/ +n!$he, 9!! "!, $h+$ # !ne 12 e$ec$#%e $!,#e.

Wh#&e #$ # $he c!n$+n$ $enenc2 !f $he O& A+( $! ,e1e& +9+#n$ !

n#%e,+& +n +$!(+$#c + $h#n9 + c#%#&#=+$#!n/ $! ),e+ch e)+,$,e +n

,e1e&&#!n/ $he ,!(+nce !f )!&#ce +c$#%#$2 ee) #n !(e ene 1ef!,e $he

Page 55: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 55/58

(#n $he f+c$ $h+$ c#%#&#=+$#!n #$e&f # $he (!$ en+$#!n+& !f 

e)+,$,e +n $he (!$ ,!(+n$#c !f ,e1e&&#!n. B2 e+&#n9 "#$h $he

n&ee)#n9 en$#ne& "h! 9+, $he !$)!$ !f !c#e$2/ #$ $en $!

,e(#n $h+$ "e &#%e #n +n +,(e c+()/ (+#n9 "+, "#$h + ch+!$#c

"!,&/ +n $h+$ $he c,#(#n+&/ $he ch#&,en !f ch+!/ +,e n!$h#n9 1$

$he $,+#$!, "#$h#n !, 9+$e. When $he e$ec$#%e #n + )!&#ce ,!(+nce$+n +&!ne/ +n !(e"h+$ f+$!&2 fe+,&e +(# $he n#%e +n 0$

!f + $h#e%e' #$chen/ #$ !e ce,$+#n&2 e,%e $! (+e ,e(e(1e, $h+$

#$ # $he +9en$ !f !c#+& $#ce "h! # $he !,#9#n+& +n )!e$#c 09,e/

"h#&e $he 1,9&+, +n f!!$)+ +,e (e,e&2 )&+c# !& c!(#c

c!ne,%+$#%e/ h+))2 #n $he #((e(!,#+& ,e)ec$+1#&#$2 !f +)e +n

"!&%e. The ,!(+nce !f $he )!&#ce f!,ce # $h $he "h!&e ,!(+nce !f 

(+n. I$ # 1+e !n $he f+c$ $h+$ (!,+&#$2 # $he (!$ +, +n +,#n9

!f c!n)#,+c#e. I$ ,e(#n $h+$ $he "h!&e n!#e&e +n nn!$#ce+1&e

)!&#ce (+n+9e(en$ 12 "h#ch "e +,e ,&e +n ),!$ec$e # !n&2 +

ccef& n#9h$7e,,+n$,2.

* * * * *

A DEFENCE OF PATRIOTISM

 The ec+2 !f )+$,#!$#( #n En9&+n ,#n9 $he &+$ 2e+, !, $"! # +

e,#! +n #$,e#n9 (+$$e,. On&2 #n c!ne:ence !f ch + ec+2

c!& $he c,,en$ &$ !f $e,,#$!,2 1e c!nf!ne "#$h $he +nc#en$ &!%e

!f c!n$,2. We (+2 #(+9#ne $h+$ #f $he,e "e,e n! ch $h#n9 + + )+#, !f &!%e, &ef$ #n $he "!,&/ +&& $he %!c+1&+,2 !f &!%e (#9h$ "#$h!$

,e1e 1e $,+nfe,,e $! $he &!"e$ +n (!$ +$!(+$#c e#,e. If n!

$2)e !f ch#%+&,! +n ),#f2#n9 )+#!n ,e(+#ne/ $he,e "!& 1e n! !ne

&ef$ $! +2 $h+$ &$ 1!,e n!ne !f $he (+, !f &!%e/ $h+$ &$ "+

,+)+c#! +n &!%e )#$#f&/ $h+$ &$ "+ 1&#n +n &!%e %#9#&+n$/ $h+$

&$ +$e #$e&f +n &!%e "+ #n+$#+1&e. S! #$ # "#$h $he '&!%e !f 

$he c#$2/' $h+$ h#9h +n +nc#en$ #n$e&&ec$+& )+#!n "h#ch h+ 1een

",#$$en #n ,e 1&!! !n $he +(e $+1&e "#$h $he ),#(+& )+#!n !f !,

1e#n9. On +&& #e "e he+, $!7+2 !f $he &!%e !f !, c!n$,2/ +n 2e$

+n2!ne "h! h+ &#$e,+&&2 ch + &!%e ($ 1e 1e"#&e,e +$ $he $+&/&#e + (+n he+,#n9 +&& (en +2 $h+$ $he (!!n h#ne 12 +2 +n $he n

12 n#9h$. The c!n%#c$#!n ($ c!(e $! h#( +$ &+$ $h+$ $hee (en ! n!$

,e+&#=e "h+$ $he "!, '&!%e' (e+n/ $h+$ $he2 (e+n 12 $he &!%e !f 

c!n$,2/ n!$ "h+$ + (2$#c (#9h$ (e+n 12 $he &!%e !f G!/ 1$ !(e$h#n9

!f "h+$ + ch#& (#9h$ (e+n 12 $he &!%e !f +(. T! !ne "h! &!%e h#

f+$he,&+n/ f!, #n$+nce/ !, 1!+$e #n#e,ence $! $he e$h#c !f +

n+$#!n+& "+, # (e,e (2$e,#! 9#11e,#(. I$ # &#e $e&&#n9 + (+n $h+$

Page 56: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 56/58

+ 1!2 h+ c!((#$$e (,e,/ 1$ $h+$ he nee n!$ (#n 1ec+e #$ # !n&2

h# !n. He,e c&e+,&2 $he "!, '&!%e' # e n(e+n#n9&2. I$ # $he

eence !f &!%e $! 1e en#$#%e/ #$ # + )+,$ !f #$ !!(< +n +n2!ne

"h! !1ec$ $! $he !ne ($ ce,$+#n&2 9e$ ,# !f $he !$he,. Th#

en#$#%ene/ ,##n9 !(e$#(e $! +n +&(!$ (!,1# en#$#%ene/ "+

$he (+, !f +&& 9,e+$ &!%e, &#e D+n$e +n +&& 9,e+$ )+$,#!$ &#eCh+$h+(. 'M2 c!n$,2/ ,#9h$ !, ",!n9/' # + $h#n9 $h+$ n! )+$,#!$ "!&

$h#n !f +2#n9 e;ce)$ #n + e)e,+$e c+e. I$ # &#e +2#n9/ 'M2

(!$he,/ ,n !, !1e,.' N! !1$ #f + ecen$ (+n' (!$he, $!! $! ,#n

he "!& h+,e he, $,!1&e $! $he &+$< 1$ $! $+& + #f he "!& 1e

#n + $+$e !f 9+2 #n#e,ence + $! "he$he, h# (!$he, $!! $! ,#n !,

n!$ # ce,$+#n&2 n!$ $he &+n9+9e !f (en "h! n!" $he 9,e+$ (2$e,2.

Wh+$ "e ,e+&&2 nee f!, $he f,$,+$#!n +n !%e,$h,!" !f + e+f +n

,+c! J#n9!#( # + ,en+cence !f $he &!%e !f $he n+$#%e &+n. When

$h+$ c!(e/ +&& h,#&& c,#e "#&& ce+e en&2. F!, $he 0,$ !f +&&

$he (+, !f &!%e # e,#!ne &!%e "#&& n!$ +cce)$ h+( 1&&e$#n !,

$he e()$2 %#c$!,2 !f "!,. I$ "#&& +&"+2 e$ee( $he (!$ c+n#

c!ne&&!, $he 1e$. L!%e # ,+"n $! $,$h 12 $he ne,,#n9 (+9ne$#( !f 

+9!n2< #$ 9#%e n! )&e+,e $! $he &!%e, $! ee $en !c$!, +nc#n9 "#$h

%!c#fe,! !)$#(#( ,!n + e+$h71e.

We h+%e $! +/ $hen/ Wh2 # #$ $h+$ $h# ,ecen$ (!%e(en$ #n En9&+n/

"h#ch h+ h!ne$&2 +))e+,e $! (+n2 + ,en+cence !f )+$,#!$#(/ ee( $!

$! h+%e n!ne !f $he (+, !f )+$,#!$#(77+$ &e+$/ !f )+$,#!$#( #n

#$ h#9he$ f!,( Wh2 h+ $he +!,+$#!n !f !, )+$,#!$ 1een 9#%en

"h!&&2 $! :+&#$#e +n c#,c($+nce 9!! #n $he(e&%e/ 1$c!()+,+$#%e&2 (+$e,#+& +n $,#%#+&77$,+e/ )h2#c+& f!,ce/ + #,(#h

+$ + ,e(!$e f,!n$#e,/ + :+11&e #n + ,e(!$e c!n$#nen$ C!&!n#e +,e

$h#n9 $! 1e ),! !f/ 1$ f!, + c!n$,2 $! 1e !n&2 ),! !f #$

e;$,e(#$#e # &#e + (+n 1e#n9 !n&2 ),! !f h# &e9. Wh2 # $he,e n!$

+ h#9h cen$,+& #n$e&&ec$+& )+$,#!$#(/ + )+$,#!$#( !f $he he+ +n

he+,$ !f $he E()#,e/ +n n!$ (e,e&2 !f #$ 0$ +n #$ 1!!$ A ,e

A$hen#+n +#&!, (+2 %e,2 &#e&2 h+%e $h!9h$ $h+$ $he 9&!,2 !f A$hen

&+2 #n ,!"#n9 "#$h $he ,#9h$ #n !f !+,/ !, h+%#n9 + 9!! ))&2 !f 

9+,&#c< 1$ Pe,#c&e # n!$ $h#n $h+$ $h# "+ $he 9&!,2 !f A$hen.

W#$h / !n $he !$he, h+n/ $he,e # n! #e,ence +$ +&& 1e$"een $he)+$,#!$#( ),e+che 12 M,. Ch+(1e,&+#n +n $h+$ ),e+che 12 M,. P+$

R+e,$2/ "h! #n9 'Wh+$ ! 2! $h#n !f $he I,#h n!"' The2 +,e 1!$h

h!ne$/ #()&e7(#ne/ %&9+, e&!9#e )!n $,#%#+&#$#e +n $,#(.

I h+%e/ ,#9h$&2 !, ",!n9&2/ + n!$#!n !f $he ch#ef c+e !f $h#

)e$$#ne #n En9&#h )+$,#!$#( !f $!7+2/ +n I "#&& +$$e()$ $! e;)!n

#$. I$ (+2 1e $+en 9ene,+&&2 $h+$ + (+n &!%e h# !"n $!c +n

Page 57: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 57/58

en%#,!n(en$/ +n $h+$ he "#&& 0n !(e$h#n9 $! ),+#e #n #$< 1$

"he$he, #$ # $he (!$ ),+#e"!,$h2 $h#n9 !, n! "#&& e)en )!n $he

(+n' en&#9h$en(en$ + $! $he f+c$. If $he !n !f Th+ce,+2/ &e$

+2/ "e,e 1,!9h$ ) #n #9n!,+nce !f h# f+$he,' f+(e +n 9en#/ #$ #

n!$ #(),!1+1&e $h+$ he "!& 1e ),! !f $he f+c$ $h+$ h# f+$he, "+

!%e, #; fee$ h#9h. I$ ee( $! (e $h+$ "e/ + + n+$#!n/ +,e ),ec#e&2#n $he )!#$#!n !f $h# h2)!$he$#c+& ch#& !f Th+ce,+2'. We f+&& 1+c

)!n 9,! +n f,#%!&! $h#n9 f!, !, )+$,#!$#(/ f!, + #()&e ,e+!n.

We +,e $he !n&2 )e!)&e #n $he "!,& "h! +,e n!$ $+9h$ #n ch#&h!! !,

!"n &#$e,+$,e +n !, !"n h#$!,2.

We +,e/ + + n+$#!n/ #n $he $,&2 e;$,+!,#n+,2 c!n#$#!n !f n!$ n!"#n9

!, !"n (e,#$. We h+%e )&+2e + 9,e+$ +n )&en# )+,$ #n $he h#$!,2

!f n#%e,+& $h!9h$ +n en$#(en$< "e h+%e 1een +(!n9 $he f!,e(!$ #n

$h+$ e$e,n+& +n 1&!!&e 1+$$&e #n "h#ch $he 1&!" ! n!$ &+2/ 1$

c,e+$e. In )+#n$#n9 +n (#c "e +,e #nfe,#!, $! (+n2 !$he, n+$#!n< 1$

#n &#$e,+$,e/ c#ence/ )h#&!!)h2/ +n )!&#$#c+& e&!:ence/ #f h#$!,2

1e $+en + + "h!&e/ "e c+n h!& !, !"n "#$h +n2. B$ +&& $h# %+$

he,#$+9e !f #n$e&&ec$+& 9&!,2 # e)$ f,!( !, ch!!&1!2 &#e +

he,e2< +n $he2 +,e &ef$ $! &#%e +n #e #n $he && +n #nf+n$#&e $2)e

!f )+$,#!$#( "h#ch $he2 &e+,n$ f,!( + 1!; !f $#n !&#e,. The,e # n!

h+,( #n $he 1!; !f $#n !&#e,< "e ! n!$ e;)ec$ ch#&,en $! 1e e:+&&2

e&#9h$e "#$h + 1e+$#f& 1!; !f $#n )h#&+n$h,!)#$. B$ $he,e #

9,e+$ h+,( #n $he f+c$ $h+$ $he 1$&e, +n (!,e c#%#&#=e h!n!, !f 

En9&+n # n!$ ),een$e ! + $! ee) )+ce "#$h $he e;)+n#n9 (#n. A

F,ench 1!2 # $+9h$ $he 9&!,2 !f M!&#e,e + "e&& + $h+$ !f T,enne< +

Ge,(+n 1!2 # $+9h$ h# !"n 9,e+$ n+$#!n+& )h#&!!)h2 1ef!,e he &e+,n$he )h#&!!)h2 !f +n$#:#$2. The ,e&$ # $h+$/ $h!9h F,ench

)+$,#!$#( # !f$en c,+=2 +n 1!+$f&/ $h!9h Ge,(+n )+$,#!$#( #

!f$en #!&+$e +n )e+n$#c/ $he2 +,e ne#$he, !f $he( (e,e&2 &&/

c!((!n/ +n 1,$+&/ + # ! !f$en $he $,+n9e f+$e !f $he n+$#!n !f 

B+c!n +n L!ce. I$ # n+$,+& en!9h/ +n e%en ,#9h$e! en!9h/ ne,

$he c#,c($+nce. An En9&#h(+n ($ &!%e En9&+n f!, !(e$h#n9<

c!ne:en$&2/ he $en $! e;+&$ c!((e,ce !, ),#=e709h$#n9/ $ + +

Ge,(+n (#9h$ $en $! e;+&$ (#c/ !, + F&+(+n $! e;+&$ )+#n$#n9/

1ec+e he ,e+&&2 1e&#e%e #$ # $he ch#ef (e,#$ !f h# f+$he,&+n. I$

"!& n!$ 1e #n $he &e+$ e;$,+!,#n+,2 #f + c&+#( !f e+$#n9 )),!%#nce +n )&&#n9 !"n ),#nce "e,e $he ch#ef 1!+$ !f + &. The

e;$,+!,#n+,2 $h#n9 #/ $h+$ #$ # $he ch#ef 1!+$ !f + )e!)&e "h! h+%e

Sh+e)e+,e/ Ne"$!n/ B,e/ +n D+,"#n $! 1!+$ !f.

 The )ec&#+, &+c !f +n2 9ene,!#$2 !, e&#c+c2 #n $he c,,en$ En9&#h

n+$#!n+&#( +))e+, $! h+%e n! !$he, )!#1&e !,#9#n 1$ #n $h# f+c$ !f 

!, n#:e ne9&ec$ #n ec+$#!n !f $he $2 !f $he n+$#!n+& &#$e,+$,e.

Page 58: Rene Magritte (2)

8/9/2019 Rene Magritte (2)

http://slidepdf.com/reader/full/rene-magritte-2 58/58

An En9&#h(+n c!& n!$ 1e #&&2 en!9h $! e)#e !$he, n+$#!n #f he

!nce ne" h!" (ch En9&+n h+ !ne f!, $he(. G,e+$ (en !f &e$$e,

c+nn!$ +%!# 1e#n9 h(+ne +n n#%e,+&. The +1ence !f $he $e+ch#n9 !f 

En9&#h &#$e,+$,e #n !, ch!!& #/ "hen "e c!(e $! $h#n !f #$/ +n

+&(!$ +(+=#n9 )hen!(en!n. I$ # e%en (!,e +(+=#n9 "hen "e &#$en $! $he

+,9(en$ ,9e 12 he+(+$e, +n !$he, ec+$#!n+& c!ne,%+$#%e+9+#n$ $he #,ec$ $e+ch#n9 !f En9&#h. I$ # +#/ f!, e;+()&e/ $h+$ +

%+$ +(!n$ !f En9&#h 9,+((+, +n &#$e,+$,e # )#ce ) #n $he c!,e

!f &e+,n#n9 L+$#n +n G,ee. Th# # )e,fec$&2 $,e/ 1$ $he

$!)27$,%#ne !f $he #e+ ne%e, ee( $! $,#e $he(. I$ # &#e

+2#n9 $h+$ + 1+12 )#c ) $he +,$ !f "+&#n9 #n $he c!,e !f &e+,n#n9

$! h!)/ !, $h+$ + F,ench(+n (+2 ccef&&2 1e $+9h$ Ge,(+n 12 he&)#n9

+ P,#+n $! &e+,n Ah+n$#. S,e&2 $he !1%#! f!n+$#!n !f +&&

ec+$#!n # $he &+n9+9e #n "h#ch $h+$ ec+$#!n # c!n%e2e< #f + 1!2

h+ !n&2 $#(e $! &e+,n !ne $h#n9/ he h+ 1e$$e, &e+,n $h+$.

We h+%e e&#1e,+$e&2 ne9&ec$e $h# 9,e+$ he,#$+9e !f h#9h n+$#!n+&

en$#(en$. We h+%e (+e !, )1&#c ch!!& $he $,!n9e$ "+&& +9+#n$ +

"h#)e, !f $he h!n!, !f En9&+n. An "e h+%e h+ !, )n#h(en$ #n $h#

$,+n9e +n )e,%e,$e f+c$ $h+$/ "h#&e + n#f2#n9 %##!n !f )+$,#!$#(

c+n enn!1&e 1+n !f 1,$+& +%+9e !, #n92 1,9he,/ +n 1e $he 1e$

$h#n9 #n $he#, &#%e/ "e/ "h! +,e77$he "!,& 1e#n9 9e77h(+ne/

h!ne$/ +n e,#! #n#%#+&&2/ h+%e + )+$,#!$#( $h+$ # $he "!,$

$h#n9 #n !,. Wh+$ h+%e "e !ne/ +n "he,e h+%e "e "+ne,e/ "e $h+$

h+%e ),!ce +9e "h! c!& h+%e )!en "#$h S!c,+$e +n )!e$ "h!

c!& "+& "#$h D+n$e/ $h+$ "e h!& $+& + #f "e h+%e ne%e, !ne

+n2$h#n9 (!,e #n$e&&#9en$ $h+n f!n c!&!n#e +n #c n#99e, We +,e$he ch#&,en !f &#9h$/ +n #$ # "e $h+$ #$ #n +,ne. If "e +,e

 9e/ #$ "#&& n!$ 1e f!, $he (e,e&2 #n$e&&ec$+& $,+n9,e#!n !f 

f+#&#n9 $! +)),ec#+$e !$he, n+$#!n/ 1$ f!, $he ),e(e )#,#$+&

$,+n9,e#!n !f f+#&#n9 $! +)),ec#+$e !,e&%e.

 THE END

BILLING AND SONS/ LTD./ PRINTERS/ GUILDFORD