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  • Slide 1
  • Renewable Biofuel from Microalgae: Potential and Prospects Defence Institute of Bio-Energy Research Field station, Pithoragarh Dr. M. Arumugam m
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  • Global oil production scenario OPEC countries in domination from 2008 onwards Source: ASPO 2006
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  • India Energy situation
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  • (Khan et al., 2009) Energy Status: Indian Scenario
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  • Sector wise energy production and consumption: India Out of the total Oil 70 % is being imported: Dependence of OPEC countries
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  • 60% more energy If the governments around the world stick to current policies, the world will need almost 60% more energy in 2030 than today At the present staggering rates of consumption, the world fossil oil reserve will be exhausted in less than 45 years (IEA, 2007). What is an alternative? Renewable Energy
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  • Renewable Energy Sources: Geothermal, Solar Energy, Hydropower, Wind, Waves & Tides Renewable energy obtained from various forms of Biomass Biofuel
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  • National Policy on Biofuel (8 th September 2008) was set up to look exclusively into issues pertaining to biodiesel and the development of Jatropha curcas as feedstock for biodiesel production. Blending target of Ethanol (10%) and Biodiesel (20%) with petro-diesel were proposed by 2011-12. DRDO-ARMY BIO-DIESEL PROGRAMME (SL-P1-2007/DAR-71) Micro Algae Jatropha curcas Camelina sativa
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  • Biodiesel from algae: Biological concepts Algae is an photosynthetic microorganism converts solar energy to fixed neutral lipids in the presence of CO 2 and light. Optimum Growth Condition Temp-25-30C, CO 2 : 1 to 2%; pH: 6.5-7.5 and light 1.2 Klux (Arumugam et al., 2010)
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  • The fatty acid and TAG biosynthesis (Courchesne et al, 2009)
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  • CropOil yield (L/ha) Corn172 Soybean446 Canola1190 Jatropha1892 Coconut2689 Oil palm5950 Microalgae (30%)58,700 Microalgae (70%)136,900 Potential of Microalgae (Chisti, 2007)
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  • Advantages over other feed stock Synthesis and accumulate large quantities of neutral lipids (20 to 50 % of Dry Cell Weight) Multiply at higher rate (1-3 doubling time in a day) Utilize nutrients from variety of waste water, provide an additional benefit of waste water bioremediation Sequester CO 2 from flue gases, thereby reducing emission of major green house gas Algae biofuel contains no sulfur, is non-toxic and highly biodegradable Produce as a value added by-products (Proteins, Polysaccrides, pigments animal, feed, manure, Hydrogen and biopolymers) Grow in suitable culture vessels (Photo-bioreactors) throughout the year with an annual biomass productivity, on an area basis exceeding that of terrestrial plants by approximately tenfold
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  • DIBER Initiatives in Second generation biofuel (i) Collection, Screening of ideal algal strain Two algal strains exhibited more promising potential Scenedesmus bijugatus (Turpin) Chlorococcum humicolo (Naegeli) Oil percent: 16 to 40% Biomass Yield (Dry weight): 450 kg/ha/day Oil percent: 14 to 22 % Biomass Yield (Dry weight): 210 kg/ha/day (Arumugam et al., 2010)
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  • Mass culturing of selected algal strains Open race way pond at DIBER, Fd stn, Pithoragarh Plastic tray to optimize culturing technique
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  • (ii) Standardization growth medium for open pond T1: CHU13; T2: Tap Water (Control); T3: Urea@ 0.5% ; T4: Urea@ 0.1% T5: 50 % FYM extract ; T6:100 % FYM extract ; T7: 50 % FYM extract +Urea@ 0.1% Algal culturing in laboratory: synthetic growth medium such as modified CHU-13, BBM, BG11 etc However culturing algae in large scale is limited because of non-availability of appropriate affordable growth medium (Arumugam et al., 2010)
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  • (iii) Algal Harvesting and Processing Gravity settling Natural Sun drying of algal bio-mass It accounts for 20-30% of total production cost Find out the economically viable harvesting method
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  • (v) Extraction of Algal oil Organic Solvent extraction Polar Solvents Non polar solvents Proposed Methods: Mechanical extraction (algae Milling ) Electroporation Supercritical CO 2 fluid extraction Ultrasonic and micro waves
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  • Oil extraction using Organic solvent Principle: Polar Organic solvents will dissolve all the total lipids/fats present in the cell. Organic Solvent: n-Hexane and Petroleum ether Extraction method: Soxhlet Apparatus Procedure: Heating at 65C for 6-8 hrs Fixed oil collected after evaporating the residual solvents using Rota-vapor
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  • Algal Oil recovery Oil content was examined for different strains and found an yield of 20-30%
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  • (vi) Processing of Algal oil Microalgal oil contains fatty acid and triglycerid compounds can be converted in to Methyl esters (i.e., Biodiesel) using conventional transesterification technology. IS : 15607 ASTM : 6751 EN : 14214 Bio-diesel Specifications (B-100)
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  • Technical bottlenecks. High Production cost Algal cell harvesting and drying Oil extraction and processing An ideal algal strain Suitable culturing infrastructure
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  • Biodiesel: For a better future "The term Peak Oil refers to the maximum rate of the production of oil in any area under consideration, recognising that it is a finite natural resource, subject to depletion." -Colin Campbell The use of vegetable oils for engine fuels may seem insignificant today. But such oils may become, in the course of time, as important as the petroleum and coal tar products of the present time. -Rudolf Diesel, 1912.
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  • Thank you all Acknowledgement.. Dr. Zakwan Ahmed, Director, DIBER Shri. M. C. Arya Dr. M. Arif Dr. Ankur Agarwal Dr. W. Selvamurthy DS and CC R&D (LS) DRDO Bhawan, Newdelhi


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