replacing perc with safer alternatives in dry cleaning
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DESCRIPTIONReplacing PERC with safer alternatives in dry cleaning . Steve Whittaker Local Hazardous Waste Management Program Public Health – Seattle & King County. Outline. History of dry cleaning Dry cleaning solvents The problem with PERC An industry in crisis What is LHWMP doing? - PowerPoint PPT Presentation
Replacing PERC with safer alternatives in dry cleaning
Steve WhittakerLocal Hazardous Waste Management ProgramPublic Health – Seattle & King County
• History of dry cleaning• Dry cleaning solvents• The problem with PERC• An industry in crisis• What is LHWMP doing?• What else could be done?
Evolution of Dry Cleaning SolventsPre 1960s 1960s 1970s 1980s 1990s 2000s 2010s
• Kerosene• Turpentine• Naptha• Benzene• Stoddard• Carbon tet.• TCE
• Liquid CO2
• High-flashhydrocarbons• Siloxane• Glycol ethers• 1-bp• Water!
Acetal (Solvon K4)
Nothing cleans like PERC
• PERC (tetrachloroethylene) – 69%• Hydrocarbons – 21%• Solvon K4• Liquid CO2
• Liquid silicone• Wet cleaning (water)• Glycol ethers• 1-bromopropane (!)
Chemical Formula: C2Cl4
Source: LHWMP, 2011
Adapted from: Science Education Resource Center at Carleton College.
Adapted from: Minnesota Pollution Control Agency
PERC = DNAPL
Redmond, WA Groundwater2006-2010
Redmond, WA - 2011
259 x 0.57 = 148 ppm
Redmond, WA - 2011
> 1000 ppm PERC (maxed out!)
Age of dry cleaning machines
Expected lifespan ?
Source: LHWMP, 2011
• ~36,000 current dry cleaning facilities in the U.S.
• ~75% contaminated with PERC• Median cleanup cost: $230,000• Range: $29,000 - $2,000,000
Source: SCRD Drycleaner Site Profiles database, April 29, 2014
King County, WA:
• ~200 dry cleaners
• ~140 using PERC
• ~50 dry cleaners on Ecology’s Confirmed & Suspected Contaminated Sites List
PERC Harms People!
• 2014 EPA review (verified by NAS):– likely to be carcinogenic to humans– toxic to the CNS, kidney, liver, immune system, and
hematologic system. – adverse effects on embryonic development and
reproduction. • Grandjean & Landrigan (2014):– PERC is a developmental neurotoxicant
• Meta-Analysis of Dry-Cleaning-Worker Studies:– increased risk of bladder cancer in dry cleaners
Guyton et al. (2014). Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307359Grandjean & Landrigan (2014). The Lancet Neurology, 13(3), 330-338.Vlaanderen et al. (2014). Environ Health Perspect; DOI:10.1289/ehp.1307055
PERC Kills Fish!
Juvenile rainbow trout LC50:WA Dangerous Waste @ 100 mg/LWA Extremely Hazardous Waste @ 10 mg/L
LC50 = 5 mg/L
Source: EPA ECOTOX database
A PERCfect Storm
• Cultural and language barriers• Lack of knowledge of health effects• Incorrect information from vendors• Little interaction with OSHA• Confusion about waste management• Changing regulatory requirements• Economically-challenged industry
What is LHWMP doing?• Technical assistance & EnviroStars certification• Research into alternatives• Interagency Resource for Achieving Cooperation
(IRAC): education/outreach• “Mega vouchers” to replace equipment
• Three $20K awards in 2013• Four $15K awards in 2014
• Substantial Improvement Reimbursements: $500 - $2500
• Regular vouchers - up to $500 for 50% of costs
What else could be done?
• Goals:– Reduce exposure/health disparities– Minimize impacts on struggling businesses
• Multi-agency public/private strategy:– Incentivize conversion from PERC– Private and public financial incentives– Regulatory flexibility– Culturally appropriate technical guidance– Rigorous safer alternatives assessment
• LHWMP staff:– Alice Chapman– Trevor Fernandes– Ryan Kellogg– Debra Oliver– Sharon Schoenfeld-Cohen– Laurel Tomchick– Linda van Hooser
• LHWMP interns:- Chantrelle Johanson- Cody Cullison- Jessie Taylor
• City of Redmond:- Amanda Balzer
“It is very frustrating to see PERC dry cleaners promoting their 5 star EnviroStar status, it confuses customers into thinking PERC is environmentally friendly… I am frustrated that I paid a premium to build a "true" PERC free business and there is no support to promote our efforts.”
No more 5-star EnviroStar PERC users