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TITLE Rockets: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science,Mathematics, and Technology.
INSTITUTION National Aeronautics and Space Administration, Washington,DC
REPORT NO EG-2003-01-108-HQPUB DATE 2003-00-00
NOTE 128p.; Produced by the Johnson Space Center.PUB TYPE Guides Classroom Teacher (052)EDRS PRICE EDRS Price MF01/PC06 Plus Postage.DESCRIPTORS Aerospace Education; Elementary Secondary Education; Force;
*Integrated Activities; Mathematics Education; *ScienceInstruction; *Space Sciences; Technology Education
This educational guide discusses rockets and includesactivities in science, mathematics, and technology. It begins with backgroundinformation on the history of rocketry, scientific principles, and practicalrocketry. The sections on scientific principles and practical rocketry focuson Sir Isaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion. These laws explain why rocketswork and how .to make them more efficient. Activities include: (1) "ActivityMatrix"; (2) "Pop Can Hero Engine"; (3) "Rocket Racer"; (4) "3-2-1 Pop!"; (5)"Antacid Tablet Race"; (6) "Paper Rockets"; (7) "Newton Car"; (8) "BalloonStaging"; (9) "Rocket Transportation"; (10) "Altitude Tracking"; (11) "BottleRocket Launcher"; (12) "Bottle Rocket"; (13) "Project X-35"; and (14)"Additional Extensions". (MVL)
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National Aeronautics andSpace Administration
Educators Grades K-12
An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science,Mathematics, and Technology
U.S. DEPARTMENT OF EDUCATIONOffice of Educational Research and Improvement
EDUCATIONAL RESOURCES INFORMATION
4 documis ent has been reproduced asreceived hem the person or organizationoriginating it.
0 Minor changes have been made toimprove reproduction quality.
Points of view or opinions stated in thisdocument do not necessarily representofficial OERI position or policy.2
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ROCKETSAn Educator's Guide with Activities In Science,
Mathematics, and Technology
National Aeronautics and Space Administration
Office of Human Resources and EducationOffice of Education
Teaching From Space ProgramNASA Johnson Space Center
This publication is in the Public Domain and is not protected by copyright.Permission is not required for duplication.
Acknowledgments This publication was developed for theNational Aeronautics and SpaceAdministration with the assistance ofhundreds of teachers in the Texas Region IVarea and educators of the AerospaceEducation Services Program, OklahomaState University.
Deborah A. ShearerGregory L. Vogt, Ed.D.Teaching From Space ProgramNASA Johnson Space CenterHouston, TX
Carla B. RosenbergTeaching From Space ProgramNASA HeadquartersWashington, DC
Special Thanks to:
Timothy J. WickenheiserChief, Advanced Mission Analysis BranchNASA Lewis Research Center
Gordon W. EskridgeAerospace Education SpecialistOklahoma State University
Dale M. OliveTeacher, Hawaii
Table of Contents How To Use This Guide 1
Activity Format 3
Brief History of Rockets 5
Rocket Principles 13
Practical Rocketry 18
Launch Vehicle Family Album 25
Activity Matrix 36Pop Can Hero Engine 39Rocket Racer 453-2-1 Pop! 53Antacid Tablet Race 57Paper Rockets 61Newton Car 67Balloon Staging 73Rocket Transportation 76Altitude Tracking 79Bottle Rocket Launcher 87Bottle Rocket 91Project X-35 95Additional Extensions 114
NASA Educational Materials 116
Suggested Reading 116
Electronic Resources 117
NASA Resources for Educators 118
NASA Educator ResourceCenter Network 118
Evaluation Reply Card Insert
How To Use This Guide R ockets are the oldest form of self-containedvehicles in existence. Early rockets were inuse more than two thousand years ago. Over along and exciting history, rockets have evolvedfrom simple tubes filled with black powder intomighty vehicles capable of launching a spacecraftout into the galaxy. Few experiences cancompare with the excitement and thrill ofwatching a rocket-powered vehicle, such as theSpace Shuttle, thunder into space. Dreams ofrocket flight to distant worlds fire the imaginationof both children and adults.
With some simple and inexpensive materials,you can mount an exciting and productive unitabout rockets for children that incorporatesscience, mathematics, and technology education.The many activities contained in this teachingguide emphasize hands-on involvement,prediction, data collection and interpretation,teamwork, and problem solving. Furthermore,the guide contains background information aboutthe history of rockets and basic rocket science tomake you and your students "rocket scientists."
The guide begins with background informationon the history of rocketry, scientific principles, andpractical rocketry. The sections on scientificprinciples and practical rocketry focus on SirIsaac Newton's Three Laws of Motion. Theselaws explain why rockets work and how to makethem more efficient.
Following the background sections are a seriesof activities that demonstrate the basic science ofrocketry while offering challenging tasks indesign. Each activity employs basic andinexpensive materials. In each activity you willfind construction diagrams, material and toolslists, and instructions. A brief background sectionwithin the activities elaborates on the conceptscovered in the activities and points back to theintroductory material in the guide. Also included isinformation about where the activity applies toscience and mathematics standards, assessmentideas, and extensions. Look on page 3 for moredetails on how the activity pages are constructed.
Because many of the activities anddemonstrations apply to more than one subjectarea, a matrix chart identifies opportunities forextended learning experiences. The chartindicates these subject areas by activity title. Inaddition, many of the student activities encourage
Rockets: An Educator's Guide with Activities in Science, Mathematics, and Technology EG-2003-01-108-HO1
student problem-solving and cooperativelearning. For example, students can useproblem-solving to come up with ways to improvethe performance of rocket cars. Cooperativelearning is a necessity in the Altitude Trackingand Balloon Staging activities.
The length of time involved for eachactivity varies according to its degree of difficultyand the development level of the students. Withthe exception of the Project X-35 activity at theguide's end, students can complete mostactivities in one or two class periods.
Finally, the guide concludes with a glossary ofterms, suggested reading list, NASA educationalresources including electronic resources, and anevaluation questionnaire. We would appreciate
your assistance in improving this guide in future editionsby completing the questionnaire and makingsuggestions for changes and additions.
A Note on Measurement
In developing this guide, metric units ofmeasurement were employed. In a fewexceptions, notably within the "Materials andTools" lists, English units have been listed. In theUnited States, metric-sized parts such as screwsand wood stock are not as accessible as theirEnglish equivalents. Therefore, English unitshave been used to facilitate obtaining requiredmaterials.
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