restored primary and permanent teeth for patients attended ... restored primary and permanent teeth

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  • Ministry of higher Education

    & scientific research

    University of Baghdad

    College of Dentistry

    Restored primary and permanent teeth for

    patients attended the department of

    pediatric dentistry / college of dentistry /

    Baghdad University in two years ago

    (a retrospective study)

    A Project

    Submitted to the College of Dentistry, University of

    Baghdad, Department of Pedodontics and Preventive

    dentistry in partial fulfillment of the requirement for


    By: Sarmad wadhah yousif

    Supervised by

    Assistant Prof. Zainab Jum’a Ja’far

    B.D.S, M.Sc.


  • I


    To my supervisor DR. Zainab Jum‘a Ja‘far for her guidance and endless support

    thought this project, without her valuable assistant this work would not have

    been completed…

    To all my friends especially Ahmed Wissam …

    And to all those who supported me during the course of my study…

  • II


    Deep thanks to Prof. Dr. Hussain F. Al- Huwaizi Dean of the College of

    Dentistry-University of Baghdad for his support to accomplish this review.

    I would like to thank Assist. Prof. Dr. Nada Jafer MH. Shaikh Radhi, Head of

    the Department of Pedodontics and Preventive Dentistry for her Kindness and


    I am indeed internally thankful to my supervisor Dr. Zainab Jum’a Ja’far, for

    her continuous guidance, generous advice, and without her encouragement and

    wise supervision; the present dissertation wouldn't see the light of the day.

    My great appreciation and thanks to all teaching staff in Department of

    Preventive and Pedodontic Dentistry.

    Finally, to all those whom I forgot to mention their names for their kind efforts

    helping me to compose this study.

  • III


    Background: A dental restoration or dental filling is a treatment to restore the

    function, integrity, and morphology of missing tooth structure resulting

    from caries or external trauma (Gopikrishna, 2015).

    Archivists should use their power—in determining what records will be

    preserved for future generations and in interpreting this documentation for

    researchers—for the benefit of all members of society (Kaplan, 2000).

    Materials & methods: This is a retrospective study made to record the work of

    pediatric department/ College of Dentistry/ Baghdad University in the

    undergraduate clinic. The case sheets have been taken from the department

    achieve for the studying years (2015-2016) and (2016-2017). After collection,

    separation and organization of case sheets and numbering, then sorted by (age,

    gender, the tooth involved, filling materials, and class of filling). Statistical

    analysis was done by using IBM SPSS statistic version 19.

    Results and conclusions: of total sample (1484) in 2016-2017 and (1513) in

    2015-2016,the age group 6-8 in primary dentition and the age group 12-14 had

    the highest percentage of filled teeth, and in general the boys had more filled

    teeth in comparing to girls, the lower arch had more filled teeth than upper arch,

    the left side highest percentage of filled teeth than the right side, and the most

    filled primary tooth was lower primary second molar, while lower permanent

    first molar was the most filled permanent tooth, amalgam filling material was

    highly used in dental clinic, and according to Black classification; class I was

    the most class among others classes.

  • IV

    List of content Title

    No. subject Page No.

    Introduction 1


    Chapter One(Review of Literature) 3

    1.1 Definitions 3

    1.2 Objectives of restorative treatment 3

    1.3 Modifications of restoration of primary teeth from that

    of permanent teeth


    1.4 Factors affecting the choice of restorative material

    Restorative materials


    1.4.1 Age 5

    1.4.2 Caries risk 5

    1.4.3 Cooperation of the child 6

    1.4.4 Restorative implications of behavior management 6

    1.5 Restorative Materials 7

    1.5.1 Amalgam 7

    1.5.2 Glass ionomer cements (GICs) 8

    1.5.3 Resin-modified glass ionomer cements 10

    1.5.4 Composite resins 11

    1.5.5 Compomers (polyacid-modified composite resin) 13

    1.6 studies related to restored teeth 15

    1.6.1 according to the age 15

    1.6.2 according to the gender 15

  • V

    1.6.3 according to the jaw distribution 15

    1.6.4 according to the side 15

    1.6.5 according to the tooth type 15

    Chapter Two(Materials and Methods) 17

    Chapter three(The Result) 18

    Chapter Four(Discussion) 30

    (Conclusions) 32

    References 33

    List of figures Figure

    No. Title Page No.

    1.1 differences in anatomy of primary teeth and permanent teeth


    1.2 Occlusal and proximal surfaces of primary tooth 5

    1.3 advantages and disadvantages of restorative materials used in pediatric dentistry


    2.1 collection and entering of the information from case sheets.


    List of tables


    No. Title Page No.

    3.1 Distribution of the total sample by age and gender 18

    3.2 filled primary teeth according to tooth type, gender, jaw and side


    3.3 filled primary teeth according to age group


    3.4 filled primary teeth according to filling material 21

    3.5 Black’s classification of filled primary teeth 22

    3.6 filled permanent teeth according to tooth type, gender, jaw and side


  • VI

    3.7 filled permanent teeth according to age groups 26

    3.8 filled permanent teeth according to filling material 27

    3.9 Black’s classification of filled permanent teeth in 2016- 2017


    3.10 Black’s classification of filled permanent teeth in 2015- 2016


    List of abbreviation

    symbol Abbreviation UA Upper primary central incisor

    UB Upper primary lateral incisor

    UC Upper primary canine

    UD Upper primary first molar

    UE Upper primary second molar

    LA Lower primary central incisor

    LB Lower primary lateral incisor

    LC Lower primary canine

    LD Lower primary first molar

    LE Lower primary second molar

    U1 Upper permanent central incisor

    U2 Upper permanent lateral incisor

    U3 Upper permanent canine

    U4 Upper permanent first premolar

    U5 Upper permanent second premolar

    U6 Upper permanent first molar

    U7 Upper permanent second molar

    L1 Lower permanent central incisor

    L2 Lower permanent lateral incisor

    L3 Lower permanent canine

    L4 Lower permanent first premolar

    L5 Lower permanent second premolar

    L6 Lower permanent first molar

    L7 Lower permanent second molar

  • 1


    Patients seek dental treatment for symptoms, such as pain, sensitivity, trauma,

    decay, discoloration and for esthetic corrections. The management of most of

    these problems is under the purview of conservative dentistry. Hence the

    operative dentistry/ conservative dentistry forms the core any dental practice

    (Gopikrishna, 2015).

    Caries activity usually causes tooth decay or cavities and can even lead to the

    loss of afflicted teeth, which is particularly harmful to children's growth and

    development (Petersen et al, 2005).

    In contemporary dental practice, there are various different currently available

    therapeutic possibilities for a restoration of tooth, damaged by tooth diseases or

    trauma of any kind (Alb et al, 2010).

    During the last two decades, a revolutionary change of tooth preparation

    principles, indications and types of restorative materials appeared in a dental

    practice (Salerno & Diaspro 2015).

    The most commonly used restorative materials for posterior restorations,

    amalgam fillings and gold inlays, used in ‗80s, became suppressed to only 20%,

    or less, of all contemporary posterior restorations (Burke et al 2001; Dietschi et

    al 2001; Christensen 2005).

    What we preserve in archives represents a complex array of social values. As

    Elisabeth Kaplan argues in an essay on archives and the construction of identity,

    ―We are what we collect, we collect what we are.‖ By preserving some records

    and not others, archivists affect society‘s collective understanding of its past,

    including what will be forgotten (Kaplan, 2000).

  • 2


    This study aimed to record and sort the work of the department of pedodontics /

    college of Dentistry/ University of Baghdad at two studying years (2015-2016

    and 2016-2017) concerning filled teeth, and to have a base line data for future

    comparison of the achievements of the department about filled teeth for children

    came to this department in the past two years ac