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  • REVERSEENGINEERING

    TECHNOLOGYOF REINVENTION

  • REVERSEENGINEERING

    TECHNOLOGYOF REINVENTION

    WEGO WANG

    CRC Press is an imprint of theTaylor & Francis Group, an informa business

    Boca Raton London New York

  • CRC PressTaylor & Francis Group6000 Broken Sound Parkway NW, Suite 300Boca Raton, FL 33487-2742

    2011 by Taylor and Francis Group, LLCCRC Press is an imprint of Taylor & Francis Group, an Informa business

    No claim to original U.S. Government works

    Printed in the United States of America on acid-free paper10 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    International Standard Book Number-13: 978-1-4398-0631-9 (Ebook-PDF)

    This book contains information obtained from authentic and highly regarded sources. Reasonable efforts have been made to publish reliable data and information, but the author and publisher cannot assume responsibility for the validity of all materials or the consequences of their use. The authors and publishers have attempted to trace the copyright holders of all material reproduced in this publication and apologize to copyright holders if permission to publish in this form has not been obtained. If any copyright material has not been acknowledged please write and let us know so we may rectify in any future reprint.

    Except as permitted under U.S. Copyright Law, no part of this book may be reprinted, reproduced, transmit-ted, or utilized in any form by any electronic, mechanical, or other means, now known or hereafter invented, including photocopying, microfilming, and recording, or in any information storage or retrieval system, without written permission from the publishers.

    For permission to photocopy or use material electronically from this work, please access www.copyright.com (http://www.copyright.com/) or contact the Copyright Clearance Center, Inc. (CCC), 222 Rosewood Drive, Danvers, MA 01923, 978-750-8400. CCC is a not-for-profit organization that provides licenses and registration for a variety of users. For organizations that have been granted a photocopy license by the CCC, a separate system of payment has been arranged.

    Trademark Notice: Product or corporate names may be trademarks or registered trademarks, and are used only for identification and explanation without intent to infringe.Visit the Taylor & Francis Web site athttp://www.taylorandfrancis.comand the CRC Press Web site athttp://www.crcpress.com

  • vDedication and Acknowledgments

    The author is deeply indebted to his parents for their inspiration and encour-agement all these years. He expresses his whole-hearted appreciation to his wife for her support throughout the course of writing this book. His son and daughter have also been invaluable advisors and proofreaders for the book. His family provides him with both spiritual and professional support and deserves a lot of credit for the completion of this book.

    The author is grateful for the support of Charlie Yongpravat for his prepa-ration of several figures and plots, Dr. Indu M. Anand and Robert J. Sayre for their advice on subjects relating to patent and copyright laws, and James G. Serdy of the MIT Laboratory for Manufacturing and Productivity for his advice on three-dimensional printing. The author also thanks Innovmetric, Capture 3D, 3DScanCo/GKS Global Services, ReliaSoft, SEMTech Solutions, Advanced Heat Treat, Metallurgical Technologies, and Dissemination of IT for the Promotion of Materials Science (DoITPoMS) for the photos, images, micrographs, and information they provided, as well as Howard W. Ferris and the Automotive Technology Center at Massachusetts Bay Community College for their support. Roger Oldfield and Jarek Adamowski also kindly granted their copyrighted photo or micrograph for this book. Additionally, several photographs in this book were taken at Instron Corporation in Norwood, Massachusetts; the New England Air Museum in Windsor Locks, Connecticut; the Museum of Flight in Seattle, Washington; the MTU-Museum of MTU Aero Engines in Munich, Germany; the Department of Plastics Engineering of the University of MassachusettsLowell in Lowell, Massachusetts; laboratories at Massachusetts Institute of Technology in Cambridge, Massachusetts; and the Bingham Canyon Mine Visitors Center of Kennecott Utah Copper in Bingham Canyon, Utah.

    This book is dedicated to Shie-Chih Wong, Yung Tsung Tung Wong, Tsai-Hui Chang, Andrew F. Wang, and Eileen F. Wang.

  • vii

    Contents

    Preface ................................................................................................................... xiiiAuthor .....................................................................................................................xvDeclaration and Disclaimer .............................................................................. xvii

    1 Introduction .....................................................................................................11.1 Historical Background .........................................................................2

    1.1.1 Industrial Evolution .................................................................21.1.2 Reinvention of Engineering Marvels from Nature .............41.1.3 Reverse Engineering in Modern Industries .........................6

    1.2 Reverse Engineering vs. Machine Design ....................................... 111.2.1 Motivation and Challenge .................................................... 11

    1.3 Analysis and Verification ................................................................... 131.3.1 Accreditation .......................................................................... 141.3.2 Part Criticality ........................................................................ 15

    1.4 Applications of Reverse Engineering ............................................... 171.4.1 Software Reverse Engineering ............................................. 181.4.2 Applications of Reverse Engineering in the Life

    Science and Medical Device Industries .............................. 20References .......................................................................................................23

    2 Geometrical Form .........................................................................................252.1 Surface and Solid Model Reconstruction ........................................25

    2.1.1 Scanning Instruments and Technology .............................282.1.2 Principles of Imaging ............................................................ 312.1.3 Cross-Sectional Scanning .....................................................352.1.4 Digital Data .............................................................................362.1.5 Computational Graphics and Modeling .............................382.1.6 Data Refinement and Exchangeability ...............................40

    2.2 Dimensional Measurement ...............................................................422.3 Case Studies .........................................................................................442.4 Part Tolerance ...................................................................................... 492.5 Prototyping ..........................................................................................50

    2.5.1 Additive Prototyping Technologies .................................... 522.5.2 Subtractive Prototyping Processes ......................................582.5.3 Rapid Injection Molding .......................................................58

    2.6 Steps of Geometric Modeling ............................................................ 59References .......................................................................................................60

  • viii Contents

    3 Material Characteristics and Analysis .....................................................633.1 Alloy Structure Equivalency .............................................................65

    3.1.1 Structure of Engineering Alloys ..........................................653.1.2 Effects of Process and Product Form on Material

    Equivalency ............................................................................663.2 Phase Formation and Identification ................................................. 67

    3.2.1 Phase Diagram .......................................................................683.2.2 Grain Morphology Equivalency .......................................... 703.2.3 Recrystallization, Secondary Recrystallization, and

    Recovery .................................................................................. 713.2.4 Grain Size and Grain Growth .............................................. 74

    3.3 Mechanical Strength ...........................................................................753.3.1 Classic Mechanics ..................................................................753.3.2 Critical Resolved Shear Stress .............................................. 793.3.3 Fracture Strength ...................................................................803.3.4 Material Toughness ...............................................................843.3.5 Notch Effects ..........................................................................883.3.6 Bending, Torsion, and Hoop Stress ..................................... 91

    3.4 Hardness .............................................................................................. 933.4.1 Hardness Measurement ........................................................ 933.4.2 Hardness and Tensile Strength Relationship .................... 98

    References .......................................................................................................99

    4 Part Durability and Life Limitation ..................................