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Reverse Engineering & New Product Development What does it mean to reverse engineer something? Reverse engineering is the general process of analyzing an object in order to determine how it was designed or how it operates. Reverse engineering is not confined to any particular purpose, but is often used as a part of a company's research and development. The process of taking something apart and revealing the way in which it works is often an effective way to learn how to build a new product or make improvements to an existing product. How is reverse engineering performed? To reverse engineer, a researcher gathers data needed to document the specifications of a product or part by performing a product inspection. Reverse engineering allows researchers to understand both the form and structure of an object and any aspects causing it --or the product it is apart of -- to malfunction. What are the benefits of reverse engineering? The primary benefit of reverse engineering is new product development. With reverse engineering, manufacturers can compete against products that dominate their market. Creation of better product designs often begin with the reverse engineering process. How is reverse engineering used in product development? Understanding a product's use Locating and fixing malfunctions or limitations with product inspection Studying design ideas Creating compatibility between products Finding out if someone has copied elements of a product that is protected by intellectual property law Improving obsolete products How does reverse engineering differ from other types of engineering? When a product is engineered, the process begins with an idea that, working forward, becomes a product. When something is reverse engineered, the process begins with a product that, when examined reveals, ideas and other concepts used to create it. Reverse engineering aims to duplicate the product in order to modify or enhance the original product design. What stages are involved in reverse engineering a product?

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  • Reverse Engineering & New Product

    Development

    What does it mean to reverse engineer something?

    Reverse engineering is the general process of analyzing an object in order to determine

    how it was designed or how it operates. Reverse engineering is not confined to any

    particular purpose, but is often used as a part of a company's research and development.

    The process of taking something apart and revealing the way in which it works is often an

    effective way to learn how to build a new product or make improvements to an existing

    product.

    How is reverse engineering performed?

    To reverse engineer, a researcher gathers data needed to document the specifications of a

    product or part by performing a product inspection. Reverse engineering allows

    researchers to understand both the form and structure of an object and any aspects

    causing it --or the product it is apart of -- to malfunction.

    What are the benefits of reverse engineering?

    The primary benefit of reverse engineering is new product development. With reverse

    engineering, manufacturers can compete against products that dominate their market.

    Creation of better product designs often begin with the reverse engineering process.

    How is reverse engineering used in product development?

    Understanding a product's use

    Locating and fixing malfunctions or limitations with product inspection

    Studying design ideas

    Creating compatibility between products

    Finding out if someone has copied elements of a product that is protected

    by intellectual property law

    Improving obsolete products

    How does reverse engineering differ from other types of engineering?

    When a product is engineered, the process begins with an idea that, working forward,

    becomes a product. When something is reverse engineered, the process begins with a

    product that, when examined reveals, ideas and other concepts used to create it. Reverse

    engineering aims to duplicate the product in order to modify or enhance the original

    product design.

    What stages are involved in reverse engineering a product?

  • Identifying the product or component which will be reverse engineered

    Measuring the product by digitizing it using a 3D digitization / 3D laser scan

    Documenting the specifications of the product

    Implementing the data generated by reverse engineering in a replica or modified

    version of the original product

    Designing a new product

    Is reverse engineering for new product development legal?

    Yes. Reverse engineering is a legitimate form of discovery in both legislation and court

    opinions. The Supreme Court has confronted the issue of reverse engineering multiple

    times and has upheld it as a vital method of the dissemination of knowledge that

    encourages innovation in the marketplace and avoids the creation of monopolies.

    See:

    Nonobviousness and the Incentive to Innovate: An Economic Analysis of

    Intellectual Property Reform - (PDF 238.2KB) from Federal Trade Commission

    The Law and Economics of Reverse Engineering by Pamela Samuelson,

    Yale Law Journal

    Kewanee Oil v. Bicron [416 U.S. 470, 476 (1974)]

    Bonito Boats. v. Thunder Craft [489 U.S. 141 160 (1989)]

    Does making a temporary copy of an object in the reverse engineering

    process infringe intellectual property rights?

    Though companies have attempted to bring claims against those who reverse engineer,

    reverse engineering is considered a fair use when "no alternative means of gaining an

    understanding of those ideas and functional concepts exists."

    See: Sega Enterprises Ltd. v. Accolade

    Is reverse engineering an object affected by patent law?

    Yes and No. Sometimes a product may contain components from different manufacturers

    that may be protected by patent law. However, the specifications of the component must

    be disclosed in the published version of a patent.

    Since some components are very complex, it would not be possible to figure out how the

    whole product works without having to replicate some of its parts.

    Does trade secret protection of information contained within a product

    restrict reverse engineering?

    http://www.ftc.gov/os/comments/intelpropertycomments/%20nonobviousness.pdfhttp://www.ftc.gov/http://www.findarticles.com/p/articles/mi_go2260/is_200205/ai_n7052436http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=416&invol=470http://caselaw.lp.findlaw.com/scripts/getcase.pl?court=US&vol=489&invol=141http://digital-law-online.info/cases/24PQ2D1561.htm

  • Yes. However, the status of a trade secret depends on efforts undertaken by the owner to

    maintain the secrecy of the information. There is no limitation on how long trade secrecy

    is enforceable; trade secrets can potentially provide eternal protection for any product.

    Should someone who plans to reverse engineer a product be concerned

    with trademarks?

    No. Trademark law protects words, names, symbols, or devices that identify the source of

    goods and services -- not the product or components of a product.

    Should someone who plans to reverse engineer a product be concerned

    with copyright?

    No. Copyright protects an expression, such as a literary, musical or artistic work.

    Copyright does not cover ideas, processes, procedures, systems, or methods of operation.

    3D Laser Scanning in a nutshell... 3D laser scanning / digitizing is a technology that captures the digital shape of

    physical objects. Our patented technology will decrease engineering costs, improve

    product times to market, and provide a whole new perspective.

    Inspection & Reverse Engineering using 3D Laser Scanning Through the power of Laser Triangulation Technology, our 3D laser scanners are

    ideal for applications in Inspection and Reverse Engineering. Whether you're an

    animation engineer creating animated movies for the big screen, or in quality control

    or product development, you can shorten product development time through our

    cutting edge solutions. Take a clay model and quickly place it into a virtual world.

    Or use our technology for reverse engineering, quality control, manufacturing, and

    product design. Read Application Stories about our 3D laser scanning technology.

    How 3D Laser Scanning Works Laser Design's technology uses Laser Triangulation, a precise method of 3D data

    acquisition. Laser triangulation is an active stereoscopic technique where the

    distance of the object is computed by means of a directional light source and a video

    camera. A laser beam is deflected from a mirror onto a scanning object. The object

    scatters the light, which is then collected by a video camera located at a known

    triangulation distance from the laser. Using trigonometry, the 3D spatial (XYZ)

    coordinates of a surface point are calculated. The CCD cameras 2D array captures

    the surface profiles image and digitizes all data points along the laser.

    Software Specialized for 3D Laser Scanning

    Through specialized software from Laser Design Solution Partners, the 3D laser scan

    can be easily compared to a CAD file, enabling deviations from normal to be

    http://www.laserdesign.com/service-bureau-stories.htm

  • graphically displayed. Other software programs allow NURBS surfaces to be applied to the scan data as well as STL and CNC tool path files.

    Please contact us or your nearest Laser Design Authorized Distributor for additional product information.

    Reverse engineering

    Reverse engineering (RE) is the process of taking something (a device, an electrical

    component, a software program, etc.) apart and analyzing its workings in detail, usually

    with the intention to construct a new device or program that does the same thing without

    actually copying anything from the original. The verb form is to reverse-engineer,

    spelled with a hyphen.

    Reverse engineering is commonly done to avoid copyrights on desired functionality, and

    may be used for avoiding patent law, though this is a bit risky: patents apply to the

    functionality, not a specific implementation of it.

    Reverse engineering is often used by military in order to copy other nations' technology,

    parts of which have been obtained by intelligence operations. It was often used during the

    Second World War and the Cold War.

    Reverse engineering software or hardware systems for the purposes of interoperability,

    for example in order to support undocumented file formats or hardware peripherals, is

    mostly believed to be legal, though patent owners often aggressively pursue their patents.

    Other purposes of reverse engineering include security auditing, removal of copy

    protection ("cracking"), circumvention of access restrictions often present in consumer

    electronics, pure curiosity and customization of embedded systems, for example engine

    management systems.

    [edit]

    Reverse engineering of mechanical components

    Mechanical components of mechanical systems, such as motors, or electrical systems,

    such as plugs, sockets, and edge card connectors can be reproduced by measuring their

    mechanical characteristics. In RE of mechanical components, the shape of the component

    under scrutiny must be completely and accurately measured. The forces acting upon it

    http://www.laserdesign.com/Contact%20us.htmhttp://www.laserdesign.com/map1.htmhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Devicehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Componenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Softwarehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Verbhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Hyphenhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Copyrighthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Militaryhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Technologyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Intelligencehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Second_World_Warhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Cold_Warhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Interoperabilityhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_crackinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_electronicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_electronicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Consumer_electronicshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Embedded_systemshttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_engineering&action=edit&section=1

  • must also be analysed in order to ensure that the new component can withstand the forces

    that the original withstood.

    Coordinate-measuring machines (CMM) can be used to create a 3D model of the original

    component, which can then be used in computer-aided modeling. New and improved

    techniques in reverse engineering include laser scanning which uses laser beams to scan

    across the surface of components of any shape and create a very precise image of the

    component surface. This scanning creates a series of slices that, when combined, can

    represent the surface of the object in a computer simulation.

    [edit]

    Reverse engineering of software

    The term "reverse engineering" as applied to software means different things to different

    people, prompting Chikofsky and Cross 1 to write a paper researching the various uses

    and defining a taxonomy. From their paper: "Reverse engineering is the process of

    analyzing a subject system to create representations of the system at a higher level of

    abstraction."

    It can also be seen as "going backwards through the development cycle" 2. In this model,

    the output of the implementation phase (in source code form) is reverse engineered back

    to the analysis phase, in an inversion of the traditional waterfall model.

    Reverse engineering is a process of examination only: the software system under

    consideration is not modified (which would make it reengineering).

    In practice, two main types of reverse engineering emerge. In the first case, source code

    is already available for the software, but higher level aspects of the program, perhaps

    poorly documented or documented but no longer valid, are discovered. In the second

    case, there is no source code available for the software, and any efforts towards

    discovering one possible source code for the software are regarged as reverse

    engineering. This second usage of the term is the one most people are familiar with, so

    that at times, reverse engineering becomes a synonym for decompilation.

    [edit]

    Reverse engineering of binary software

    This process is sometimes termed Reverse Code Engineering or RCE 3. As an example,

    decompilation of binaries for the Java platform can be accomplished using

    ARGOuml.org. One famous case of reverse engineering was the first non-IBM

    implementation of BIOS which launched the historic PC clone industry.

    In the United States, the Digital Millennium Copyright Act exempts from the

    circumvention ban some acts of reverse engineering aimed at interoperability of file

    http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Coordinate-measuring_machinehttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Laser_scanning&action=edithttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_engineering&action=edit&section=2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_engineering#fn_1#fn_1http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taxonomyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_engineering#fn_2#fn_2http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reengineeringhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decompilationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_engineering&action=edit&section=3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Reverse_engineering#fn_3#fn_3http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Java_platformhttp://www.argouml.org/http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/International_Business_Machineshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/BIOShttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/IBM_PC_compatiblehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/United_Stateshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Digital_Millennium_Copyright_Act

  • formats and protocols (17 USC 1201(f)), but judges in key cases have ignored this law,

    since it is acceptable to circumvent restrictions for use, but not for access.

    The Samba software, which allows systems that are not running Microsoft Windows

    systems to share files with systems that are, is a classic example of software reverse

    engineering, since the Samba project had to reverse-engineer unpublished information

    about how Windows file sharing worked, so that non-Windows computers could emulate

    it. The WINE project does the same thing for the Windows API, and OpenOffice.org is

    one party doing this for the Microsoft Office file formats.

    Reverse engineering of software can be accomplished by various methods. The three

    main groups of reverse engineering are: 1) analysis through observation of information

    exchange (most prevalent in protocol reverse engineering), 2) disassembly using a

    disassembler, and 3) decompilation using a decompiler.

    [edit]

    Reverse engineering as business research

    Reverse engineering is also used by businesses to assess competitors' products. It is used

    to analyze, for instance, how a competitor's product works, what it does, who

    manufactures it, what components it consists of, estimate costs, identify potential patent

    infringement, etc.

    Value engineering is a related activity also used by business. It involves deconstructing

    and analysing products, but the objective is to find opportunities for cost cutting.

    [edit]

    Similar tasks

    Research of physical

    laws is reverse-

    engineering the

    world.

    Black box testing in

    software engineering

    has a lot in common

    with reverse-

    engineering, the

    tester usually has the

    API, but his goals

    are to find bugs and

    undocumented

    features by bashing

    http://www4.law.cornell.edu/uscode/17/1201.htmlhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Samba_softwarehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Windowshttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/WINEhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Windows_APIhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/OpenOffice.orghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Microsoft_Officehttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disassemblyhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Disassemblerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decompilationhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Decompilerhttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_engineering&action=edit&section=4http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Patenthttp://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_engineering&action=edit&section=5http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_lawhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_lawhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Physical_lawhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Black_box_testinghttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Software_engineeringhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/API

  • the product from

    outside.

    [edit]

    Examples

    Jerry can. During

    World War II,

    British and

    American forces

    noticed that the

    Germans had

    gasoline cans with an

    excellent design.

    They reverse

    engineered copies of

    those cans. The cans

    were popularly

    known as Jerry cans.

    The Tupolev Tu-4.

    During World War

    II, a number of

    American B-29

    bombers on missions

    over Japan were

    forced to land in the

    USSR. The Soviets,

    who did not have a

    similar strategic

    bomber, decided to

    copy the B-29.

    Within a few years

    they had developed

    the Tu-4, a near

    perfect copy.

    [edit]

    See also

    http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_engineering&action=edit&section=6http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Jerry_canhttp://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/Tupolev_Tu-4http://en.wikipedia.org/wiki/B-29http://en.wikipedia.org/w/index.php?title=Reverse_engineering&action=edit&section=7javascript:fnEmailfriend();

  • Reverse engineering 101

    Portable CMMs and

    software make reverse

    engineering useful for

    modifications, new

    designs, and duplicating

    parts without drawings.

    Robert Pearce

    Applications Engineer

    Faro Technologies

    Lake Mary, Fla.

    A portable

    CMM

    digitally

    captures the

    position of

    the turbine

    blade, root,

    and shaft

    surfaces. In

    this case, a

    measuring

    pattern

    should

    follow

    concentric

    circles

    around the

    hub. A

    completed

    image can

    be

    manipulated

    by various

    CAD

    programs to

    add

    surfaces to

    the image,

  • measure

    uniformity

    of

    individual

    blades, or

    even test

    flow

    properties

    in a

    simulation

    program.

    Pro

    duc

    tio

    n

    equ

    ip

    me

    nt

    and

    line

    s

    can

    be

    fin

    e-

    tun

    ed

    afte

    r

    cap

    turi

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    me

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    also

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    ome

    a

    test

    obje

  • ct.

    For

    inst

    ance

    , the

    digit

    al

    part

    can

    be

    stres

    s

    anal

    yze

    d,

    chec

    ked

    for

    flui

    d

    flow

    ,

    and

    repr

    odu

    ced

    on

    rapi

    d-

    prot

    otyp

    ing

    equi

    pme

    nt

    for

    ergo

    nom

    ic

    stud

    ies.

    In

    the

    past,

    mea

  • suri

    ng a

    com

    plex

    shap

    e

    requ

    ired

    nov

    el

    tech

    niqu

    es.

    One

    was

    stic

    k

    buil

    ding

    .

    Poin

    ts

    on

    an

    obje

    ct

    wer

    e

    mea

    sure

    d

    usin

    g

    cali

    pers

    ,

    rule

    s, or

    dept

    h

    gag

    es

    and

    a

    mod

    el

  • was

    built

    with

    stic

    ks,

    each

    repr

    esen

    ting

    an

    indi

    vidu

    al

    mea

    sure

    men

    t.

    Mo

    del

    accu

    racy

    dep

    end

    ed

    entir

    ely

    on

    the

    skill

    of

    the

    mod

    el

    mak

    er

    and

    the

    proc

    ess

    usua

    lly

    requ

    ired

    wee

    ks

    to

  • get

    righ

    t.

    Eve

    ntua

    lly,

    engi

    neer

    s

    beg

    an

    usin

    g

    con

    vent

    iona

    l

    CM

    Ms

    to

    digit

    ally

    capt

    ure

    obje

    cts.

    Acc

    urac

    y

    grea

    tly

    imp

    rove

    d

    but

    the

    proc

    ess

    rem

    aine

    d

    fairl

    y

    slo

    w

  • beca

    use

    the

    CM

    M

    had

    to

    be

    prog

    ram

    med

    for

    each

    diff

    eren

    t

    shap

    e.

    RE's

    tool

    toda

    y is

    a

    devi

    ce

    orig

    inall

    y

    dev

    elop

    ed

    for

    qual

    ity-

    assu

    ranc

    e

    dep

    artm

    ents

    to

    mak

    e

    fast,

    inpr

  • oces

    s

    qual

    ity

    chec

    ks.

    The

    port

    able

    CM

    M is

    base

    d on

    an

    artic

    ulati

    ng

    arm,

    with

    joint

    s

    hou

    sing

    opti

    cal

    enc

    oder

    s.

    The

    y

    repr

    odu

    ce

    the

    X-Y-

    Z

    loca

    tion

    and

    I-J-

    K

    orie

    ntati

    on

    of a

    styl

  • us

    to

    an

    accu

    racy

    of

    up

    to0

    .000

    2 in.

    The

    arm

    mov

    es

    freel

    y

    with

    in a

    sphe

    re

    defi

    ned

    by

    its

    own

    reac

    h. It

    capt

    ures

    data

    rapi

    dly,

    with

    a

    mea

    suri

    ng

    pote

    ntial

    for

    hun

    dred

    s of

    poin

    ts

    per

  • min

    ute.

    The

    arm

    reco

    rds

    mea

    sure

    men

    ts as

    indi

    vidu

    al

    poin

    ts or

    stre

    ami

    ng

    line

    s for

    CA

    D-

    com

    pati

    ble

    soft

    war

    e.

    Soft

    war

    e for

    port

    able

    CM

    Ms

    also

    sim

    plifi

    es

    data

    gath

    erin

    g.

    Mos

    t

  • part

    s are

    com

    pose

    d of

    pris

    mati

    c

    shap

    es

    such

    as

    arcs,

    circl

    es,

    sphe

    res,

    and

    rods

    .

    Use

    rs

    spec

    ify a

    stan

    dard

    shap

    e

    fro

    m a

    men

    u,

    mea

    sure

    seve

    ral

    poin

    ts,

    and

    let

    the

    soft

    war

    e

    com

    plet

  • e

    the

    shap

    e.

    Non

    pris

    mati

    c

    shap

    es

    can

    be

    digit

    ized

    free

    han

    d, or

    by

    usin

    g

    one

    of

    seve

    ral

    "loc

    ked-

    plan

    e"

    scan

    tech

    niqu

    es in

    whi

    ch a

    part

    is

    trac

    ed

    and

    the

    soft

    war

    e

    secti

    ons

    the

  • trac

    e as

    para

    llel

    plan

    es,

    radi

    al

    secti

    ons,

    or

    con

    cent

    ric

    circl

    es.

    Alth

    oug

    h

    the

    soft

    war

    e is

    not

    inte

    nde

    d as

    a

    desi

    gn

    med

    ium,

    it

    prov

    ides

    way

    s to

    man

    ipul

    ate

    ima

    ges

    by

    reve

    rsin

  • g,

    dou

    blin

    g, or

    repo

    sitio

    ning

    the

    m.

    Wh

    en a

    part

    is

    sym

    metr

    ical,

    stan

    dard

    prac

    tice

    is to

    digit

    ize

    half,

    then

    dupl

    icat

    e

    and

    reve

    rse

    or

    mirr

    or it

    in

    soft

    war

    e,

    and

    join

    the

    two

    halv

    es.

    An

    auto

  • moti

    ve

    mod

    el

    sho

    p

    uses

    the

    tech

    niqu

    e to

    cut

    its

    digit

    izin

    g

    wor

    k in

    half.

    It

    digit

    izes

    one

    fend

    er

    then

    uses

    the

    soft

    war

    e to

    crea

    te

    the

    mirr

    or

    ima

    ge.

    A

    FE

    W

    AP

    PL

    IC

    AT

  • IO

    NS

    FO

    R

    RE

    VE

    RS

    E

    EN

    GI

    NE

    ER

    IN

    G

    EN

    D

    US

    E

    OF

    IM

    AG

    E

    TY

    PI

    CA

    L

    FO

    R

    M

    AT

    CO

    M

    M

    ON

    SO

    FT

    W

    AR

    E

    PA

    CK

    AG

    ES

    To

    oli

    ng

    Wi

    re

    fra

    me

    (lo

    w-

    den

    sity

    ima

    ges

    )

    Pol

    ygo

    nal

    sha

    pes

    (hi

    gh-

    CA

    M

    soft

    war

    e

    and

    NC

    pro

    gra

    ms

  • den

    sity

    ima

    ges

    )

    Mo

    ldi

    ng

    Wi

    re

    fra

    me

    (lo

    w

    den

    sity

    )

    Pol

    ygo

    nal

    sha

    pes

    (hi

    gh

    den

    sity

    )

    CA

    M

    soft

    war

    e

    NC

    pro

    gra

    ms

    Sol

    id-

    mo

    deli

    ng

    soft

    war

    e

    Mo

    ld-

    filli

    ng

    sim

    ulat

    ors

    Dig

    ital

    mo

    deli

    ng

    Wi

    re

    fra

    me

    Pol

    ygo

    nal

    sha

    pes

    CA

    D

    soft

    war

    e

    Sur

    faci

    ng

    pro

    gra

    ms

    Re

    nde

    rin

    g

    soft

  • war

    e

    (for

    pre

    cis

    e

    vis

    ual

    rec

    reat

    ion

    s)

    Sol

    id-

    mo

    deli

    ng

    soft

    war

    e

    Pro

    tot

    ype

    test

    ing

    Pol

    ygo

    nal

    sha

    pes

    CF

    D

    soft

    war

    e

    Ra

    pid

    -

    pro

    tot

    ypi

    ng

    soft

    war

    e

    FE

    A

    soft

    war

    e

    Erg

    ono

    mic

    s

    Wi

    re-

    fra

    me

    sha

    Sur

    faci

    ng

    soft

    war

  • pes e

    Ext

    ern

    al

    ren

    der

    ing

    soft

    war

    e

    Hu

    ma

    n-

    fact

    ors

    soft

    war

    e

    Aft

    er

    cap

    turi

    ng

    a

    bas

    ic

    ima

    ge

    by

    a

    por

    tabl

    e

    C

    M

    M,

    eng

    ine

    eri

    ng

    pro

    gra

    ms

    tra

    nsf

    or

  • m

    the

    ima

    ge

    int

    o

    mo

    re

    use

    ful

    sha

    pes

    . A

    few

    co

    mp

    atib

    le

    for

    mat

    s

    incl

    ude

    CA

    M2

    Me

    asu

    re

    X,

    Cat

    ia,

    Pro

    /E,

    ST

    EP,

    and

    VD

    A.

    Where Reverse Engineering Makes Sense

  • RE works well in:

    Design, by

    adapting a

    structure to a

    mating surface and

    to compress the

    time-to-market

    cycles.

    Development, by

    rapid prototyping

    and prototype

    testing, for

    ergonomic, flow

    testing, or other

    evaluations.

    Tool making, by

    reducing the time

    required to

    develop tooling

    and improve tool

    accuracy.

    Repair, by creating

    new parts from

    old, fractured, or

    worn originals.

    Fabrication, by

    creating elements

    of

    materialhandling

    systems or other

    processes.

    Manufacturing, by

    developing one-off

    pieces of

    equipment or

    structures.