review: what’s the object? what’s the object? motive? motive? circumstances? circumstances?

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Review: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

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Page 1: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Review:Review:

What’s the Object?What’s the Object? Motive?Motive? Circumstances?Circumstances?

Page 2: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

““Double Effect”Double Effect”

……Continued after notes on Continued after notes on Object,Object,

Motive, Circumstances…Motive, Circumstances…

Page 3: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Principle of Double EffectPrinciple of Double Effect

What if a bad What if a bad sideside effect cannot be effect cannot be avoided. Can you avoided. Can you still take action?still take action?

E.g., to beat an E.g., to beat an infection, you must infection, you must have a leg removed. have a leg removed. Is that ethical? Is that ethical?

Page 4: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Is it moral to…Is it moral to…

1. Kill a fat guy to get his food in a famine?1. Kill a fat guy to get his food in a famine? 2. Lie to make someone feel better?2. Lie to make someone feel better? 3. Kill embryos for research to help others?3. Kill embryos for research to help others? 4. Kill a serial killer, because the police don’t 4. Kill a serial killer, because the police don’t

have enough evidence?have enough evidence? 5. Try to save lives if I drop atomic bomb on 5. Try to save lives if I drop atomic bomb on

Japan? (300,000 vs. 1 million)Japan? (300,000 vs. 1 million) 6. Kill myself to give my son a heart?6. Kill myself to give my son a heart? 7. Lie to the Nazis about hiding Jews?7. Lie to the Nazis about hiding Jews?

Page 5: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Is it moral to…Is it moral to… 8. Jump on a live grenade to save my 8. Jump on a live grenade to save my

platoon?platoon? 9. Cut a rope because fallen climbers are 9. Cut a rope because fallen climbers are

pulling us all down?pulling us all down? 10. Commit suicide to avoid pain from 10. Commit suicide to avoid pain from

disease?disease? 11. Give clean needles to addicts on the 11. Give clean needles to addicts on the

street?street? 12. Do racial profiling to stop terror?12. Do racial profiling to stop terror? 13. Declare war on a country that is 13. Declare war on a country that is

committing grave injusticescommitting grave injustices

Page 6: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Is it moral to…Is it moral to… 14. Begin the American Revolution against 14. Begin the American Revolution against

England?England? 15. Sell weapons to the enemy of my enemy?15. Sell weapons to the enemy of my enemy? 16. Shoot someone in self defense?16. Shoot someone in self defense? 17. Shoot through a hostage to get the 17. Shoot through a hostage to get the

terrorist?terrorist? 18. Abort a child to save the mother?18. Abort a child to save the mother? 19. Torture someone to get information to 19. Torture someone to get information to

save lives?save lives? 20. Take the Native Americans’ land for 20. Take the Native Americans’ land for

settlers?settlers?

Page 7: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Overall evaluationOverall evaluation

Morality can be tricky.Morality can be tricky. When does the end justify the When does the end justify the

means?means? When there are enough people helped? When there are enough people helped? A good proportion of dead to alive? A good proportion of dead to alive? When it betters the human race? When it betters the human race? When the person helped is someone When the person helped is someone

close to me?close to me?

Page 8: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Overall evaluationOverall evaluation

The end NEVER justifies the meansThe end NEVER justifies the means (justify = to make right)(justify = to make right)

Common sayings:Common sayings: Two wrongs don’t make a right. Two wrongs don’t make a right. ““The road to hell is paved with good The road to hell is paved with good

intentions.”intentions.”

Page 9: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

End does not justify the meansEnd does not justify the means

Three reasons:Three reasons:

1. What criteria (rule) should we use 1. What criteria (rule) should we use to decide when it does and when it to decide when it does and when it doesn’t?doesn’t?

Page 10: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

End does not justify the means End does not justify the means (ENJM)(ENJM)

Three reasons:Three reasons:

1. What criteria (rule) should we use 1. What criteria (rule) should we use to decide when it does and when it to decide when it does and when it doesn’t?doesn’t?

2. Who gets to decide?2. Who gets to decide?

Page 11: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

End does not justify the means End does not justify the means (ENJM)(ENJM)

Three reasons:Three reasons:1. What criteria (rule) should we use to 1. What criteria (rule) should we use to decide when it does and when it doesn’t?decide when it does and when it doesn’t?2. Who gets to decide?2. Who gets to decide?3. When I choose evil, I’m, in a way, 3. When I choose evil, I’m, in a way, becoming evil, because our actions affect becoming evil, because our actions affect our will and our soul. our will and our soul. Plato said:Plato said:““It is far better to suffer evil than to do it.”It is far better to suffer evil than to do it.”

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The Greeks, Romans, Jews, and The Greeks, Romans, Jews, and Christians all taught absolutes about Christians all taught absolutes about morality. morality.

Included in foundation of the U.S. Included in foundation of the U.S. ““We hold these truths to be SELF-We hold these truths to be SELF-

EVIDENTEVIDENT All men are Equal, Life, Liberty, FreedomAll men are Equal, Life, Liberty, Freedom

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For example, we don’t negotiate with For example, we don’t negotiate with terrorists. Why not?terrorists. Why not?

Page 14: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

For example, we don’t negotiate with For example, we don’t negotiate with terrorists. Why not?terrorists. Why not?

a. The president knows he’s not a. The president knows he’s not responsible for the deaths; the responsible for the deaths; the terrorists areterrorists are

b. We would end up on a slippery slope b. We would end up on a slippery slope of encouraging more terrorists and not of encouraging more terrorists and not knowing which ones to appease…knowing which ones to appease…

Page 15: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

But there are times we can do good But there are times we can do good things for good reasons, with bad things for good reasons, with bad side effects that are unchosen. The side effects that are unchosen. The formal steps are…formal steps are…

Page 16: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Four parts of the P.D.E.—Four parts of the P.D.E.—KNOW!KNOW!

1.1. The action must be morally good in The action must be morally good in itself or at least morally neutralitself or at least morally neutral

2.2. The good must be willed and the evil The good must be willed and the evil effect merely toleratedeffect merely tolerated

3.3. The good effect must not come about The good effect must not come about as a result of the evil effect, but must as a result of the evil effect, but must come directly from the action itselfcome directly from the action itself

4.4. The good effect must be at least The good effect must be at least equivalent in importance to the evil equivalent in importance to the evil effect (“proportional”)effect (“proportional”)

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Double EffectDouble EffectReviewReview

Not every action only has only good Not every action only has only good effects or bad effects.effects or bad effects.

Sometimes, there are bad results even Sometimes, there are bad results even though the act itself, the intention, and though the act itself, the intention, and the circumstances, are ALL good.the circumstances, are ALL good.

We use the principle of double effect to We use the principle of double effect to determine whether or not actions that determine whether or not actions that have both good and evil effects are have both good and evil effects are permissible.permissible.

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The decision to perform an action which, The decision to perform an action which, as a consequence, has unintended bad as a consequence, has unintended bad results may only be made when…results may only be made when…

1) The good effect cannot be reasonable 1) The good effect cannot be reasonable brought about in any other way…brought about in any other way…

2) And when 4 conditions have been met.2) And when 4 conditions have been met.

Page 19: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

4 Principles4 Principles1.1. The action must be morally good in The action must be morally good in

itself or at least morally neutralitself or at least morally neutral

2.2. The good must be willed and the evil The good must be willed and the evil effect merely toleratedeffect merely tolerated

3.3. The good effect must not come about The good effect must not come about as a result of the evil effect, but must as a result of the evil effect, but must come directly from the action itselfcome directly from the action itself

4.4. The good effect must be at least The good effect must be at least equivalent in importance to the evil equivalent in importance to the evil effect (“proportional”)effect (“proportional”)

Page 20: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

The action must be morally The action must be morally good in itself or at least good in itself or at least

morally neutralmorally neutral The action must be GOOD (or The action must be GOOD (or

indifferent)indifferent) (remember) It is never okay to (remember) It is never okay to

perform a BAD act in order to get a perform a BAD act in order to get a good outcome/result.good outcome/result.

Page 21: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Abortion to save the life of the Abortion to save the life of the mother?mother?

Some have tried to justify abortion Some have tried to justify abortion through the principle of double effect.through the principle of double effect. Life of the mother is in dangerLife of the mother is in danger Avoid bringing an unwanted child into the Avoid bringing an unwanted child into the

world.world. This position can never fall under This position can never fall under

double effect since the action consists double effect since the action consists of the DIRECT killing of an innocent of the DIRECT killing of an innocent person.person.

Page 22: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

2. 2. The good must be willed and The good must be willed and the evil effect merely toleratedthe evil effect merely tolerated

The agent must have the right intentionThe agent must have the right intention Only the good effect can be willed. Only the good effect can be willed. Though foreseen, the evil effect must not Though foreseen, the evil effect must not

be willed, but only permitted or toleratedbe willed, but only permitted or tolerated One does not directly wish evil.One does not directly wish evil. But it may be allowed when it cannot be But it may be allowed when it cannot be

separated from the overriding good to be separated from the overriding good to be intended or accomplished.intended or accomplished.

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E.g. The physician who amputated a E.g. The physician who amputated a limb to prevent the spread of disease limb to prevent the spread of disease has the intention of stopping the has the intention of stopping the disease.disease.

He knows that he will cripple the He knows that he will cripple the patient but it is for the greater good patient but it is for the greater good of preserving the patient’s life.of preserving the patient’s life.

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3.3. The good effect must not come The good effect must not come about as a result of the evil effect, about as a result of the evil effect, but must come directly from the but must come directly from the

action itselfaction itself The good action must be the means The good action must be the means

of the good effect.of the good effect. An evil action still isn’t justified even An evil action still isn’t justified even

if it results in a good outcome.if it results in a good outcome. In order to invoke this principle, the In order to invoke this principle, the

act itself must be good.act itself must be good.

Page 25: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

For example…For example…

It is not morally justified to stage a It is not morally justified to stage a military operation that targets innocent military operation that targets innocent people who wield no military role or people who wield no military role or advantage, even if it’s believed that the advantage, even if it’s believed that the action will bring about the end of the war.action will bring about the end of the war.

The sterilization of a woman who wants The sterilization of a woman who wants to limit the size of her family for financial to limit the size of her family for financial or health reasons is also not morally or health reasons is also not morally justified justified

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4. 4. The good effect must be at The good effect must be at least equivalent in importance least equivalent in importance to the evil effectto the evil effect

The good effect must be The good effect must be proportional to the evil effectproportional to the evil effect

Ideally the good would outweigh the Ideally the good would outweigh the evil.evil.

I.e. when there is a foreseeable evil I.e. when there is a foreseeable evil effect of an action, there must be effect of an action, there must be an equal or greater good effect for an equal or greater good effect for the act to be considered moralthe act to be considered moral

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Contrast:Contrast: I chooseI choose evil motive (always wrong) evil motive (always wrong) I chooseI choose evil object for good motive evil object for good motive

(always wrong, because ENJM)(always wrong, because ENJM) I chooseI choose good object for good motive good object for good motive

(good!)(good!) I chooseI choose good object for good motive good object for good motive

bad side effect I want bad side effect I want (now, bad motive!)(now, bad motive!)

I chooseI choose good object for good motive good object for good motivebad side effect I do bad side effect I do notnot want, want,but tolerate, for proportionate but tolerate, for proportionate

reasonreason(this is PDE, and it can be (this is PDE, and it can be chosen)chosen)

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Example 1Example 1

A man is climbing, and the person A man is climbing, and the person below him falls and the rope is below him falls and the rope is threatening to take them both down. threatening to take them both down. Can one of them cut the rope, so the Can one of them cut the rope, so the guy higher-up can live?guy higher-up can live?

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Example 1Example 1 PDE says: There is one physical

action, but two effects. The good effect is intended The bad effect is foreseen but NOT

intended. The bad is not the means to the end. The good effect is proportionate to

the bad effect (a life saved)

Page 30: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Example 1Example 1

Intended good effect: remove deadly Intended good effect: remove deadly weightweight

Unintended but foreseen bad effect: Unintended but foreseen bad effect: lower guy fallslower guy falls

The motive is good: to save the guy The motive is good: to save the guy higher up. You do not directly kill the higher up. You do not directly kill the lower guy, nor hope he dies. You hope he lower guy, nor hope he dies. You hope he somehow survives.somehow survives.

Proportionality: life risked but life saved. Proportionality: life risked but life saved. If you do nothing, both will fall.If you do nothing, both will fall.

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Example 2Example 2

Jump on Grenade:Jump on Grenade: Shield others from blast (intended good effect)Shield others from blast (intended good effect) Get blasted (foreseen but unintended bad Get blasted (foreseen but unintended bad

effect)effect) Motive is good: to save life, and hoping the Motive is good: to save life, and hoping the

grenade does NOT go off. He does not directly grenade does NOT go off. He does not directly kill himself, he is killed be the grenade that kill himself, he is killed be the grenade that someone else threwsomeone else threw

Proportionality: a life risked to save other Proportionality: a life risked to save other lives. Do nothing and many could die.lives. Do nothing and many could die.

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Example 3Example 3 Ectopic pregnancy or cancerous Ectopic pregnancy or cancerous

uterus: cutting out a growth where uterus: cutting out a growth where the baby is…the baby is… Intended good effect: remove cancer or Intended good effect: remove cancer or

unsustainable fallopian tubeunsustainable fallopian tube Unintended bad effect: the baby won’t Unintended bad effect: the baby won’t

live. But you are not killing the baby live. But you are not killing the baby directly. directly.

Motive is to save the mother’s lifeMotive is to save the mother’s life Proportionality: life and life. Do nothing Proportionality: life and life. Do nothing

and both die.and both die.

Page 33: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Example 4Example 4

Self-defense: I cannot stop killer Self-defense: I cannot stop killer except to shoot (tried shutting door, except to shoot (tried shutting door, calling police, etc)calling police, etc) Intended effect: stop the killerIntended effect: stop the killer Foreseen but unintended effect: the killer Foreseen but unintended effect: the killer

might die from the woundmight die from the wound Motive: to save my lifeMotive: to save my life Proportionality: I endanger his life (or Proportionality: I endanger his life (or

take his life) because mine is being take his life) because mine is being endangered (and possible taken)endangered (and possible taken)

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Principle of Double EffectPrinciple of Double Effect

Classic examples:Classic examples:1.1. Self-defenseSelf-defense2.2. Just warJust war3.3. Removing cancerous uterus, perhaps Removing cancerous uterus, perhaps

even in pregnancyeven in pregnancy4.4. Ectopic pregnancyEctopic pregnancy5.5. Taking medications with side-effectsTaking medications with side-effects6.6. Voting (since all candidates are Voting (since all candidates are

imperfect)imperfect)7.7. Many others…Many others…

Page 35: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

Hierarchy of RightsHierarchy of Rights

The “Hierarchy of Rights” helps resolve The “Hierarchy of Rights” helps resolve some cases of proportionality more easily.some cases of proportionality more easily.

There are three inalienable rights (according There are three inalienable rights (according to John Locke)to John Locke)

Life, Liberty and PropertyLife, Liberty and Property These are in order of importanceThese are in order of importance Life is needed to have liberty, and Life is needed to have liberty, and

liberty is needed to use property.liberty is needed to use property.

Page 36: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

So…So… Life trumps libertyLife trumps liberty

(Right to life trumps mother’s liberty)(Right to life trumps mother’s liberty) Liberty trumps property Liberty trumps property

(Right of slave’s freedom trumps (Right of slave’s freedom trumps slaveholder’s claim)slaveholder’s claim)

This makes some cases a little easier. This makes some cases a little easier.

Page 37: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

So…So… Stealing from a rich person when Stealing from a rich person when

starving? Is it stealing? Is it starving? Is it stealing? Is it justified?justified?

Page 38: Review: What’s the Object? What’s the Object? Motive? Motive? Circumstances? Circumstances?

So…So… Stealing from a rich person when Stealing from a rich person when

starving? Is it stealing? Is it starving? Is it stealing? Is it justified?justified?

It may not be stealing at all, because It may not be stealing at all, because it is a life right, which trumps a it is a life right, which trumps a property right (as long as the rich property right (as long as the rich man has enough food).man has enough food).

This does not justify ordinary theft or This does not justify ordinary theft or looting, even from the richest person.looting, even from the richest person.