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RICE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT PROGRESS BY HUNJA MURAGE JKUAT

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RICE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT PROGRESS. BY HUNJA MURAGE JKUAT. Objectives. Main goal is to Improve food security in Kenya through improving rice production Specific objectives; - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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PowerPoint Presentation

RICE IMPROVEMENT PROJECT PROGRESS

BYHUNJA MURAGE

JKUAT

Main goal is to Improve food security in Kenya through improving rice productionSpecific objectives;Documentation of the constraints and obstacles to achieving maximum rice productivity in Kenya and the expected intervention measures.Increasing the productivity of basmati rice through breeding for increased grain number, resistance to lodging by dwarfing and resistance to blast through phenotypic and later genotypic selection (Targets: HB23/Basmati hybrids; Upland rice hybrids) Increasing the productivity of basmati rice through rice blast suppression using epiphytes, rhizobacteria and actinomycetes as biotic agents and using endophytes as growth promoters.Food quality and agricultural products value addition through utilization rice bran, broken rice in of rice straw and rice husks.Reducing post harvest losses through improved threshingIncreasing water use efficiency in rice production through increased adoption of technologies such as SRI, subsurface drip irrigation, and AWDReconstruction of rice gene bank at Mwea to conserve the Kenyan's rice germplasm To determine the Nitrogen dynamics of Kenya rice soils for optimum rice production Assessment of the impact of the introduced intervention measures on rice production within regions under study

ObjectivesInformation has been obtained on the obstacles facing Kenyan rice farmers in the rice value chain. Some of this information has been availed to other researchers through presentations. Basmati is the most popular aromatic variety in Kenya but has a very low productivity of 2.8 tons/ha compared to other aromatic varieties at 5.5 tons/ha. By selection of the HB23x basmati crosses, new Basmati Hybrid improved lines with over 3000 filled grains/plant and over 40tillers/plant at F4 generation have been developed compared to 1100 filled grains /plant and less than 25 tillers/plant for basmati.Improved Basmati lines resistant to lodging have been developed.Improved LIA lines that require no fertilizer inputs for normal growth and yields have been developed and are in the F9 generation.Biotic isolates active against the blast pathogen and those with bio-fertilizer ability have been obtained and their field performance is on course. Senbakoki which farmers in Mwea have agreed to adopt. The farmers have reported a reduction in breakage of rice seeds during. The rice gene bank has been reconstructed and rice germplasm collection done. This is expected to offer a wide gene pool for breeding purposes. The rice breeders will use conserved germplasm for rice improvement. Erosion of the local rice gene pool will be stopped because there will be backed up germplasm in the gene bank.Ways of utilizing husks as energy source has been developed. The rice husk stove, the briquetting machine and the carbonizing kilns will go a long way in revolutionizing the energy requirements in the rice growing regions.The value added products from broken rice will serve as alternative income and food source for farmers and consumers.

Outputs A Social Survey was conducted from June to September 2011 in the rice growing areas. In Mwea Irrigation Scheme 302 farmer respondents were interviewed. The following are some of the findings;The average land holding is 2.83 acre per household, ranging from 0 to 15.25 acres.1.Documentation of the constraints and obstacles to achieving maximum rice productivity in Kenya

Source of rice seedsRESULTS / OUTPUTSImpact of rice blastFarmers that have been affected by the rice blast disease

Perception on rice blast disease susceptibility in various rice varieties

Geographical distribution of rice blast disease in Mwea region

Rice blast disease mapping62. Increasing the productivity of basmati rice through breeding for increased grain number, resistance to lodging by dwarfing and resistance to blast through phenotypic and later genotypic selection (HB23*Basmati hybrids and LIA)

Habataki parentBasmati370 parent

Hybrids from the crossesx

T- 65 ParentO. Longistaminataparentx

LIA LINE UNDER EVALUATION Tillers 26.4Culm .L 71.7P. L 23.8Tillers No. 50Culm.L 93Panicle.L. 23Filled Grains 3395Panicle No. 49

Tillers No. 72Culm.L 93Panicle.L. 26Filled Grains 3692Panicle No. 71

Tillers No. 18Culm.L 97Panicle.L. 21Filled Grains 1194Panicle No. 14SNO.RICE LINE TILLER NO.PLANT HEIGHTPANICLE LENGTHPANICLE NUMBERFILLED GRAINSEMPTY GRAINSTOTAL GRAIN NO.GRAINS/PANICLE1Line 1509323493395177651711062Line 2729326713692355972511023Line 3409027393432182052521354Line 4508627403667199456611425Line 5309325283732164353751926Line 6569626564867157164381157Line 7359429343978270266801968Line 8291182829343080542351469Line 9379522373520904442412010B370189721141194143133796Agronomic characteristics of the HB23x Basmati hybrid selection during the F3 generationSNOCROSS IDNO OF TILLERSCULM LENGTHPANICLE LENGTH1Selection 1 Tillers 26.464.421.32selection 225.459.419.83Selection 323.156.019.34Selection 420.559.118.25Selection 516.254.417.46Selection 618.571.723.87Selection 716.068.222.68Selection 818.866.822.2Agronomic traits of the LIA selection during the F6 generation8

Evaluation of HB23 x Basmati F3 hybrid selections at Mwea

Evaluation of LIA F5 selections at JKUAT rice experimental fieldScreening the bacterial and fungal isolates for bio-fertilizer activities

+-+Screening the Actinomycete isolates for antifungal activity against rice blast

Growth Inhibition Zone

Isolate 5

Isolate 4M.griseaActinomycetesPhosphate Solubilization testIAA production test3. Screening Epiphytes, Rhizobacteria and Actinomycete as biotic agents for rice blast suppression and as growth promoters

Rice husksKilns for carbonizingCarbonized rice husksCompression briquetting machineRice husks gasifier stoveBriquettesBriquettesFabricated briquetting machine

4. Food quality and agricultural products value addition through utilization of rice straw and rice husks for energy and broken rice for value added products

GarlicflavouredRice flour mixed breadsRice crackersRice flour filled sausages

Broken riceRice flour

Rice noodles5:Reducing post harvest losses through improved threshing

Units of Senbakoki fabricated in JKUAT and disseminated to Mwea for evaluation Farmers in Mwea using the Senbakoki thresher during rice harvesting

SRI and AWD

Testing water and crop management technologies under greenhouse conditions

6. Increasing water use efficiency in rice production through increased adoption of technologies such as SRI, subsurface drip irrigation, and AWD

The structure which was being used as a rice gene bank at MweaThe condition inside the old rice gene bank at MweaThe reconstruction of the old rice gene bank at Mwea

The reconstructed rice gene bank at Mwea

Evaluation of the purity of the local rice varieties in the field and under greenhouse conditions at JKUAT

Collected local varietiesPlanting in the fieldLocal varieties in greenhouseat vegetative stageLocal varieties in the fieldat flowering stage

Phenotypic characterization of Local rice varieties at the JKUAT rice experimental fieldDetermining nutrient losses through leaching and vaporizationDetermining nutrient losses through leaching

8.To determine the Nitrogen dynamics of Kenya rice soils for optimum rice productionRice plants ready for harvestingLeachate collection tubes

Field preparation for evaluation of Nitrogen dynamics of Kenya

Percolation measurement- drain pipe for collection of leachate and lysimeter for percolation measurementAcknowledgementWe appreciate the National council for Science and Technology (NCST) for providing financial support to this project and Jomo Kenyatta University (JKUAT) for providing space on which to carry out the project