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Rise of Democracy

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  • 1.The Rise of Democracy2000 B.C. Athens Rome Middle Ages Renaissance Reformation Enlightenment American Revolution A.D. 1800

2. The Legacy of Ancient Greece and Rome 3. THE GREEKS Athens, Greece (2000 B.C. - 500 B.C.) powerful city-state citizens* had rights and responsibilities *Citizenship denied to women, slaves and foreign residents. Direct Democracy - citizens make laws directly Pericles (led Athens 461 B.C. - 429 B.C.) 4. The Greek PhilosophersNatural Laws - all things in the natural world follow predictable patterns Reason & Logic - respect for human intelligence 5. The Greek PhilosophersSocrates (469 B.C. - 399 B.C.) Socratic Method - question/answer Plato (428 B.C. - 348 B.C.) The Republic ideal form of government: Philosopher Kings The intelligent should rule. feared mob rule Aristotle (384 B.C. - 322 B.C.) Wrote Politics ideal form of government: properly educated middle class Philosopher Kings give advice but remain independent S P A 6. The Romans Roman Contributions (509 B.C.) Republic - A form of government in which power rests with citizens who elect leaders to make decisions. Written Legal Code applied equally to all citizens 7. Roman Law Rome brought conquered lands into the Roman Empire and tried to rule with laws based on reason and justice. 4 Principles of Roman Law All citizens had the right to equal treatment under the law A person was considered innocent until proven guilty The burden of proof rests with the accuser, not the accused. Any law that seems unreasonable, may be set aside. 8. Greeks vs. Romans Quick WriteQuick Write List the similarities and differences between theList the similarities and differences between the Greeks and RomansGreeks and Romans view of government.view of government. Who had a bigger influence on our society today?Who had a bigger influence on our society today? Provide evidence.Provide evidence. 9. Possible Thoughts Similarities Both set lasting standards in government, philosophy, and thought. Believed that an individual is a citizen in a state rather than the subject of a ruler. Differences Greece is a direct democracy while Rome is a republic. Greece developed democracy, the Romans added representative government. Influences Today We elect representatives to make decisions on our behalf, but we have great influence from Athenian Democracy. For example, political power for all citizens, three branches of government (executive, legislative, and judicial). Platos Philosopher Kings can be seen in the Enlightenment through Enlightened Despots. 10. Judeo-Christian Tradition 11. Judeo-Christian Tradition Greeks & Romans Hebrews You have dignity because of your ability to think (REASON) You have dignity because youre a child of God Scripture teaches us we are created in His image 12. Judeo-Christian Tradition Legacy of Judeo-Christian Religions Written legal code (Ten Commandments) Duty of the individual within the community Worth of the individual Equality of people before God Evangelical - Christians spread their beliefs across the Roman Empire 13. Think-Pair-ShareThink-Pair-Share How did the Judeo-ChristianHow did the Judeo-Christian tradition and the legacy of Greektradition and the legacy of Greek and Rome impact democraticand Rome impact democratic thinking?thinking? 14. Possible Thoughts The right and worth of the individual Philosophical and ethical values that shape the types of governments and expressions of democracy that develop The need for justice and equality Representation and citizen participation are important features of democracies around the world 15. The Middle Ages Feudalism & The Magna Carta 16. The Middle Ages Feudal Social Pyramid King Powerful Lords Lesser Lords Knights Serfs Fiefs (land grants) Nobles (worked for king in return from protection and land) ystem of rigid class distinctions and a static or unchanging way of 17. The King Loses Power King John War with France ($ & land) Raised taxes King John forced to sign the Magna Carta King vs. Nobles 18. The King Loses Power Magna Carta (1215) Limited Monarchy Permission from Parliament necessary to raise taxes King must respect the law Why is this document important? 19. Democracy Develops in England Mary II & William III of Orange 20. Democracy Develops in England The Glorious Revolution King James II - Catholic Parliament supported his Protestant daughter Mary 1689 Mary and William of Orange crowned co-rulers of England Constitutional Monarchy Power of the ruler is restricted by the constitution English Bill of Rights Limited power of the monarchy Liberties essential to the people 21. The Renaissance 22. The Renaissance The Middle Ages War/Plague Fewer laborers Higher wages Fewer business opportunities More art ex. Medici family http://www.history.com/videos/humanism-triggers-the-renaissance#humanism- triggers-the-renaissance 23. The Renaissance Renaissance...(1300-1600) Rejected the Medieval view that life on earth was merely preparation for life after death Religion replaced with a humanistic view of life (Worldly/Secular) Focus on the individual http://www.history.com/topics/italian-renaissance/videos#the-renaissance 24. The Ideal Renaissance Man/Woman A young man should be well educated in Greek and Latin classics. He should be charming, polite, and witty. He should be able to dance, write poetry, sing, and play music. In addition, he should be physically graceful and strong; a skilled rider, wrestler, and swordsman, Upper class women of the Renaissance were as well educated as the men. Women too were expected to know the classics, to write well, to paint, to make music, to dance, and be charming. Yet they were not expected to seek fame as men did. They were expected to inspire poetry and art but rarely create it. 25. ...the ideal Renaissance man and woman... 26. Medieval Art vs. Renaissance Art 27. The Reformation 28. The Reformation: Causes Renaissance emphasis on the individual Corruption in the Catholic Church Gutenbergs Printing Press 29. Martin Luther Martin Luther Believed that faith alone was the key to salvation Catholic Church Selling Indulgences (pardons) ing an indulgence was like purchasing your ticket to hea 30. The Reformation Martin Luther reacts...(October 1517) 95 Theses Salvation only by faith and good works Teachings based only on the bible People of faith are equal and do not need priests to interpret the bible http://www.history.com/videos/martin-luther-sparks-a-revolution#martin-luther-sparks-a-revolution 31. The Reformation (1520) Martin Luther is excommunicated Luther and his followers become Lutherans Many northern German princes supported Lutheranism and signed a protest against others who stayed loyal to the Church (1529) Protestant: non-Catholic Christians Reformation Rap: http://www.youtube.com/watch?v=dt5AJr0wls0&feature=related 32. England Becomes Protestant King Henry VIII Devout Catholic, but the Pope would not annul his marriage (1527) Reformation Parliament (1529) Ended the Popes power in England and Replaced it with the Kings Anglican Church English Reformation: http://www.history.com/videos/protestand-reformation-english-reformation#protestand- reformation-english-reformation 33. Henrys Wives Catherine of Aragon Anne Boleyn Jane Seymour Anne of Cleves Catherine Howard Catherine Parr 34. Why it matters... The Renaissance and Reformations questioning of ideas and authority laid the groundwork for the Scientific Revolution and the Enlightenment! 35. The Scientific Revolution 36. The Scientific Revolution Renaissance Reformation Rebirth of learning: People questioned old ways of thinking Religious Movement: Forced people to challenge their views on God and salvation Scholars began challenging old ideas Exploring Africa, Asia, Americas New inventions spread ideas 37. The Scientific Revolution New ways of thinking... The Scientific Method Observation Question Hypothesis Experimentation Conclusion 38. The Scientific Revolution Heliocentric (Copernicus) - sun is the center of the universe Geocentric (The Medieval View ) - earth is the center of the universe 39. The Scientific Revolution Galileo Galilei Telescope Starry Messenger (1610) Supported the laws of Copernicus Against the teachings of the church Psalm 93:1 the world is firmly established and cannot be moved Ecclesiastes 1:5 And the sun rises and sets and returns to its place Galileo stands trial for heresy(1632) 40. Galileo vs. The Catholic Church With sincere heart and unpretended faith I abjure, curse, and detest the aforesaid errors and heresies and also every other error...contrary to the Holy Church, and I swear that in the future I will never again saw or assert...anything that might cause a similar suspicion towards me. 41. The Scientific Revolution Isaac Newton Gravity - earth has power to draw objects to it The same force ruled motion of the planets and all matter on earth and in space http://www.history.com/videos/isaac-newton-and-a-scientific-revolution# isaac-newton-and-a-scientific-revolution 42. The Scientific Revolution The Scientific Revolution spreads... Microscope (1590) Mercery Barometer (1634) Thermometer (1714) On the Structure of the Human Body (1543) Smallpox Vaccine (Late 1700s) 43. The Scientific Revolution Ideas from the Renaissance, Reformation and Scientific Revolution brought... A Secular outlook of life Critical look at society in an effort to improve it Everything tested by the standard of reason 44. The Enlightenment in Europe Chapter 6 Section 2 & 3 45. Enlightenment in Europe Enlightenment (mid 1700s)- An intellectual movement that stressed reason and thought and the power of the individual to solve problems. The Age of Reason 46. Enlightenment in Europe Thomas Hobbes Leviathan (1651) Basic nature of man is bad Social Contract - People agree to give up rights to a strong ruler in order for security. Absol