robotics, industrial robotics, question bank
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Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013SELVAM COLLEGE OF TECHNOLGY, NAMAKKAL-3 DEPARTMENT OF MECHANICAL ENGINEERING SUB: INDUSTRIAL ROBOTICS SEM / YEAR: VII / IV UNIVERSITY: ANNA UNIVERITY, CHENNAI YEAR: 2012-2013 Unit-I: 1. Name the FOUR basic robot configurations. a) Cartesian coordinate system b) Cylindrical coordinate system c) Polar or spherical coordinate system d) Revolute coordinate system 2. List out the types of joint Notation. (a) Linear joint, (b) Rotational joint, (c) Twisting joint, (d) Revolving joint. 3. What is meant by a work envelope? The work envelope is described by the surface of the work space. It depends upon the number of types of joints, physical types of joints and links and the range of various joints. 4. Sketch a robot and name its parts. 1. Manipulator (Robot arm) 2. End effector 3. Controller 4. Gripper 5. Actuator 5. What is meant by workspace? The space in which the end point of the robot arm is capable of operating is called as workspace in other words, reach ability of robot arm is known as workspace. 6. What is meant by degeneracy? Some robots, though, do have a certain joint arrangement in their final orientation joints that can lead to redundancy for certain orientations. Most industrial robots have 6 or less joints, thus, redundancy is not inherent to their design. 7. List the various types of robot drive system for industrial robots 1. Electric drive: (a) DC motor; (b) Servomotor; (c) Stepper motor 2. Pneumatic drive 3. Hydraulic drive
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Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 20138. Sketch and indicate the type of any rotating joints used in robots. (or) Sketch a twisting joint. Rotational (R):
9. What are the types of hydraulic actuators used in robotics? (i) Piston cylinder, (ii) Swing motor, (iii) Hydraulic motor
10. What is meant by robot anatomy? The robot anatomy is the study of structure of robot that is physical construction of the manipulator's structure. The mechanical structure of manipulator that consists of rigid bodies (links) connected by means of joints, is segmented into arm that ensures mobility and reachability, a wrist that confers orientation, and an end effectors that performs the required task 11. What are the three degrees of freedom associated with the arm and body motion? Three degrees of freedom associated with the arm and body motion are: Right (or) Left movement (X-axis motion) In and out movement (Y -axis motion) Vertical movement (Z-axis motion)
12. Define the term work envelope. Work envelop is defined as the envelope (or) space within which the robot can manipulate the end of the wrist. A robot's work envelope is the range of movement 13. Give some application of robots in industries. (a) Material Handling Application (i) Material transfer application (ii) Machine loading/unloading application. (b) Process Application (i) Welding (ii) Painting (iii) Assembly ; (iv) Machining; (v) Inspection Allah is great Page 2
Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 201314. How do you specify a robot? (i) Speed; (ii) Actuator (iii) Payload; (iv) Repeatability (v) Accuracy; (vi) Reliability (vii) Manipulator; (viii) End effector ----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------Unit-II: 1. State any two techniques used for object recognition. a) Template matching b) Structural Technique
2. Write about Hall Effect sensors. When a beam of charged particles passes through a magnetic field forces act on the particles and the beam is deflected from the straight line path a current flowing in a conductor is like a beam of moving charges and thus can be defined by magnetic field 3. Classify the robots according to the drive system. 1. Pneumatic drive 2. Hydraulic drive 3. Electric drive (a)DC Motor (b) Servo motor (c) Stepper motor 4. List any two important advantages and disadvantages of a pneumatic gripper. Advantages of pneumatic gripper: 1. Its light weight design. 2. It is possible to distribute the pressure uniformly the entire area. 3. Control is simple 4. Pick up time is very fast. Disadvantages: 1. It is not suitable for heavy loads. 2. Sometime is required to build the pressure. 5. What is inverse Kinematics? It is a scheme to determine joint angles of robot by knowing its position in the world coordinate system. Pjoint = (1, 2, 3) 6. Name any four proximity sensors used in robotics Sensor, which senses the presence or absence of the object without having physical contact between the objects I) Inductive Sensor 2) Capacitive Sensor 3) Ultrasonic Sensor; 4) Magnetic Sensor
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Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 20137. Sketch the screw-actuated mechanical gripper.
8. What are the limitations of adhesive grippers? (i) Adhesive substances losses his tackiness on repeated usage. (ii) Reliability is diminished with successive operations 9. Distinguish between direct and inverse kinematics. (i) Reverse kinematics: It is a scheme to determine joint angles of a robot by knowing its Position in the world coordinate system. PJOINT = (1, 2, 3) (ii) Direct kinematics: It is a scheme to determine the position of the robot in the world coordinate system by knowing the joint angles and the link parameters of the robot. PWORLD = ( x, y, z ) 10. Differentiate between touch and force sensors. Touch sensor: It senses the presence or absence of the object by having physical contact between the objects. Force sensors: Force sensors are used primarily for measuring the reaction forces developed at the interface between mechanical assemblies 11. List the types of drives used in robots. Electric drives Hydraulic drives Pneumatic drives 12. What is a RCC device? For what purpose is it used in a robot? RCC device means Remote. Center Compliance devices. Uses: (i) RCC device are commonly used in automated assembly applications to provide Compliance for misalignment during assembly. (ii) The compensator is a .compliance device that enhances the flexibility and reliability of a robot
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Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 201313. What is a mechanical gripper? A mechanical gripper is an end effector that uses mechanical finger actuated by mechanism to grasp an object. Mechanical grippers are used to transfer parts from one location to another or to assemble parts. 14. What is the properties 0f stepper motor? Stator wiring (number of coils and wire loads). Number of steps in a complete rotation. Operating voltage and current. Amount of force generated (torque). Maximum rotation speed (steps per second). 15. State the advantage and limitation of hydraulic drive. Advantage: 1. Robust 2. Self lubrication 3. It can also provide precise control at low speeds. 4. High efficiency and high power to size ratio. 5. Hydraulic robots are more capable of withstanding shock loads. Disadvantage: 1. Expensive 2. High maintenance 3. Not energy efficient 4. Noisy 5. Not suited for clean air environments 16. Write the basic principle of servo motor. A servomotor is used within position control (or) speed control feedback control system. An electrostatic motor is based on the attraction and repulsion of electrical charge. 17. Give some examples of robot end effector. 1. Gripper 2. Tools 3. Welding equipment 4. End of arm tooling 18. What are the types of grippers?' 1. Mechanical finger grippers. 2. Pneumatic grippers. 3. Hydraulic grippers. 4. Collect gripper. 5. Magnetic gripper. 6. Vacuum gripper. -----------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------------
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Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 2013Unit-III: 1. Define a tactile sensor and list the types. Tactile sensor is device that indicates the contact between themselves and some other solid objects. 1. Digital (Touch) Sensor 2. Analogue (Force) Sensor 2. List the two basic types of robot programming method. a. Lead through methods b. Textual robot languages c. Mechanical Programming 3. State the working principle of a touch sensor. Touch sensors in sensors, which senses the presence or absence of the object by having physical contact between the objects. When the button is pressed, an electrical circuit is closed inside the sensors. This lets electricity flow. When the button is released, the circuit is broken and no electricity flows. Touch sensors send a signal when physical contact is made.
4. What is the function of a frame grabber? A frame grabber is an electronic device that captures individual, digital still frames from an analog video signal or a digital video stream. It is hardware device used to capture and store the digital image. 5. What are the limitations of hydraulic drive systems? 1) Expensive 2) High maintenance 3) Not energy efficient 4) Noisy 5) Not suited for clean-air environments. 6. What is the purpose of thresholding in analysis? Thresholding is a binary conversion technique in which each pixel is converted into a binary value either black or white.
7. Mention use of machine vision system. (i) This can be used to replace, machining for applications like welding, machining to maintain relationship between tool and work. (ii) Machine vision systems are used for printed circuit board. (iii) This is for the recognition of object from its image. (iv) Achieve 100% accuracy.
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Industrial Robotics-2 Marks 20138. Enumerate the difference between open loop and closed loop control system Open loop control system It is being relatively simple Low cost Good reliability The disadvantage is that they are often inaccurate since there are no correction for error Closed loop control system More complex More cost Greater chance of breakdowns as a consequence of the greater number of components Relatively accurat