romania (1880-1914)

12
ROMANIA 1860-1914 Margherita Marcatelli & Filippo Vicini

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Page 1: Romania (1880-1914)

ROMANIA1860-1914

Margherita Marcatelli & Filippo Vicini

Page 2: Romania (1880-1914)
Page 3: Romania (1880-1914)

Kingdom of Romania✦ 1862 Moldavia and Wallachia were united to form Romania, with

Bucharest as its capitol.

✦ 1866 The German prince Carol (Charles) of Hohenzollern-Sigmaringen was elected as Prince of Romania, in a order to obtain a future independence.

✦ 1877 War between Russian and Turkish. Romania, allied with Russia, fought for its independece. With the Treaty of Berlin, Romania was recognized as independent.

✦ 1881 Charles was crowned as Carol, the first King of Romania.

✦ 1881-1947 Kingdom of Romania: the Romanian state based on a form of parliamentary monarchy It started with Charles I and ended with King Michael I of Romania (abdication)

✦ 1913 Romania participated in the Second Balkan War, in alliance with Serbia and Greece against Bulgaria. Romania annexed the Southern Dobruja.

Page 4: Romania (1880-1914)

After independence, the Romanian Old Kingdom was divided into 33 counties

Page 5: Romania (1880-1914)
Page 6: Romania (1880-1914)

Ethnic make-upRomania had a population of 16,057,028.

Romanians made up 71.9% of the population and 28.1% of the population were ethnic minorities.

Page 7: Romania (1880-1914)

Between 1812 and 1918 in Romania were spoken mainly two languages: Russian and Romanian✦ Russian was the official language of

privilege, but Romanian was the one most widely spoken.

✦ 1905-1917 Increasing linguistic conflict: the Bessarabian asked for the re-introduction of Romanian in school.

✦ 1923 Romanian became the official language with a Consitution

Language spoken

Page 8: Romania (1880-1914)

✦ The emigration of Romanian Jews on a larger scale began soon after 1878. By 1900 there were almost 250,000 Romanian Jews: 3.3% of the population

Religions

Page 9: Romania (1880-1914)

✦ It’s important to know that Alexander Ioan Cuza, after the union of the two regions in 1862, approved the use of Romanian in liturgy, and replaced Cyrilloc with latin script.

✦ In 1866, with a constituition, the Orthodox Church was proclamated as the dominant religion in the Kingdom.

Page 10: Romania (1880-1914)

✦ At the beginning of the XX century, the industry grew significantly, although about 80% of Romanians were still employed in agriculture.

✦ In 1881, Romania had a combined length of 951 km of railroad tracks and in 1914 3,588 km.

✦ In 1886, Romania produced 12.2 million hectolitres of wheat, in 1913 2.1 million

✦ In 1891, Romania produced 0.1 million metric tons of crude petrol, in 1914 1.8 million.

Economy and infrastructures

In the later part of ‘800, growth was constraid by the lack of high tariff barriers to defend Romanian manufactures from foreign imports. In the run-

up to World War I, the country had a considerable economic potential, by virtue of its agricolture (cereals and livestocks), forest wealth and

minerales. All these products were saleableon world markets and coul provide the health needed to import equipment and technology needed to

build new infrastructures.

Page 11: Romania (1880-1914)
Page 12: Romania (1880-1914)

Fonts:

- The Romanian economy in the twentieth century,David Turnock, Taylor & Francis, 1986

- The European economy, 1750-1914: a thematic approach, Derek Howard Aldcroft, Simon P. Ville, Manchester University Press ND, 1994- Microsoft Encarta