rome republic to empire

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  • 1. Rome:Republic toEmpire

2. Roman Republic Formed Small, poor city-state in early 8th c. BCE Slowly Rome began to expand its territory in central Italy 509 BCEthrew off the monarchy (last of the Etruscan kings)Republicestablished by the aristocracy Wealthy (patricians) controlled the Senate while the plebeians (poor) hadlittle say though a public assembly existed 2 Consuls (top magistrates)1 year terms, checked each other power,advised by the Senate Roman law code written in ca 450 BCE (12 Tables of Law) to give poormore protectionRoman law is one of the big contributions to westernculturebig victory for the plebeians Values of Republic: rule of law, rights of citizens, discipline, moralbehavior, honesty, ancestor worship (later called the ways of theancestors) Values formed basis of Romes expansionby 270 BCE mighty Romanarmy controlled entire Italian peninsula 3. The Roman Forum Today Forum was the political, judicial, economic, and religiouscenter of the Republicemerged in the 7th c. BCE andabandoned by the 4th c. CE 4. Hannibal & the Punic Wars 264-201 BCE Rome and the powerful city-state of Carthage fought a seriesof 3 wars over control of theMediterranean trade routes Legendary general Hannibalattempted a surprise attack onRome in the Second Punic Warby crossing the Alps with a herdof unfortunate war elephants Rome defeated Hannibal at theBattle of Zama but Carthageremained a regional competitoruntil the Romans completelydestroyed the city in the 3rd war(149-146 BCE) and sold off itsinhabitants as slaves 5. Roman Conquests After Rome defeated Carthage in 146 BCE, it seemed noMediterranean force could stop the Romans Victory over Carthage gave Rome a taste of imperialismwealthfrom plunder, slaves for cheap labor, new farm lands, control oftrade routes, provinces for taxation, glory for generals (whocould resist all of this?) Rome then launched a series of wars on the EasternMediterranean One by one, Macedonia, Greece, and parts of Asia Minor(Turkey) surrendered and became Roman provinces Other regions, like Egypt, allied with Rome 6 6. 7 7. Romes EarlyRoad System 8. Roman Roads:The Appian Way *Oldest and most important of the Roman roads *queen road *321 BCE completed *Connected Rome to Brandisi part of the route to Greece *All roads lead to Rome 9. ImperialRoman RoadSystem**Much like DariusIs Royal Road, theRomans masterfulengineers created ahighway systemthat connected theentire empire**Fast, efficienttransportationhelped bring Romeinto its golden ageof peace andprosperity (PaxRomana) 10. The Decline of the Republic Roman imperialism brought with it a set of growingproblems that weakened the Republic:1. Growing gap between rich and poor2. Rise of slave agriculture and the decline offree peasant farmers (became landless urban poor)3. Breakdown in military order4. Greed and self-interest replaced virtues suchas simplicity, hard work, and devotion to Rome5. Corruption 11. The Gracchi Brothers tribunes acting for thepeople Tiberius Gracchus represented interests of Romes lowerclass---served as tribune. Called for the redistribution of state lands to displacedpeasants, laws against corruption, extension of voting rights He was assassinated in 133 B.C. His brother Gaius Gracchus continued his brothers reforms(assassinated in 121 B.C.) Attempted reformsdemonstrate how serious the socialproblems were in Rome 12. Slave Revolts Rome faced a series of slaverevolts between 135-71 BCE Slaves--1/3 of the population Rebellion led by the gladiatorSpartacus was the most seriousone General Crassus put down revolt in71 BCElined the Appian Way with6,000 crucified slaves 13. Military Upheaval Old system: citizen-soldiers showed allegiance tothe Republicloyal and patriotic New order: generals promised soldiers land andother rewards for good service---allegiance given topowerful commanders who used the army as theysaw fitdangerous situation for the Republic 14. General Marius: Professional Army General in the Roman army. Marius transformed Romesarmy into a professionalmilitary with the best trainingand equipment Civil War breaks out in Romeand Marius seizes Rome in 87B.C.E. as a dictator. Herecruited a private army fromlandless residents to supporthim. 15. The Dictatorship of the First Triumvirate Julius Caesar (Marius nephewelected consul in 60 B.C.E.) Crassus (wealthy citizenmadegovernor of Syria where he was killed) Pompey(popular generalwaged acivil war against Caesarlost & wasassassinated in 47 B.C.E.) 16. Julius Caesar Conquers Gaul*58-50 B.C.E.*Caesars military geniusis displayed*Wrote the book TheGallic Warspropagandapresentshimself as the greatestliving Roman*Veni, vidi, vici Icame, I saw, Iconquered 17. 18 18. Julius Caesar In 47 BCE he seized power in Rome and was made dictator. A short timelater, in 44 BCE he was given the title dictator for life. His soldiers were loyal to him, not to Rome Gave public land to the poor, started a job program, granted citizenshipto more people in the provinces He increased the Senate to 900 members and then packed it withsupporters of his reforms. Caesars most lasting reform was the introduction of the Julian Calendarbased on Egyptian knowledge 365 day/year calendarJuly named afterhim Popularity breeds contempt 19. Beware theIdes of March!Caesar is assassinated on March 15 44 members of the Senate led by Cassiusand his friend BrutusEt tu Brute?stabbed over 20 times 20. The SecondTriumvirate43-31 B.C.E. Octavian Augustus (age 18grandnephew of Caesar) Marc Antony (experiencedgeneralCaesars favorite) Marcus Lepidus (powerfulpolitician) 21. The Second Triumvirate:Octavian, Mark Antony,Marcus Lepidus 22. Antony & Cleopatra While in Egypt, Mark Antony began a romantic relationship withCleopatra (the mother of Caesars child Caesarian) Antony wanted Cleopatra for Egypts wealth, and Cleopatrawanted Antony for his Roman armies The two soon married and had 3 kids (2 were twins) This marriage outraged Octavian---Antony was already marriedto his sister Octavia Rumors spread that Antony & Cleopatra planned to form anempire Greed and ambition pitted the two men against each other Antony & Cleopatra defeated by Octavian Augustus in 31B.C.E. at the naval battle of Actium 23. CLEOPATRA, QUEEN ofEGYPT24 24. 25 25. Defeat at Actium Doomed Lovers Commit SuicideAntony falls on his swordDeadly asp used byCleopatra to commitsuicide 26. Emperor Augustus 31 BCE 14 CE28 27. Octavian Augustus:Romes First EmperorAugustus was a master atusing art for propagandapurposesthis statuerepresents Augustus in theprocess of giving a formalspeech---Bacchus is at hisfeethe is no longer ageneral who needs to winvictories through battleheconvinces people throughspeechespeace inexchange for absolutepower 28. Octavian becomes Augustus The senate gave the triumphant Octavian thetitle of Augustus, or Exalted One at thedemands of angry plebian mob Augustus exercised absolute power but didntrefer to himself as king (first man instead) Under Augustus, who ruled from 31 BCE to 14CE, the 500-year-old Roman Republic came toan endbut Augustus was careful to still keepsome of the old trappings of the Republic intact, esp. the Senate New age had dawned--Augustus reign laidfoundations of a regime that lasted until the30Empires decline 29. Pax RomanaPax Romana, Age ofPeace, lasted 207years! Rome is at itsheight of power.Ara Pacis ALTAR OFPEACE--monumentcommissioned by Augustusto glorify his reign of peaceand prosperitysymbolicrelief sculptures representthe benefits of the PaxRomana 30. The Greatest Extent of theRoman Empire 14 CE 31. Augustus:Provides Basis forStability Stabilized the frontier regions Laws were passed giving citizens more rights Romans were the first people to take a census Civil service foundedpaid employees to manage the affairs ofthe government A professional army of 150,000 formed, divided into largegroups called legions (5,000 each) 32. Augustus: Provides Basis for Stable Empire Roads were built connecting Aqueducts---example ofever corner of the empire Roman engineering andbuilding skills New government buildings 14 aqueducts stretchingover 250 miles--brought 50glorify Romepublic baths,gallons of water daily intolibraries, temples, basilicasRome for each inhabitant Agriculture became mostimportant industry90%--basis for supporting the hugeempire (latifundia =plantations) 33. The Five GoodEmperors 96-180CE Five Good Emperorskept the empire stable, followedAugustus model and reforms, promoted Pax Romana Emperors like Trajan and Hadrian continued to expandthe empire and keep it prosperous (despite increasingrevolts in the far provincesGermany, Austria, GreatBritain) Flourishing in literature, arts, philosophy, science,architecture Marcus Aurelius (last Good Emperor)philosopheremperor a Stoic--wrote the Meditations discussesgood govt , service, duty 34. Equestrian Statue of Marcus Aurelius ca. 180 CE 35. The Long Decline:Instability at Borders Diocletian (284-305 CE) divided the Empire into Eastern andWestern halves and shared power with a co-Augustus in anattempt at stabilization. 36. Constantine theGreat Constantine the Great (306-337 CE) broughtthe Empire back under a single imperial ruleand tried to further unite it through hisrecognition of Christianity in 313 CE. Converted Rome into a Christian city bybuilding large churches near the borders Created a Christian capital in the East in 324CE by founding Constantinople and calling itthe new Rome Constantines three sons divided theterritories among themselves after theirfathers death in 337 CE while Christianitycontinued to flourish and gain power Vandals successfully sacked Rome in 455 CE 37. Triumphal Arch of Constantine 315 CE Triumph archanother unique form of Roman propaganda celebrating a rulers victory over an enemy of Rome Placed at one of the main gates into the city Comparing the archs rec