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S ummary N otes . TERM TWO BASIC SEVEN 7. ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014. Prepared by Sir Lexis Oppong. INFORMATION PROCESSING . - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Summary Notes TERM TWO BASIC SEVEN7 Prepared by Sir Lexis Oppong ACADEMIC YEAR 2013/2014INFORMATION PROCESSING DATA: - Data is a collection of raw unorganized facts such as numbers, text, audio(sound), video and images. Raw data may not be meaningful and useful to the user. Therefore we need to manipulate, arrange and organize these raw data into a form that is meaningful and useful to the user. This meaningful and useful form of a processed data is referred to as INFORMATION. Therefore we define information as processed data.

INFORMATION. Information is defined as processed data that is meaningful and useful to the user. Examples of information include newsletters, reports, movies, invoices, calendars, etc. When data is processed the result is information. What is Information Processing? Information processing is the process of manipulating, arranging and organizing data into information.

Prepared by Sir Lexis OppongSTAGES OF INFORMATION PROCESSING CYCLEInformation processing cycle of a computer is a set of steps the computer follows to receive data, processes the data according to instructions from a program, displays the resulting information to the user, and stores the results.The information processing cycle has various stages, each stage involves one or more specific components of a computer. Prepared by Sir Lexis OppongINPUT PROCESSING OUTPUTSTORAGE

CPU

MOUSE

RAM

MONITOR INPUT STAGE (Data Stage) Computer Input Stage is when a computer accepts whatever that is entered or fed into its system. Input can be supplied by a person(such as by using a keyboard) or by another computer or device( such as diskettes, flash drives, memory cards, CD-ROM, etc.). Devices that help input data and commands are called INPUT DEVICES. Examples of input devices and the data they input to the computer are shown in the table below.

INPUT DEVICE NAMEDATAMOUSECOMMANDSKEYBOARD TEXTMICROPHONESOUND

THE PROCESSING STAGE This is the stage where the data that is inputted in the computer is organized, manipulated and structured to form information. This stage is where the real processing of data into information occurs and is therefore considered as the most important stage. On a computer the device that performs this processing is called the Central Processing Unit(CPU). The CPU is the brain and the heart of the computer. A computer process is a systematic series of actions a computer uses to manipulate data.

It does all the calculations and manipulations of the computer. The CPU is found inside the system unit. Examples of processors are the Pentium, Centrino and Core Duo.

Prepared by Sir Lexis OppongTHE STORAGE STAGE A computer must store data so that it is available for processing. This storage location can be (the hard disk drive or C:\, and the floppy drive or A:\). The storage of data in the computer is called online storage while the storage of data on computer tapes, diskettes, flash drives, CD-ROMs is called offline storage. STORAGE STAGE is when information is stored for future use. Devices for storing information are called Storage Devices.

Prepared by Sir Lexis Oppong The primary storage device of the computer is called a Hard Disk Drive. Other storage devices are the CD&DVD-ROM, flash drives, external hard drives, etc.

THE OUTPUT STAGE Computer output stage is when the computer produces processed data or information. OUTPUT can be in different formats, such as paper, diskette, or disc or on screen. After the computer has finished processing the data into information, it needs to show or give the information to the user. Devices used to output information are called output devices. Some examples of output devices are shown in the table below.

OUTPUT DEVICE NAME USEMONITORDisplaying text, pictures, etc. LOUDSPEAKERS Outputting soundPRINTER Printing text and pictures onto a paper

Summary notesweek 3 Prepared by Sir Lexis OppongPARTS OF A PERSONAL COMPUTER THE COMPUTERA computer is a general purpose machine that helps us to process information. There are several different categories of computers such as Minicomputers Mainframe computers Supercomputers Network computersPersonal computers (Microcomputers)

SUPERCOMPUTERS 16

MAINFRAME COMPUTERS 17

MINICOMPUTERS

THE PERSONAL COMPUTERA Personal computer is a system of many components. These come together to make the personal function effectively and efficiently. It is also known as a microcomputer or simply a PC meaning personal computer. It is called personal computer(PC) because it has been purposely designed to be used by one person at a time. USESPersonal Computers can be used for many different things such as typing documents, playing music and even factory automation.

GROUP OF PERSONAL COMPUTERSPersonal Computers are grouped into three. These are Personal Digital Assistants(PDAs) Laptop ComputersDesktop Computers

A. PERSONAL DIGITAL ASSISTANT Personal Digital Assistants are hand-held computers that are used to perform simple tasks. They are small in nature and are used to take notes, serve as a reminder, and sometimes even used to browse the net. These days most PDAs also serve as mobile phones.

B. LAPTOP COMPUTERSLaptop computers perform all the functions that a regular computer does. Laptop computers are popular because they are portable and be carried everywhere. They also operate on batteries and used (for a specified period) even when there is no electrical power.

C. DESKTOP COMPUTERSBy far the most popular type of personal computers is desktop computers. They are used in schools, homes, banks, hospital and other social gatherings.

The personal computer can be grouped under two main components. These are hardware and software.

THE PERSONAL COMPUTER HARDWAREHardware refers to the physical components required for creating, using, manipulating and storing electronic data. Examples system unit, monitor, printer, mouse, keyboard, etc. Because personal computer hardware is used to facilitate information processing, they can be grouped into four

INPUT DEVICES

For inputting dataSYSTEM UNIT

Contains parts for processing dataSTORAGE DEVICES

For storing dataOUTPUT DEVICES

For displaying results

INPUT DEVICES Input devices are parts of the computer system that are used to feed data into the computer. These parts serve as the link by which the human user can issue instructions or feed the computer with data. Input devices translate data from a human form into a computer form. The most common input devices are the keyboard and the mouse.

THE KEYBOARD.A keyboard is an input device that sends data in a form of text and instructions to the computer. There are various types of keyboards with varying layout designs. LAYOUTLayout refers to how the individual keys on the keyboard have been arranged. Some of the popular kinds are QWERTY Layout Dvorak Layout Colemak LayoutThe most commonest layout is the QWERTY layout.

THE QWERTY layout This keyboard layout was designed in the typewriter age. The primary concern at the time of design was to ensure that the most frequently used keys were separated so that the mechanical arms of the typewriter keys did not get in each others way. Most computer makers adopted this layout. THE QWERTY Keyboard Layout

Dvorak layout This Dvorak layout was developed in 1936 as an alternative to the dominant QWERTY layout. This layout is to ensure speed, accuracy and ease of use.

THE Dvorak Keyboard Layout

Colemak LayoutThis Colemak layout came out in January of 2006 to be much easier to use and more appealing to people who are already accustomed to the QWERTY layout.

THE Colemak Keyboard Layout

The QWERTY layout was designed in the 19th century to allow typewriter salesmen to easily type the word "typewriter" and to prevent typebars from sticking. We've been stuck with QWERTY ever since.Colemak is a modern alternative to the QWERTY and Dvorak layouts. It is designed for efficient and ergonomic touch typing in English.Learning Colemak is a one-time investment that will allow you to enjoy faster and pain-free typing for the rest of your life. Colemak is now the 3rd most popular keyboard layout for touch typing in English, after QWERTY and Dvorak. 36B. THE MOUSE The mouse is an input device that enables the user to communicate with the computer through selecting, pointing to objects and executing commands on the screen. It has an arrow on the screen that corresponds with movement of the mouse. The most common types of mouse are The Mechanical Mouse The Optical Mouse The Laser Mouse

How to position your hand on the mouse.PARTS OF AN ELECTRONIC MOUSEThe Mechanical Mouse The mechanical was the first widely produced mouse to accompany computers. This type of mouse uses a ball which can turn any in direction. As the ball turns, it moves rollers (2, 3 & 4) that are attached to the ball and this movement is turned into electronic signals (5) that determine where the mouse pointer on the screen should be.

MECHANICAL MOUSEOptical Mouse The optical mouse uses light emitting diodes to detect change on the surface as you move the mouse. The changes that these diodes detect results in the movement of the pointer on the screen.

OPTICAL MICELaser MouseThe laser mouse is an improvement over the optical mouse. The main difference is that this mouse uses infrared laser instead of light emitting diodes(LED). This has resulted in the surface it is projecting on, hence improving (laser eye) the pointer movement on the screen.

LASER MOUSESYSTEM UNIT The system unit is a box that contains most of the electronic and electrical components of a personal

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