SCHAUM'S OUTLINES - Beginning Chemistry 3rd Ed ?· SCHAUM’S OUTLINE OF Theory and Problems of BEGINNING…

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<ul><li><p>SCHAUMSOUTLINE OF</p><p>Theory and Problems of</p><p>BEGINNINGCHEMISTRY</p><p>Third Edition</p><p>David E. Goldberg, Ph.D.Professor of Chemistry</p><p>Brooklyn CollegeCity University of New York</p><p>Schaums Outline SeriesMcGRAW-HILL</p><p>New York Chicago San FranciscoLisbon London Madrid Mexico City Milan</p><p>New Delhi San Juan Seoul Singapore Sydney Toronto</p></li><li><p>Copyright 2005, 1999, 1991 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. All rights reserved. Manufactured in the United States of America. Except as permitted under the United States Copyright Act of 1976, no part of this publication may be reproduced or distributed in any form or by any means, or stored in a database or retrieval system, without the prior written permission of the publisher. 0-07-146628-2 The material in this eBook also appears in the print version of this title: 0-07-144780-6. All trademarks are trademarks of their respective owners. Rather than put a trademark symbol after every occurrence of a trademarked name, we use names in an editorial fashion only, and to the benefit of the trademark owner, with no intention of infringement of the trademark. Where such designations appear in this book, they have been printed with initial caps. McGraw-Hill eBooks are available at special quantity discounts to use as premiums and sales promotions, or for use in corporate training programs. For more information, please contact George Hoare, Special Sales, at george_hoare@mcgraw-hill.com or (212) 904-4069. TERMS OF USE This is a copyrighted work and The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. (McGraw-Hill) and its licensors reserve all rights in and to the work. Use of this work is subject to these terms. Except as permitted under the Copyright Act of 1976 and the right to store and retrieve one copy of the work, you may not decompile, disassemble, reverse engineer, reproduce, modify, create derivative works based upon, transmit, distribute, disseminate, sell, publish or sublicense the work or any part of it without McGraw-Hills prior consent. You may use the work for your own noncommercial and personal use; any other use of the work is strictly prohibited. Your right to use the work may be terminated if you fail to comply with these terms. THE WORK IS PROVIDED AS IS. McGRAW-HILL AND ITS LICENSORS MAKE NO GUARANTEES OR WARRANTIES AS TO THE ACCURACY, ADEQUACY OR COMPLETENESS OF OR RESULTS TO BE OBTAINED FROM USING THE WORK, INCLUDING ANY INFORMATION THAT CAN BE ACCESSED THROUGH THE WORK VIA HYPERLINK OR OTHERWISE, AND EXPRESSLY DISCLAIM ANY WARRANTY, EXPRESS OR IMPLIED, INCLUDING BUT NOT LIMITED TO IMPLIED WARRANTIES OF MERCHANTABILITY OR FITNESS FOR A PARTICULAR PURPOSE. McGraw-Hill and its licensors do not warrant or guarantee that the functions contained in the work will meet your requirements or that its operation will be uninterrupted or error free. Neither McGraw-Hill nor its licensors shall be liable to you or anyone else for any inaccuracy, error or omission, regardless of cause, in the work or for any damages resulting therefrom. McGraw-Hill has no responsibility for the content of any information accessed through the work. Under no circumstances shall McGraw-Hill and/or its licensors be liable for any indirect, incidental, special, punitive, consequential or similar damages that result from the use of or inability to use the work, even if any of them has been advised of the possibility of such damages. This limitation of liability shall apply to any claim or cause whatsoever whether such claim or cause arises in contract, tort or otherwise. DOI: 10.1036/0071466282</p></li><li><p>PREFACE</p><p>This book is designed to help students do well in their first chemistry course, especially those who have littleor no chemistry background. It can be used effectively in a course preparatory to a general college chemistrycourse as well as in a course in chemistry for liberal arts students. It should also provide additional assistance tostudents in the first semester of a chemistry course for nurses and others in the allied health fields. It will proveto be of value in a high school chemistry course and in a general chemistry course for majors.</p><p>The book aims to help the student develop both problem-solving skills and skill in precise reading andinterpreting scientific problems and questions. Analogies to everyday life introduce certain types of problemsto make the underlying principles less abstract. Many of the problems were devised to clarify particular pointsoften confused by beginning students. To ensure mastery, the book often presents problems in parts, then asksthe same question as an entity, to see if the student can do the parts without the aid of the fragmented question.It provides some figures that have proved helpful to a generation of students.</p><p>The author gratefully acknowledges the help of the editors at McGraw-Hill.</p><p>DAVID E. GOLDBERG</p><p>iii</p><p>Copyright 2005, 1999, 1991 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.</p></li><li><p>This page is intentionally left blank.</p></li><li><p>TO THE STUDENT</p><p>This book is designed to help you understand chemistry fundamentals. Learning chemistry requires that youmaster chemical terminology and be able to perform calculations with ease. Toward these ends, many of theexamples and problems are formulated to alert you to questions that sound different but are actually the same(Problem 3.16 for example) or questions that are different but sound very similar (Problems 5.13 and 7.25, forexample). You should not attempt to memorize the solutions to the problems. (There is enough to memorize,without that.) Instead, you must try to understand the concepts involved. Your instructor and texts usually teachgeneralities (e.g., Atoms of all main group elements except noble gases have the number of outermost electronsequal to their group number.), but the instructor asks specific questions on exams (e.g., How many outermostelectrons are there in a phosphorus atom?) You must not only know the principle, but also in what situations itapplies.</p><p>You must practice by working many problems, because in addition to the principles, you must get accustomedto the many details involved in solving problems correctly. The key to success in chemistry is working very manyproblems! To get the most from this book, use a 5 8 card to cover up the solutions while you are doing theproblems. Do not look at the answer first. It is easy to convince yourself that you know how to do a problemby looking at the answer, but generating the answer yourself, as you must do on exams, is not the same. Afteryou have finished, compare your result with the answer given. If the method differs, it does not mean that yourmethod is necessarily incorrect. If your answer is the same, your method is probably correct. Otherwise, try tounderstand what the difference is, and where you made a mistake, if you did so.</p><p>Some of the problems given after the text are very short and/or very easy (Problems 5.12 and 5.14, forexample). They are designed to emphasize a particular point. After you get the correct answer, ask yourselfwhy such a question was asked. Many other problems give analogies to everyday life, to help you understand achemical principle (Problems 2.13 with 2.14, 4.6, 5.15 with 5.16, 7.13 through 7.16 and 10.41, for example).</p><p>Make sure you understand the chemical meaning of the terms presented throughout the semester. For example,significant figures means something very different in chemical calculations than in economic discussions.Special terms used for the first time in this book will be italicized. Whenever you encounter such a term, use itrepeatedly until you thoroughly understand its meaning. If necessary, use the Glossary to find the meanings ofunfamiliar terms.</p><p>Always use the proper units with measurable quantities. It makes quite a bit of difference if your pet is4 in. tall or 4 ft tall! After Chapter 2, always use the proper number of significant figures in your calculations. Doyourself a favor and use the same symbols and abbreviations for chemical quantities that are used in the text. Ifyou use a different symbol, you might become confused later when that symbol is used for a different quantity.</p><p>Some of the problems are stated in parts. After you do the problem by solving the various parts, see if youwould know how to solve the same problem if only the last part were asked.</p><p>The conversion figure on page 348 shows all the conversions presented in the book. As you proceed, addthe current conversions from the figure to your solution techniques.</p><p>v</p><p>Copyright 2005, 1999, 1991 by The McGraw-Hill Companies, Inc. Click here for terms of use.</p></li><li><p>This page is intentionally left blank.</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS</p><p>CHAPTER 1 Basic Concepts 11.1 Introduction 11.2 The Elements 11.3 Matter and Energy 21.4 Properties 31.5 Classification of Matter 31.6 Representation of Elements 51.7 Laws, Hypotheses, and Theories 6</p><p>CHAPTER 2 Mathematical Methods in Chemistry 102.1 Introduction 102.2 Factor-Label Method 102.3 Metric System 122.4 Exponential Numbers 162.5 Significant Digits 172.6 Density 212.7 Temperature Scales 23</p><p>CHAPTER 3 Atoms and Atomic Masses 383.1 Introduction 383.2 Atomic Theory 383.3 Atomic Masses 393.4 Atomic Structure 403.5 Isotopes 413.6 Periodic Table 42</p><p>Chapter 4 Electronic Configuration of the Atom 514.1 Introduction 514.2 Bohr Theory 514.3 Quantum Numbers 534.4 Quantum Numbers and Energies of Electrons 544.5 Shells, Subshells, and Orbitals 554.6 Shapes of Orbitals 584.7 Buildup Principle 584.8 Electronic Structure and the Periodic Table 60</p><p>vii</p><p>For more information about this title, click here</p></li><li><p>viii CONTENTS</p><p>Chapter 5 Chemical Bonding 675.1 Introduction 675.2 Chemical Formulas 675.3 The Octet Rule 685.4 Ions 695.5 Electron Dot Notation 715.6 Covalent Bonding 725.7 Distinction Between Ionic and Covalent Bonding 745.8 Predicting the Nature of Bonding in Compounds 755.9 Detailed Electronic Configurations of Ions (Optional) 76</p><p>Chapter 6 Inorganic Nomenclature 866.1 Introduction 866.2 Binary Compounds of Nonmetals 876.3 Naming Ionic Compounds 886.4 Naming Inorganic Acids 936.5 Acid Salts 946.6 Hydrates 94</p><p>Chapter 7 Formula Calculations 1027.1 Introduction 1027.2 Molecules and Formula Units 1027.3 Formula Masses 1037.4 The Mole 1037.5 Percent Composition of Compounds 1067.6 Empirical Formulas 1077.7 Molecular Formulas 108</p><p>Chapter 8 Chemical Equations 1208.1 Introduction 1208.2 Balancing Simple Equations 1218.3 Predicting the Products of a Reaction 122</p><p>Chapter 9 Net Ionic Equations 1349.1 Introduction 1349.2 Writing Net Ionic Equations 134</p><p>Chapter 10 Stoichiometry 14210.1 Mole-to-Mole Calculations 14210.2 Calculations Involving Other Quantities 14310.3 Limiting Quantities 14410.4 Calculations Based on Net Ionic Equations 14710.5 Heat Capacity and Heat of Reaction 147</p></li><li><p>CONTENTS ix</p><p>Chapter 11 Molarity 16211.1 Introduction 16211.2 Molarity Calculations 16211.3 Titration 16411.4 Stoichiometry in Solution 166</p><p>Chapter 12 Gases 17312.1 Introduction 17312.2 Pressure of Gases 17312.3 Boyles Law 17412.4 Graphical Representation of Data 17512.5 Charles Law 17712.6 The Combined Gas Law 18012.7 The Ideal Gas Law 18112.8 Daltons Law of Partial Pressures 183</p><p>Chapter 13 Kinetic Molecular Theory 19513.1 Introduction 19513.2 Postulates of the Kinetic Molecular Theory 19513.3 Explanation of Gas Pressure, Boyles Law, and Charles Law 19613.4 Grahams Law 197</p><p>Chapter 14 Oxidation and Reduction 20114.1 Introduction 20114.2 Assigning Oxidation Numbers 20114.3 Periodic Relationships of Oxidation Numbers 20314.4 Oxidation Numbers in Inorganic Nomenclature 20514.5 Balancing Oxidation-Reduction Equations 20514.6 Electrochemistry 209</p><p>Chapter 15 Solutions 21915.1 Qualitative Concentration Terms 21915.2 Molality 21915.3 Mole Fraction 22015.4 Equivalents 22115.5 Normality 22215.6 Equivalent Mass 223</p><p>Chapter 16 Rates and Equilibrium 23016.1 Introduction 23016.2 Rates of Chemical Reaction 23016.3 Chemical Equilibrium 23216.4 Equilibrium Constants 234</p></li><li><p>x CONTENTS</p><p>Chapter 17 Acid-Base Theory 24617.1 Introduction 24617.2 The Brnsted-Lowry Theory 24617.3 Acid-Base Equilibrium 24817.4 Autoionization of Water 24917.5 The pH Scale 25017.6 Buffer Solutions 251</p><p>Chapter 18 Organic Chemistry 26118.1 Introduction 26118.2 Bonding in Organic Compounds 26118.3 Structural, Condensed, and Line Formulas 26218.4 Hydrocarbons 26418.5 Isomerism 26618.6 Radicals and Functional Groups 26718.7 Alcohols 26918.8 Ethers 27018.9 Aldehydes and Ketones 27118.10 Acids and Esters 27118.11 Amines 27218.12 Amides 272</p><p>Chapter 19 Nuclear Reactions 28019.1 Introduction 28019.2 Natural Radioactivity 28019.3 Half-Life 28219.4 Radioactive Series 28319.5 Nuclear Fission and Fusion 28419.6 Nuclear Energy 285</p><p>APPENDIX Scientific Calculations 292A.1 Scientific Algebra 292A.2 Calculator Mathematics 297</p><p>Glossary 312</p><p>Practice Quizzes 326Answers to Quizzes 330</p><p>Index 335</p><p>Conversions 348Table of the Elements 349Periodic Table 350</p></li><li><p>CHAPTER 1</p><p>Basic Concepts</p><p>1.1. INTRODUCTION</p><p>Chemistry is the study of matter and energy and the interactions between them. In this chapter, we learn aboutthe elements, which are the building blocks of every type of matter in the universe, the measurement of matter(and energy) as mass, the properties by which the types of matter can be identified, and a basic classification ofmatter. The symbols used to represent the elements are also presented, and an arrangement of the elements intoclasses having similar properties, called a periodic table, is introduced. The periodic table is invaluable to thechemist for many types of classification and understanding.</p><p>Scientists have gathered so much data that they must have some way of organizing information in a usefulform. Toward that end, scientific laws, hypotheses, and theories are used. These forms of generalization areintroduced in Sec. 1.7.</p><p>1.2. THE ELEMENTS</p><p>An element is a substance that cannot be broken down into simpler substances by ordinary means. A fewmore than 100 elements and the many combinations of these elementscompounds or mixturesaccount forall the materials of the world. Exploration of the moon has provided direct evidence that the earths satellite iscomposed of the same elements as those on earth. Indirect evidence, in the form of light received from the sunand stars, confirms the fact that the same elements make up the entire universe. Before it was discovered on theearth, helium (from the Greek helios, meaning sun) was discovered in the sun by the characteristic light itemits.</p><p>It is apparent from the wide variety of different materials in the world that there are a great many ways tocombine elements. Changing one combination of elements to another is the chief interest of the chemist. It haslong been of interest to know the composition of the crust of the earth, the oceans, and the atmosphere, sincethese are the only sources of raw materials for all the products that humans require. More recently, however,attention has focused on the problem of what to do with the products humans have used and no longer desire.Although elements can change combinations, they cannot be created...</p></li></ul>