science skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › year 3... · skeleton,...

of 48 /48
Pupil Workbook Year 3, Unit 5 Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition Name:

Upload: others

Post on 04-Jul-2020

5 views

Category:

Documents


0 download

TRANSCRIPT

Page 1: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Pupil Workbook Year 3, Unit 5

Science

Skeletons, muscles and nutrition

Name:

Page 2: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Formative Assessment Scores

Notes:

Knowledge Quiz 5.1

Knowledge Quiz 5.2

Knowledge Quiz 5.3

Knowledge Quiz 5.4

Knowledge Quiz 5.5

Page 3: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Pupil Workbook Year 3, Unit 5

Science

Skeletons, muscles and nutrition

Page 4: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser

Glossary

1 Skeleton The human skeleton is a framework of bones

2 Bone A hard white material making up the skeleton

3 Cartilage A flexible material found in parts of the body

4 Support To hold something in place

5 Protection To prevent something from being damaged

6 Movement The act of moving

7 Joint A place where two bones meet and are able to move

8 Muscle Tissue in the body which is able to contract and relax

9 Tendon Attaches muscle to bone

10 Ligament Straps two bones together and holds them in place

11 Vertebrate An animal with a vertebral column or backbone

12 Invertebrate An animal without a vertebral column or backbone

13 Endoskeleton A hard skeleton found on the inside of a body

14 Exoskeleton A hard skeleton found on the outside of a body

15 Hydrostatic Skeleton A soft skeleton filled with fluid

16 Nutrition The process of providing the body with what it needs

17 Food Chain The chain of nutrition from animal to animal which always starts with a green plant

18 Carnivore An animal which eats only meat (other animals)

19 Herbivore An animal which eats only plants

20 Omnivore An animal which eats both meat and plants

What is a skeleton and why do we need one?

The adult human skeleton is a framework of 206 different bones. We have a skeleton for three main reasons: support, protection and movement. Our skeleton protects our vital organs (such as our heart, lungs and brain) from being damaged. We need to keep our organs safe because they perform very important jobs. Our heart pumps blood all around our body and our lungs allow us to breathe in oxygen from air. Our skeleton supports our bodies by maintaining our shape and allowing us to stand up straight. If we did not have a skeleton we could end up looking this is picture here. We would have nothing supporting our skin and organs. Our skeleton also works with our muscles to allow us to move from one place to another. Without our skeleton we would not be able to move any parts of our body such as our arms, legs, fingers, toes, jaw and hips. We would not be able to run, jump or pick things up.

Page 5: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

What is a muscle?

A skeletal muscle is a type of tissue that works with the bones in our skeleton to allow us to move. Muscles and bones are joined together by tendons and as the muscle contracts and relaxes, the bone it is attached to will move at the same time.

Which bones make up the human skeleton?

The human skeleton is made up of a range of different bones. You can see those bones and some of their scientific names here:

What is nutrition?

Nutrition is the process of giving our body what it needs in order to work properly. We usually do this by eating food and it is important to eat the right balance of foods because our bodies need lots of different things.

They need proteins, fats, carbohydrates, vitamins, minerals and fibre. We can get all of these things by eating the right amounts of different foods including fruits and vegetables., bread, fish, cereals, meats and beans. If you do not eat meat then you can often get what you need by eating different vegetables, oils and nuts instead.

What are animal skeletons like?

Animals can either be a vertebrate or an invertebrate. A vertebrate has a vertebral column. A human is an example of a vertebrate. An invertebrate does not have a vertebral column. Insects are invertebrate.

Another way to group animal skeletons is to decide whether they have an endoskeleton, an exoskeleton or a hydrostatic skeleton.

An endoskeleton is on the inside of the body, an exoskeleton is on the outside of the body and a hydrostatic skeleton is soft and filled with fluid (or liquid).

This crab here has an exoskeleton. It is a hard shell on the outside of its body.

Page 6: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Knowledge Record

Wha

t doe

s a

hum

an s

kele

ton

lo

ok li

ke?

Wha

t is

the

fun

ctio

n o

f the

hu

man

ske

leto

n?

How

do

skel

eton

s va

ry b

etw

een

an

imal

s?

Why

do

we

have

m

uscl

es in

our

bo

dies

?

How

do

we

get

the

nut

riti

on w

e n

eed?

How

do

anim

als

get t

he n

utri

tion

th

ey n

eed?

Page 7: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Existing Knowledge

What do I know about skeletons, muscles and nutrition?

Page 8: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Session 1:

What does a human skeleton look like? Key Knowledge Key Vocabulary

• The human skeleton is a framework of bones

• Some parts of our bodies are also made from cartilage

• There are 206 bones in the skeleton of an adult human

• There are common names for the bones in our bodies

• There are scientific names for those same bones

• We can use our knowledge of bones to label and describe the skeleton

• Human

• Skeleton

• Bone

• Cartilage

• (common bone names)

• (scientific bone names)

Can you name any of the bones in the human skeleton?

Page 9: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

What is the human skeleton? The human skeleton is a framework or structure of bones that supports the human body. When a baby is born, there are over 300 different parts in the skeleton. Some are bones and some are a more flexible material called cartilage. However over time, most of these areas of cartilage slowly turn to bone and some join together to make bigger bones. Your ears are made of cartilage and they are an example of a part of the body which does not become bone as you get older. Adults have a skeleton made up from 206 separate bones.

Answer the following questions:

What is cartilage? ________________________________________

How many parts are in the skeleton of a newborn baby? _____________________

How many bones are in the skeleton of an adult? ________________________ Which bones make up the human skeleton?

We have bones in almost every part of our bodies.

Can you feel any of the bones in your own body? Where can you feel them?

Some of the bones in your body are: a skull, a jawbone, collarbones, a breastbone, a backbone, shoulder blades, arms bones, wrist bones, hand bones, finger bones, hip bones, thighbones, kneecaps, leg bones, ankle bones, foot bones and toe bones!

Label the skeleton with the names of the different bones in the text above:

Page 10: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

What are the scientific names for the bones in the human skeleton?

We can call our bones by the names we have just been using or we can use the scientific name for each of them. This table shows you the scientific names next to the names you already know: Skull Cranium Wrist Bones Carpals Jawbone Mandible Hand Bones Metacarpals Collarbone Clavicle Finger Bones Phalanges Shoulder Blade Scapula Thighbone Femur Breastbone Sternum Kneecap Patella Ribs Ribs Leg Bones Tibia, Fibula Hip Bones Pelvis Foot Bones Metatarsals Arm Bones Humerus, Radius, Ulna Ankle Bone Tarsal Backbone Vertebral Column Toe Bones Phalanges

Use the information in the table to label the skeleton with the scientific bone names:

Page 11: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Describe the human skeleton and the bones within it. Try to use the scientific names for the bones.

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

Page 12: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Session 2:

What is the function of the human skeleton? Key Knowledge Key Vocabulary

• The human skeleton has three main functions

• To support our bodies

• To protect vital organs

• To allow movement of the body

• Different bones can have more than one function

• Bones meet at joints and joints allow movement

• There are four main types of joint

• Support

• Protection

• Movement

• Ball and socket joint

• Hinge joint

• Pivot joint

• Gliding Joint

Knowledge Quiz 5.1

1. Which two of the below make up the human skeleton?

2. How many bones are in the skeleton of an adult?

3. Which of the below is the scientific name for the skull?

4. Which of the below is the scientific name for the backbone?

5. Which of these bones are found in your arm?

Hair

Page 13: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Why do you think we have a skeleton? What do you think would happen if we did not have a skeleton?

Why do we need a skeleton?

We have a skeleton for a number of different reasons but each reason is very important. Firstly, our skeleton provides support to the rest of our body. It is the structure that helps us to stand up straight and it maintains the shape of our body. Without a skeleton we

would probably look like the picture above because our body would have nothing supporting it.

We also have a skeleton because it protects our organs. Our organs perform lots of important tasks. For example: our heart pumps blood around our body; our lungs help us to breathe; our stomach helps us to digest food; our brain helps us to think. It is therefore very important that these organs are not damaged in any way and our skeleton is there to stop this from happening. Your cranium protects your brain and your ribcage protects your heart, lungs and other organs.

Your skeleton also enables you to move. Movement is the third function of the skeleton. The bones in your skeleton work with your muscles and this is how you are able to move.

List the three functions of the human skeleton: 1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

Page 14: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Match the function to the description:

Support

The skeleton works with muscles so

we can move from one place to another

Protection

The skeleton maintains our shape

and allows us to stand upright

Movement

Vital organs like the heart and the brain are kept safe from damage

Sort the bones into the table to show whether you think they are for support, protection or movement. Some bones may go in more than one row!

Supp

ort

Pro

tect

ion

Mov

emen

t

Page 15: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Name, describe and compare the functions of the two sets of bones below. What would happen if these bones were not inside our bodies?

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

Page 16: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

How do bones allow us to move?

Bones allow us to move due to the way they connect at joints. A joint is the point at which two bones meet. We are going to look at four different types of joint and these are: hinge joints, pivot joints, gliding joints and ball and socket joints.

List four types of joint in the human body:

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. ______________________________________

A hinge joint allows you to move in one direction and then back again. For example: when you bend your leg at your knee or when you bend your arm at your elbow. This joint works like the hinge on a door when the door opens and closes.

A pivot joint is where the rounded end of one bone fits into a hole in another. It allows you to move a part of your body from side to side. An example of this type of joint is where you can move your head from side to side. A gliding joint can also be called a sliding joint. At these joints, the bones which meet both have a flat surface and this means you can move a part of your body back and forth and side to side. This joint is found in your wrists and in your ankles. A ball and socket joint give the most movement out of all of the joints. The end of one bone is shaped like a ball and it fits into a cup shaped socket on the end of another bone. This joint is found where your legs meets your hip and is why you can swivel your legs in many directions.

Which image shows which type of joint? Explain you thinking.

Page 17: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Describe where each of the joints are located in the body and the activity you may be doing to be using that joint:

Where are these joints located? When might you use these joints?

Hin

ge

Piv

ot

Gli

ding

Bal

l and

Soc

ket

Page 18: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Session 3:

How do bones and muscles work together? Key Knowledge Key Vocabulary

• We have three different types of muscle in our bodies: cardiac muscle, smooth muscle and skeletal muscle

• Each type of muscle has a different function

• Muscles can have voluntary or involuntary movements

• Skeletal muscles work with our bones to allow us to move

• Bones are joined together with ligaments

• The ends of bones are covered in cartilage

• Muscles are joined to bones with tendons

• Muscle

• Cardiac Muscle

• Smooth Muscle

• Skeletal Muscle

• Voluntary

• Involuntary

• Tendon

• Ligament

Knowledge Quiz 5.2

1. Which of the below are functions of the skeleton?

2. Which of the bones below protect your vital organs?

3. Which of joints below are found in places such as where your leg meets your hip?

4. Which joints allows you to move a part of your back and forth and side to side?

5. Which of these joints is found at your knees and your elbows?

Movement Support

Hinge

Hinge

Hinge

Page 19: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Why do you think we have muscles? What makes the bones in our skeleton move?

What are muscles? We know that skeletons are flexible and allow us to move our bodies but without muscles, our skeletons would not be able to move at all.

Muscles are located all around our bodies and are mostly made up of a material called tissue which we could say is elastic. There are around 350 different muscles in the human body and they allow you do things like run, jump, eat and smile. These 350 different muscles can be broken down into three different types: cardiac muscle, skeletal muscle and smooth muscle. Each type of muscle has a slightly different function.

Cardiac muscles are the muscles that control the beating of your heart. Your heart is the only place where you can find this type of muscle and it is very strong. It pumps your blood all the way around your body continuously without you even thinking about it. Muscles which work in this way are known as involuntary muscles.

Smooth muscles are also involuntary muscles. It is the type of muscle often found in organs other than your heart. Smooth muscle is found in organs such as your stomach and intestines and these both help your body to digest food.

Skeletal muscle is the type of muscle we will be looking at in more depth in this session. It covers your entire skeleton and gives your body its shape. Skeletal muscles are voluntary muscles which means you can control their movement. They are attached to your bones by tendons. Nearly everything you choose to do – smile, shake your head, dance – is caused by skeletal muscle.

Page 20: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

What are the three different types of muscle?

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________ What does involuntary mean? ______________________________________________

What does voluntary mean? ________________________________________________

Complete the table with the names of the types of muscle, where the muscle can be found, whether it is voluntary or involuntary and the function of each

Type of Muscle Location Voluntary/

Involuntary Function

Page 21: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

How do our muscles and bones allow us to move? Muscles and bones need to be joined together in order to allow us to move and there are some other bodily materials that support in this process of movement.

Where two bones meet at a joint, there are tough strips holding them together called ligaments. Ligaments provide extra strength at the joint by strapping the bones together securely. They allow the joint to bend but they also stop it from being pulled too far in the wrong direction. You can see the ligaments joining the foot bones together here.

At the end of each bone there is a material called cartilage. We already know that babies are born with a lot of this material inside of their bodies and that this is what our ears are made from. The reason that this material is also found at the end of each bone is that it protects the bones from being damaged as without it, the bones would rub directly against each other.

We then also have tendons. Tendons are the material which attaches the muscle to the bone. Tendons are flexible and do not break when tension is applied. This means they work almost like an elastic band which does not break when it is pulled. You can see a tendon attaching a muscle to a bone here in this image.

Match the name of the bodily material to the description.

Joint Protects joints from

rubbing against each other

Tendon

Attaches bone to bone

Ligament

Attaches muscle to bone

Cartilage

Where two bones meet

Page 22: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

How can we test our muscles? Our muscles work in pairs. When one contracts (pulls tighter) the other relaxes. They then do the opposite to return to their original positions. If you tense your arm you can feel one muscles

contracting and the other relaxing.

To test and compare our muscles, we can carry out an investigation. We are going to each hold something in one of our hands and hold that arm directly outwards. This way we can feel our muscles working and also see who has the strongest arm muscles! However, before we begin our investigation, we need to think carefully about how we are going to ensure it is a fair test.

What is it that we are changing each time? What must stay the same?

Describe how you will carry out the investigation and as you complete it, fill in your results table.

Method:

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ How will we keep our test fair?

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

Page 23: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ __________________________________________________ Results:

Name ___ handed? Arm Tested Time (s)

Page 24: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Session 4:

How do skeletons vary between animals?

Key Knowledge Key Vocabulary

• A vertebrate is an animal with a vertebral column

• An invertebrate is an animal without a vertebral column

• Vertebrates have an endoskeleton

• An endoskeleton is found inside the body

• Invertebrates have an exoskeleton or a hydrostatic skeleton

• An exoskeleton is found outside of the body

• A hydrostatic skeleton is filled mainly with fluid

• Vertebral column

• Vertebrate

• Invertebrate

• Endoskeleton

• Exoskeleton

• Hydrostatic skeleton

• Fluid

Knowledge Quiz 5.3

1. Which type of muscle is the heart made from?

2. Which type of muscle works with our bones to allow our bodies to move?

3. Muscles we think about controlling are called _____________ muscles.

4. Which of the below straps and holds two bones together?

5. Which of the below attached muscle to bone?

Smooth Muscle

Joint

Joint

Page 25: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Can you identify the animals from the skeletons?

Are all skeletons the same? The bones inside the human body make up the human skeleton and the bones inside the body of an animal make up the skeleton of that animal. However – not all animals have skeletons inside of their bodies and whilst some skeletons have similarities,

others are very different and some animals do not really have a skeleton at all!

When we first look at different types of skeleton, we should know the difference between a vertebrate and an invertebrate. Whether an animal is a vertebrate or an invertebrate depends entirely on whether or not they have a vertebral column (or spine). The backbone is a long column of bones down the back of the body. A vertebrae is an animal with a backbone and an invertebrate is an animal without a backbone. You can see the backbone on the skeleton of this dog and it is how we know the dog is a vertebrate.

Mammals (including humans), fish, birds, reptiles and amphibians are vertebrates. If an animal does not fit into one of these categories then the animal is most likely an invertebrate. Insects and jellyfish are examples of invertebrates.

Page 26: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Define the following words using the information from the text.

Vertebrate

Invertebrate

Sort the animals to show whether they are a vertebrate or an invertebrate.

Vertebrate Invertebrate

Now that we know the difference between a vertebrate and an invertebrate, we can look a little more in depth at the different types of skeleton found in those two groups. Most vertebrates have an endoskeleton. An endoskeleton is a hard framework of bones (or

cartilage) found inside the body of an animal. There are then two different types of invertebrate: those that have an exoskeleton and those that have a hydrostatic skeleton. An exoskeleton is a hard covering on the outside of an animal’s body and those animals who have an exoskeleton do not have a skeleton on the inside of their body. A hydrostatic skeleton is a system where the body of an animal is filled with fluid. Animals with a hydrostatic skeleton do not have a hard internal or external structure.

Page 27: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

List the three different types of skeleton.

1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

Sort the animals to show whether they have an endoskeleton, an exoskeleton or a hydrostatic skeleton.

Endoskeleton Exoskeleton Hydrostatic Skeleton

This cow has an endoskeleton

This beetle has an exoskeleton

This earthworm has a hydrostatic skeleton

Page 28: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

What are the advantages and disadvantages of each type of skeleton?

Each type of skeleton has advantages and disadvantages for the animal. Animals with an endoskeleton are able to lift heavy weights and have a skeleton which grows as they do. However, an endoskeleton does not give much protection for the body and the

muscles are less flexible than in other types of skeleton.

An exoskeleton provides a great deal of protection for an animal because it is a hard casing on the outside of the body. The fact that there are no bones on the inside on the body means that the animal has flexible joints because of the underlying muscles. The disadvantages of having an exoskeleton are that the external skeleton does not grow with the animal meaning that these animals are often small. This also means that the skeleton does not stretch or expand and the animal needs to molt which can be dangerous as they are vulnerable to predators.

A hydrostatic skeleton is a skeleton supported by liquid. As they are filled with liquid, they are able to change shape and move around with greater flexibility. They are also able to heal themselves faster than other animals. The disadvantage of a hydrostatic skeleton is that the animal can be damaged easily both on the outside and the inside.

Describe the skeleton of each animal. Include all of the information from this session in your descriptions.

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

Page 29: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________ __________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

Page 30: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Session 5:

What is nutrition and where does it come from? Key Knowledge Key Vocabulary

• Nutrition is the process of providing our body with what it needs

• Plants can make their own food but humans and animals cannot

• We need to eat to give our body what it needs

• Our bodies need: Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and fibre

• We need to eat a range of different foods in order to do this

• When we eat the right amount of each food group we say our diet is balanced

• Nutrition

• Proteins

• Carbohydrates

• Vitamins

• Minerals

• Fibre

• Balanced Diet

Knowledge Quiz 5.4

1. An animal with a vertebral column is also known as:

2. An animal without a vertebral column is also known as:

3. A skeletal system built only from fluid is:

4. A skeletal system found on the outside of the body of an animal is:

5. A skeletal system found on the inside of the body of an animal is:

An exoskeleton

An exoskeleton

An exoskeleton

Page 31: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

What do you like to eat? Where does that food come from?

What is nutrition and where does it come from?

Nutrition is the process of providing our bodies with what it needs in order to grow and stay healthy. This usually comes from eating food. We know all about our skeleton and our muscles and it is very important that we give those and other systems in our body

exactly what they need in order to function properly.

Unlike plants, which we know are able to produce their own food through the process of photosynthesis, humans and other animals cannot make their own food. Humans and other animals either need to eat plants or eat another animal. It you followed the chain of eating you would always find your way back to a plant because a plant is at the beginning of every food chain.

Humans eat food to provide their bodies with nutrition. They need to eat: proteins, carbohydrates, fats, vitamins, minerals and fibre. Our bodies need a supply of each of these and we provide this supply by including a range of different foods in our diets.

What do our bodies need? 1. ______________________________________

2. ______________________________________

3. ______________________________________

4. _________________________________________________________________

5. _________________________________________________________________

6. _________________________________________________________________

Page 32: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Why does our body need these things?

Carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and fibre are all important in their own way and can be found by eating a range of different foods but why does our body need them?

Carbohydrates give us energy. There are two different types of foods which are classed as carbohydrates and these are sugars and starch. Sugars are sweet and starch is not sweet but both are turned into fuel (energy) by our bodies. However any excess energy that we do not use is stored under the skin as fat. You can get sugar from fruits but also from foods such as chocolate. You can get starch from bread, pasta, potatoes and rice.

Proteins are important because the body uses proteins to grow and repair tissues. Hair and nails are made of a type of protein and our muscles need protein too. We can provide our bodies with protein by eating meat, fish, eggs, nuts, milk and beans.

Fats, although often thought of as bad for you, are needed by the body for energy and warmth. However, any unused fats are stored around the body including underneath your skin. It is therefore important that we do not eat more of them that we need to. Fats are found in animal products such as butter, fatty meats and also in non-animal products such as nuts and vegetable oils. Some fats are much healthier than others.

Vitamins are needed because they help your body to stay healthy. There are many different types of vitamins – around 15 different types – and these are found in a wide range of different foods. Vitamin A is a vitamin needed for your eyes and your skin. You can get this from milk, butter, eggs, green vegetables and fish. Vitamin C is needed for healing wounds and preventing cold. You get this from eating fruits and vegetables including oranges and lemons.

There are also many different types of minerals – around 20 in total – and they also each provide your body with different things it needs. Calcium is needed for strong bones and teeth. You can get this from milk, cheese and butter. Iron is important for your blood and you can get this from red meats and green vegetables.

Fibre is found in wholemeal bread, cereals, fruits and vegetables. We need it because it helps the smooth muscles in our digestive organs move the food we eat through our bodies.

Page 33: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Complete the table using the information on the previous page:

Why does the body need this? Which foods provide this?

Carbohydrates

Protein

Fats

Fibre

Vitamins

Minerals

Page 34: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Fruits and Vegetables Starchy Carbohydrates Dairy Protein Oils and Spreads

How much of each does our body need?

Our body needs more of some things that it does of other things and therefore in order to provide our bodies with the right amount, it is important we eat a balanced diet. Eating a balanced diet will keep your body healthy.

When we try to make our diet balanced, to ensure we get the right amounts of carbohydrates, proteins, fats, vitamins, minerals and fibre, it is easier if we split our foods into different foods groups. This is because some foods give us more than one important thing out body needs. These food groups are: fruits and vegetables, starchy carbohydrates, oils and spreads, dairy, proteins and high fat, salt and sugar foods.

The chart here can be viewed as a plate of food and shows you how much of each food group should be eaten on that plate. High fat, salt and sugar foods are not on the plate because we should be eating these very rarely.

You can see that most of a plate of food should be fruits and vegetables and a similar, but smaller amount of starchy carbohydrates. We should then have a much smaller amount of protein, an even smaller amount of dairy and only a tiny amount of oils and spreads.

Not all plates of food need to look exactly like this and sometimes we may eat more of some foods that others but this idea of a healthy and balanced plate of food is something to aim for where we can.

Which foods might we find in each food group?

Starchy Carbohydrates: ________________________

__________________________________________

__________________________________________ Fruits and Vegetables: _______________________________

___________________________________________________________________ Dairy: ______________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________ Protein: ____________________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________ Oils and Spreads: ______________________________________________________

___________________________________________________________________

Page 35: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Design a plate of food which contains the right amounts of each different food group. Explain your thinking too.

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

__________________________________________________

Page 36: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Session 6:

How do different animals get the nutrition they need? Key Knowledge Key Vocabulary

• Animals, like humans cannot make their own food

• Food chains show what different animals eat

• All food chains begin with a green plant

• Animals which eat only plants are herbivores

• Animals which eat only other animals are carnivores

• Animals which eat both plants and other animals are omnivores

• Nutrition

• Food Chain

• Photosynthesis

• Carnivore

• Herbivore

• Omnivore

Knowledge Quiz 5.5

1. Humans and other animals can make their own food.

2. Plants can make their own food.

3. Which of the below does our body need?

4. Which two food groups should make up most of our plates?

5. Which foods are in the starchy carbohydrates group?

Starchy Carbohydrates

Bread Broccoli Fish

Fats

Page 37: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

What kinds of foods do different animals eat?

What do different animals eat?

Like humans, animals cannot make their own food. They need to get the nutrition they need by eating other animals or by eating plants. We know that green plants are at the beginning of every food chain because they are able to make their own food. We also

know that this process is called photosynthesis. In the food chain below you can see that the green plant is at the beginning of the chain and is eaten by the mouse. The mouse is then eaten by the snake and the snake is eaten by the bird of prey.

When we look at what different animals eat, it allows us to separate them into different categories. An animal which eats only plants is known as a herbivore and an animal which eats other animals is known as a carnivore.

Which animals in the food chain above are carnivores and which are herbivores?

Page 38: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

In the food chain above, the mouse is the only herbivore and the other animals are carnivores. There are also some animals which eat both plants and animals. We say these animals are omnivores. Humans are an example of an omnivore.

Define the following words:

Choose a range of different animals, research what they eat and decide whether those animals are carnivores, herbivore or omnivores.

Animal What does the animal eat? Carnivore, herbivore

or omnivore?

Carnivore

Herbivore

Omnivore

Page 39: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton

Sort the animals into the Venn diagram below to show whether they are carnivores, herbivores or omnivores. You also need to label the diagram.

Page 40: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 41: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 42: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 43: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 44: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 45: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 46: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 47: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton
Page 48: Science Skeletons, muscles and nutrition › sites › default › files › Year 3... · Skeleton, muscles and nutrition Knowledge Organiser Glossary 1 Skeleton The human skeleton