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Republic of the Philippines Department of Education Regional Office IX, Zamboanga Peninsula 9 SCIENCE Quarter 3 - Module 6 FACTORS AFFECTING CLIMATE (Distance from Bodies of Water and Ocean Currents) Name of Learner: ___________________________ Grade & Section: ___________________________ Name of School: ___________________________

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Page 1: SCIENCE - ZNNHS | Official Site

Republic of the Philippines

Department of Education Regional Office IX, Zamboanga Peninsula



Quarter 3 - Module 6


(Distance from Bodies of Water and Ocean Currents)

Name of Learner: ___________________________

Grade & Section: ___________________________

Name of School: ___________________________

Page 2: SCIENCE - ZNNHS | Official Site

Science – Grade 9 Support Material for Independent Learning Engagement (SMILE) Quarter 3 – Module 6: Factors Affecting Climate (Distance from Bodies of Water and Ocean Currents) First Edition, 2021 Republic Act 8293, section 176 states that: No copyright shall subsist in any work of the

Government of the Philippines. However, prior approval of the government agency or office wherein the work is created shall be necessary for exploitation of such work for profit. Such agency or office may, among other things, impose as a condition the payment of royalties. Borrowed materials (i.e., songs, stories, poems, pictures, photos, brand names, trademarks, etc.) included in this module are owned by their respective copyright holders. Every effort has been exerted to locate and seek permission to use these materials from their respective copyright owners. The publisher and authors do not represent nor claim ownership over them.

Printed in the Philippines by

Department of Education – Region IX – Dipolog City Schools Division

Office Address: Purok Farmers, Olingan, Dipolog City

Zamboanga del Norte, 7100

Telefax: (065) 212-6986 and (065) 212-5818

E-mail Address: [email protected]

Development Team of the Module

Writer: Janette L. Atienza

Reviewers: Procoro E. Balbuena, Zyhrine P. Mayormita

Layout Artists: Erwin J. Etoc, Chris Raymund M. Bermudo

Management Team: Virgilio P. Batan Jr. - Schools Division Superintendent

Lourma I. Poculan - Asst. Schools Division Superintendent

Amelinda D. Montero - Chief Education Supervisor, CID

Nur N. Hussien - Chief Education Supervisor, SGOD

Ronillo S. Yarag - Education Program Supervisor, LRMS

Zyhrine P. Mayormita - Education Program Supervisor, Science

Leo Martinno O. Alejo - Project Development Officer II, LRMS

Janette A. Zamoras - Public Schools District Supervisor

Adrian G. Refugio - School Principal, Zamboanga del Norte NHS

Page 3: SCIENCE - ZNNHS | Official Site


What I Need to Know

This module was designed and written in a way that suits your understanding and

needs. It is here to help you demonstrate mastery to explain how different factors

affect the climate of an area (S9ES-IIIe-30). The module specifically engages you in a

variety of activities so that you can construct an understanding of how distance from

bodies of water and ocean currents affect climate. The scope of this module permits it

to be used in many different learning situations. This module is about:

Lesson 1: Factors Affecting Climate A. Distance from bodies of water;

B. Ocean currents

Specific Objective

To explain how distance from bodies of water and ocean current affect the

climate of an area.

What's In

In Module 5 you have learned about the different factors that affect climate -

latitude, altitude, and topography. Can you distinguish one factor from the other? Answer

the activity below.

Activity 1: Correct Me if I'm Wrong!

Directions: Write if the sentence is true, and write X if the sentence is false.

Write your answer on the space provided before each number.

____1. The farther a location from the equator, the more sunlight it receives.

____2. Places with high temperatures are found at the equator.

____3. The air temperature increases as the altitude increases.

____4. The side of the mountain where the wind starts is the windward side.

____5. The leeward side is generally warmer and drier as it rarely rains there.

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What's New

Activity 2: Which Heats and Cools Faster?

Materials Needed:

● 2 identical plastic containers

● 1 cup of water

● 1 cup of sand

● 2 thermometers


1. Pour 1 cup of water in plastic container 1.

2. Pour 1 cup of sand into plastic container 2. 3. Take the initial temperatures of the water and sand using the

thermometer and write the data in the table below.

4. Place the set up under the sun. Take the temperature every five minutes, for a total of 25 minutes.

5. Record your data in Table 1.

Table 1. Temperature readings for the sand and water under the sun

Time (min.) Temperature

of sand Temperature

of water







6. After 25 minutes, bring the setup back to the shade. Take the temperature

for both samples, the data in Table 2. Read every 5 minutes for 25


Don’t have a laboratory thermometer at home? No worries.

A medical (clinical) thermometer will do or you can make your own

thermometer too!

Pour ½ cup of tap water and ½ cup of rubbing alcohol in separate containers. Mix the liquids in one plastic bottle and add a few drops of food color. Mark a clear or transparent plastic straw in centimeters using a ruler

and insert it in the plastic bottle. Make sure the straw will not touch the bottom of the container.

Seal the top of the bottle with a modelling clay or clay dough around the straw but make sure not to cover the opening of the straw. Now you have a homemade thermometer ready. You can watch the video on how to make one on this site:

Page 5: SCIENCE - ZNNHS | Official Site


Table 2. Temperature readings for the sand and water in the shade

Time (min.) Temperature of


Temperature of








Activity Questions:

a. What are the initial temperatures of sand and water? _____________

b. What is the difference between the temperature of sand and water

after 25 minutes? ________________________________________________ c. Which has a higher temperature after 25 minutes when exposed to

the Sun? Is it the water or sand? _______________________________

d. Which heats up faster, water or sand? _________________________ e. What happened to the temperature of the water and sand when

brought to the shade? ____________________________________________

f. Which cools faster, water or sand? _______________________________

7. Plot the data presented in Table 1 and Table 2 on separate graphs and

interpret the graphs. Does land or water warm faster?

Did you perform the experiment? This might help you…

A Grade10 student actually performed a similar experiment last year for a Science Project and his laboratory notes read:

Problem: Does land or water warm faster? Hypothesis: The land surface will warm faster. Materials: (see picture of the materials) Procedure: (see loose activity sheet) Result: The sand (land surface) warms faster than water. Why? Land absorbs more sunlight. The land surface retains more heat as do the vegetation for energy.

Page 6: SCIENCE - ZNNHS | Official Site


What is It

The climate of an area can be affected by the surrounding bodies of

water. In your recent activity, you just discovered that soil absorbs heat faster than water. At the same time, soil releases heat faster as compared to

water. It is because water is a slow conductor of heat; thus, it needs to gain

more energy than the sand or dry land in order for its temperature to


Places that are near the oceans have a moderate climate as the

body of water regulates the temperature. Because soil heats up faster

than water, the air temperature above the sea is lower than above the ground during day time. Warm air thus moves out from land to sea, slowing down

the rise of air temperature above land. Thus, places without a body of water

nearby tend to have higher air temperature during day time.

At night, soil cools down faster than water, so the air temperature

above ground is lower than that above the sea. Warm air then flows from sea

to land, so the drop in air temperature above ground is moderated.

Places that are far from bodies of water have extreme climates, as there

are no immediate bodies of water that will help circulate the movement of

cold and warm air.

Water absorbs more heat during summer. This is why during summer, areas near a body of water stay cooler with moderate temperatures. In

winter, the surrounding water slowly releases heat, causing the cooling effect

to become lesser than normal in the nearby landmass.

The Palawan coastal areas Source: 1.,_Palawan 2.

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What's More

Ocean Currents Ocean currents are a factor in determining the climate of a place. Study the given map.

Ocean water is constantly moving. From north to south, east to west, and up and down the shore, ocean water moves all over the place. These movements result from many separate forces, including local conditions of wind, water, the position of the moon and Sun, the rotation of the Earth, and the position of land formations.

The wind that blows over the ocean water creates waves. It also creates surface

currents, which are horizontal streams of water that can flow for thousands of kilometers

and can reach depths of hundreds of meters. Surface currents are an important factor in

the ocean because they are a major factor in determining climate around the globe. Currents on the surface are determined by three major factors: the major overall global wind patterns, the rotation of the Earth, and the shape of ocean basins

The Coriolis Effect causes winds and currents to form

circular patterns. The direction that they spin depends on

the hemisphere that they are in.

As an analogy, when you blow across a cup of hot chocolate drink, you create tiny ripples on its surface that

continue to move after you have stopped blowing. The

ripples in the cup are tiny waves, just like the waves that wind forms on the ocean surface. The movement of hot

chocolate throughout the cup forms a stream or current,

just as oceanic water moves when the wind blows across


Figure 1. Map of ocean currents of the world.

(Legend: Red arrow represents warm ocean current and blue arrow represents cold ocean current)

Figure 2. The Coriolis Effect

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Because the Earth's equator is warmed by the most direct rays of the Sun, air at

the equator is hotter than air further north or south. This hotter air rises up at the equator, and as colder air moves in to take its place, winds begin to blow and push the

ocean into waves and currents.

From the equator, warm water pushes outward to the North and South poles. At

the same time, cold water from the North and South poles collide with this warm water.

Because Earth spins on its axis, water flows in a circular pattern. This causes currents to flow clockwise in the northern hemisphere and counterclockwise in the southern

hemisphere. These clockwise and counterclockwise movements of ocean currents are

caused by the Coriolis Effect.

The air above the warm water has a higher temperature. When warm ocean

currents that take along warm water go to a land mass, the temperature of that place

increases as warmer air above the water flows inland, resulting in a warm climate. In a similar manner, cold ocean currents that bring cold water as they move towards a

coastal region cause the temperature of that area to decrease as warmer air from the

land flows to the sea resulting in a cold climate.

The third major factor that determines the direction of surface currents is the shape of ocean basins. When a surface current collides with land, it changes the direction of

the currents, much like pushing the water in a tub towards the end of the tub. When the

water reaches the edge, it has to change direction.

Activity 3. Where will I go?

Direction: Refer to the map of ocean currents of the world (shown in Figure 1). Identify

the major currents that circulate water from the major oceans based on the description

given for each number. Write your answer on the space provided before each number.

____________________ 1. Warm ocean current originating in the Gulf of Mexico along the

east coast of the United States. ____________________ 2. Cold ocean current that flows from the Arctic Ocean south along

the east coast of Canada.

____________________ 3. East-to-west flowing current from 10°N-20°N in the Pacific and

Atlantic Ocean. ____________________ 4. West-to-east flowing current from 3°N-10°N in the Atlantic,

Indian Ocean and Pacific Ocean.

____________________ 5. East-to-West current flowing between the equator and about 20°S in the Pacific, Atlantic, and Indian Ocean.

____________________ 6. Weak east-flowing current near 8°S in the Atlantic and Pacific

Ocean. ____________________ 7. North-flowing warm current off the coast of Japan in the Pacific


____________________ 8. Southwestern warm current off the coast of Alaska and west coast of Canada.

Current Bank

North Equatorial Current Labrador Current Californian Current

North Equatorial Counter Current Kuroshio Current Alaska Current

South Equatorial Counter Current East Australian Current Gulf Current

South Equatorial Current

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____________________ 9. Southward flowing current off the west coast of the United States

to the Pacific Ocean. ____________________10. Southward western boundary current that is formed from South

Equatorial Current crossing the Coral Sea and reaching the eastern coast of Australia.

What I Have Learned Activity 4: Line Up Direction: Complete each statement by choosing the correct word in the given pair.

1. Soil heats up faster than water, so air temperature above the sea is (lower,

higher) than above the ground.

2. Places that are far from bodies of water have (moderate, extreme) climates.

3. Water temperature rises or falls more slowly than soil because water has (lower,

higher) heat capacity.

4. Places without a body of water nearby tend to have (higher, lower) temperatures

during day time.

5. At night, soil cools down (slower, faster) than water, so the air temperature above

ground is lower than that above the sea.

6. Gulf Stream carries (warm, cold) water from the east coast of the United States

to the west coast of Europe.

7. The current flows (clockwise, counterclockwise) in the Southern hemisphere.

8. When ocean currents that bring cold water move towards a coastal region, the

temperature of that area decreases as warmer air from the land flows to the sea

resulting in a (cold, warm) climate.

9. Warm ocean currents generally come from the (North Pole, equator).

10. Water flows in a circular pattern because of the Earth's (gravity, rotation).

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What I Can Do Activity 5. Easy to say - Essay If you were to choose a place to live in, where will it be? And why? Explain your answers using the factors affecting the climate of a place. Answer it on a separate sheet of paper. Rubric

5/ Excellent

4/ Very Good

3/ Average

2/Needs Improvement

1/ Unacceptable


Well-focused topic. The main idea is clear and is well supported by detailed and accurate information.

It mostly focused topic, and has some good details and quotes.

The writer is beginning to define the topic, even though development is still basic or general.

The topic is not well-defined and/ or there are too many topics.

The paper has no clear sense of purpose or central theme.


Information is relevant and presented in a logical manner. The introduction is inviting, and the conclusion is strong.

The paragraphs are mostly organized, in order, and make sense to the reader.

The organizational structure is strong enough to move the reader through the text without too much confusion.

Sentences within paragraphs make sense, but the order of paragraphs does not.

The writing lacks a clear sense of direction.


All sentences are well constructed and have varied structure and length. The author makes no errors in grammar, mechanics, and/or spelling.

Few errors in grammar, mechanics, and/or spelling but do not interfere with understanding.

Several errors in grammar, mechanics, and/or spelling and somewhat interfere with understanding.

The writer seems to have made little effort to use conventions: spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, grammar and/or paragraphing have multiple errors.

Errors in spelling, punctuation, capitalization, usage, and grammar and/or paragraphing repeatedly distract the reader and make the text difficult to read.

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The form and presentation of the text enhance the ability of the reader to understand and connect with the message. It is pleasing to the eye.

The format only has a few mistakes and is generally easy to read and pleasing to the eye.

The writer's message is understandable in this format.

The writer's message is only understandable occasionally, and the paper is messily written.

The reader receives a garbled message due to problems relating to the presentation of the text and is not typed.

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Direction: Circle the letter of the best answer.

1. City A is on the coast, while City B is inland. Which statement explains why the climate in City A is different from City B?

A. The specific heat of water causes City A to have a smaller temperature range.

B. The specific heat of water causes City B to have a smaller temperature range. C. Because water has a low specific heat.

D. They have the same latitude.

2. If you live near the ocean, what kind of winters would you expect in a marine climate?

A. Extreme winters C. Really warm winters

B. Mild winters D. No winters at the beach

3. Large bodies of water affect climate because _______________.

A. water and land cool at the same time.

B. water and land heat at the same rate. C. water heats up and cools faster than land.

D. water heats up and cools more slowly than land.

4. A city located near the center of a large continent has colder winters and warmer

summers than a city at the same elevation and latitude located on the continent's coast.

Which statement best explains the difference between the climates? A. Air masses originate only over land.

B. Land has a lower specific heat than water.

C. Wind speeds are greater over land than oceans. D. Water changes temperature more rapidly than land.

5. What effect does a large body of water usually have on a nearby landmass?

A. The water causes cooler summers and colder winters. B. The water causes cooler summers and warmer winters.

C. The water causes hotter summers and warmer winters.

D. The water causes warmer summers and colder winters.

6. What causes ocean currents in the Northern Hemisphere to curve to the right?

A. Earth's orbit around the Sun C. Earth's spinning on its axis B. Earth's magnetic field D. Earth's force of gravity

7. In what direction does the water in the northern hemisphere move as a result of Coriolis Effect?

A. Clockwise C. Horizontally

B. Counterclockwise D. Vertically

8. Where do cold ocean currents generally come from?

A. Equator C. South pole

B. North Pole D. Both North and South Pole

9. The Gulf Stream carries _____________ water from the east coast of The United States

to the West coast of Europe. A. Cold B. Freezing C. Fresh D. Warm

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10. Which of the following currents carries warm water?

A. East Australian Current C. Alaska Current B. West Australian Current D. Californian Current

Additional Activities

Mix it up! Collage is a technique of composing a work of art by pasting on a single surface various materials not normally associated with one another like newspaper clippings, parts of photographs, theater tickets, and fragments of an envelope. (

Direction: Make a collage of different places showing the different factors affecting their climate. Rubric

4 3 2 1


All of the graphics or objects used in the collage reflect a degree of student creativity in their display.

Most of the graphics or objects used in the collage reflect student creativity in their display.

Only a few graphics or objects reflect student creativity, but the ideas were typical rather than creative.

None of the graphics or objects reflect student creativity.


Graphics are cut to an appropriate size, shape and are arranged neatly. Care has been taken to balance the pictures across the area. Items are glued neatly and securely.

1-2 graphics are lacking in design or placement. There may be a few smudges or glue marks.

3-4 graphics are lacking in design or placement. Too much background is showing. There are noticeable smudges or glue marks.

Graphics are not an appropriate size shape. Glue marks evident. Most of the background is showing. It appears little attention was given to designing the collage.

Number of items

The collage includes 5 or more items, each different showing the 5 factors affecting climate.

The collage includes 5 or more items but missing 1 or more factor that affects climate.

The collage includes 4 or more items and missing 1 or more factor that affects climate.

The collage includes less than 3 items and missing 1 or more factor that affects climate.

Time and Effort

Much time and effort went into the planning and design of the collage.

Some time and the effort went into the collage. The student could have put in more time and effort at home.

The student did do some work at home.

The student put in no additional effort.


The presentation of the collage enhances the ability of the viewer to understand and connect with the pictures. It is pleasing to the eye.

The collage only has a few mistakes and is generally easy to understand and pleasing to the eye.

The collage is somewhat understandable and is not so pleasing to the eye.

The collage is not understandable at all.

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Answer Key Gr9Q3 Module 6 Activity 1. Correct Me if I'm Wrong

1. X

2. 3. X



Activity 2. Which Cools and Heats Faster? 1. Answers may vary 2. Answers may vary 3. Sand 4. Sand 5. The temperature decreases when brought to the shade. 6. Sand 7. Answers may vary. The graph should show an increasing line for both sand and water when

heated under the Sun, and line should be decreasing when brought to the shade.

Activity 3. Where Will I Go 1. Gulf Stream 2. Labrador Current 3. North Equatorial Current 4. North Equatorial Counter Current 5. South Equatorial Current 6. South Equatorial Counter Current 7. Kuroshio Current 8. Alaska Current 9. California Current 10. East Australian Current

Assessment 1. A 2. B 3. D 4. B 5. C 6. C 7. A 8. D 9. D 10. A

Activity 4. Line Up 1. lower 2. extreme 3. higher 4. higher 5. faster 6. warm 7. counterclockwise 8. cold 9. equator 10. rotation

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References (Earth How). (January 5, 2021). The Major Ocean Currents of the World.

(JohoMaps). (No date). Biomes and Major Surface Currents of the World. (Wikipedia). (No date). East Australian current.

Department of Education (2014). Science 9 Learner's Material. First Edition.

Department of Education-Bureau of Learning Resources (DepEd-BLR) Department of Education (2014). Science 9 Teachers Guide. First Edition.

Department of Education-Bureau of Learning Resources

ECN Central Coordination Unit. (n.d.). Tutorial Factors Affecting Climate. Retrieved

January 12, 2021, from UK Environmental Change Network:

Office of Ocean Exploration and Research. (n.d.). How does the ocean affect climate

and weather on land? Retrieved January 8, 2021, from Ocean Exploration and Research:

National Ocean Service . (2021, January 12). What is Current. Retrieved from

National Ocean Service: Stanley, M. (n.d.). Ocean Currents. Retrieved January 12, 2021, from National

Geographic: (2021, January 12). Science Project. Retrieved from,more%20solar%20radiation%20than%20water.&text=Since%20land%20absorbs%20more

%20solar,warm%20more%20quickly%20than%20water. Lumen. (2021, January 10). The Ocean. Retrieved from Lumen Earth Science:

Page 16: SCIENCE - ZNNHS | Official Site

Region IX: Zamboanga Peninsula Hymn – Our Eden Land Here the trees and flowers bloom

Here the breezes gently Blow,

Here the birds sing Merrily,

The liberty forever Stays,

Here the Badjaos roam the seas

Here the Samals live in peace

Here the Tausogs thrive so free

With the Yakans in unity

Gallant men And Ladies fair

Linger with love and care

Golden beams of sunrise and sunset

Are visions you’ll never forget

Oh! That’s Region IX

Hardworking people Abound,

Every valleys and Dale

Zamboangueños, Tagalogs, Bicolanos,

Cebuanos, Ilocanos, Subanons, Boholanos, Ilongos,

All of them are proud and true

Region IX our Eden Land

Region IX




My Final Farewell Farewell, dear Fatherland, clime of the sun caress'd

Pearl of the Orient seas, our Eden lost!,

Gladly now I go to give thee this faded life's best,

And were it brighter, fresher, or more blest

Still would I give it thee, nor count the cost.

On the field of battle, 'mid the frenzy of fight,

Others have given their lives, without doubt or heed;

The place matters not-cypress or laurel or lily white,

Scaffold or open plain, combat or martyrdom's plight,

T is ever the same, to serve our home and country's need.

I die just when I see the dawn break,

Through the gloom of night, to herald the day;

And if color is lacking my blood thou shalt take,

Pour'd out at need for thy dear sake

To dye with its crimson the waking ray.

My dreams, when life first opened to me,

My dreams, when the hopes of youth beat high,

Were to see thy lov'd face, O gem of the Orient sea

From gloom and grief, from care and sorrow free;

No blush on thy brow, no tear in thine eye.

Dream of my life, my living and burning desire,

All hail ! cries the soul that is now to take flight;

All hail ! And sweet it is for thee to expire ;

To die for thy sake, that thou mayst aspire;

And sleep in thy bosom eternity's long night.

If over my grave some day thou seest grow,

In the grassy sod, a humble flower,

Draw it to thy lips and kiss my soul so,

While I may feel on my brow in the cold tomb below

The touch of thy tenderness, thy breath's warm power.

Let the moon beam over me soft and serene,

Let the dawn shed over me its radiant flashes,

Let the wind with sad lament over me keen ;

And if on my cross a bird should be seen,

Let it trill there its hymn of peace to my ashes.

Let the sun draw the vapors up to the sky,

And heavenward in purity bear my tardy protest

Let some kind soul o 'er my untimely fate sigh,

And in the still evening a prayer be lifted on high

From thee, 0 my country, that in God I may rest.

Pray for all those that hapless have died,

For all who have suffered the unmeasur'd pain;

For our mothers that bitterly their woes have cried,

For widows and orphans, for captives by torture tried

And then for thyself that redemption thou mayst gain

And when the dark night wraps the graveyard around

With only the dead in their v igil to see

Break not my repose or the mystery profound

And perchance thou mayst hear a sad hymn resound

'T is I, O my country, raising a song unto thee.

And even my grave is remembered no more

Unmark'd by never a cross nor a stone

Let the plow sweep through it, the spade turn it o 'er

That my ashes may carpet earthly f loor,

Before into nothingness at last they are blown.

Then will obliv ion bring to me no care

As over thy vales and plains I sweep;

Throbbing and cleansed in thy space and air

With color and light, with song and lament I fare,

Ever repeating the faith that I keep.

My Fatherland ador'd, that sadness to my sorrow lends

Beloved Filipinas, hear now my last good-by!

I give thee all: parents and kindred and friends

For I go where no slave before the oppressor bends,

Where faith can never kill, and God reigns e'er on high!

Farewell to you all, from my soul torn away,

Friends of my chi ldhood in the home dispossessed!

Give thanks that I rest from the wearisome day!

Farewell to thee, too, sweet friend that lightened my way;

Beloved creatures al l, farewell ! In death there is rest !

I Am a Filipino, by Carlos P. Romulo I am a Filipino–inheritor of a glorious past, hostage to the uncertain

future. As such I must prove equal to a two-fold task–the task of

meeting my responsibility to the past, and the task of performing

my obligation to the future.

I sprung from a hardy race, child many generations removed of

ancient Malayan pioneers. Across the centuries the memory comes

rushing back to me: of brown-skinned men putting out to sea in

ships that were as frail as their hearts were stout. Over the sea I see

them come, borne upon the billowing wave and the whistling wind,

carried upon the mighty swell of hope–hope in the free abundance

of new land that was to be their home and their children’s forever.

I am a Filipino. In my blood runs the immortal seed of heroes–seed

that flowered down the centuries in deeds of courage and defiance.

In my veins yet pulses the same hot blood that sent Lapulapu to

battle against the first invader of this land, that nerved Lakandula

in the combat against the alien foe, that drove Diego Silang and

Dagohoy into rebellion against the foreign oppressor.

The seed I bear within me is an immortal seed. It is the mark of my

manhood, the symbol of dignity as a human being. Like the seeds

that were once buried in the tomb of Tutankhamen many thousand

years ago, it shall grow and flower and bear fruit again. It is the

insignia of my race, and my generation is but a stage in the

unending search of my people for freedom and happiness.

I am a Filipino, child of the marriage of the East and the West. The

East, with its languor and mysticism, its passivity and endurance,

was my mother, and my sire was the West that came thundering

across the seas with the Cross and Sword and the Machine. I am of

the East, an eager participant in its spirit, and in its struggles for

liberation from the imperialist yoke. But I also know that the East

must awake from its centuried sleep, shake off the lethargy that has

bound his limbs, and start moving where destiny awaits.

I am a Filipino, and this is my inheritance. What pledge shall I give

that I may prove worthy of my inheritance? I shall give the pledge

that has come ringing down the corridors of the centuries, and it

shall be compounded of the joyous cries of my Malayan forebears

when first they saw the contours of this land loom before their eyes,

of the battle cries that have resounded in every field of combat from

Mactan to Tirad Pass, of the voices of my people when they sing:

“I am a Filipino born to freedom, and I shall not rest until freedom

shall have been added unto my inheritance—for myself and my

children and my children’s children—forever.”