second battle of bull run

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Second Battle of Bull Run August 28–30, 1862 Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening the Union’s ability to communicate with Washington, D.C.

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Second Battle of Bull Run. August 28–30, 1862 Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening the Union’s ability to communicate with Washington, D.C. Proximity to Washington, DC. - PowerPoint PPT Presentation


Battle of Bull Run

Second Battle of Bull RunAugust 2830, 1862Confederate General Thomas J. "Stonewall" Jackson captured the Union supply depot at Manassas Junction, threatening the Unions ability to communicate with Washington, D.C.Proximity to Washington, DC

Stonewall Jackson at Manassas National Battlefield

National Park Service3Results of Second Bull RunPope retreated and this battle allowed Lee and his men to drive into Maryland to begin the war in the North. The Confederates won a decisive battle resulting in 10,000 casualties. The Union army was not destroyed. Pope was relieved of his command as a result of the loss, and again sent to the Western territories. Popes remaining troops merged with McClellans Army of the Potomac. Civil War Trust4Railroad at Manassas Junction

Library of Congress5Outcomes of Bull RunPope ordered troops to destroy whatever economic resources of the enemy they could not take away. An assault upon the Confederate economy and upon the populace supporting the Confederacy was implied by Pope's orders to his troops. Seizure of civilian property as "contraband of war," formerly a punishable act, was encouraged. This economic assault laid a foundation for future destruction of the Souths infrastructure. 6Antietam Bridge

Antietam September 17, 1862McClellan lost 1/6th of his Army, but won a victory, by halting Lees invasion of MarylandMcClellans overly cautious approach cost a more decisive victory over Lee. McClellan continued to overestimate Confederate troops numbers, leading to an approach of not losing rather than winningFirst major battle on Union soilSingle bloodiest day in American history with losses of 22,717

AntietamColonel Ezra Carman, who survived that bloody field and later wrote the most detailed tactical study of the fighting there, had it right when he observed that on September 17, 1862, more errors were committed by the Union commander than in any other battle of the war. 5,500 soldiers perished at Bloody Lane in three hours of fighting, with no decisive victory for either sideCivil War Trust9Dead at Bloody Lane, Antietam

Alexander Gardner National Park Service10Union StrategyBlockading Confederate ports to cut off cotton exports and prevent the import of manufactured goods; and using ground and naval forces to divide the Confederacy into three distinct theaters (or areas)Ridiculed in the press as the "Anaconda Plan," after the South American snake that crushes its prey to death, this strategy ultimately proved successful. Scotts Anaconda Plan Illustrated

13Emancipation ProclamationIt speaks of emancipation as a matter of "military necessity" and only once as "an act of justice." It exempted the slaves of the border states and the occupied military districts of the South, and its language is muted and legalistic. Lincoln knew that his presidential `war powers' only ran as far as actual warfare ran, and neither the border states nor the occupied districts were at war with federal authority on January 1, 1863. National Park Service14 A figurative commentary on Northern efforts to end the rebellion during the early years of the Civil War. Confederate President Jefferson Davis (far left) displays "the Great Southern Gyascutis," a dog-like monster with long fangs and an enlarged spine, the "stiffest Back-Bone ever grown." The beast is labeled "Rebellion." Davis holds the animal on a chain as several figures prepare to attack it with large sledgehammers. From left to right, they are: Union generals Henry W. Halleck and George B. McClellan, who swing in unison hammers marked "Skill" and "Strategy," respectively; and Secretary of War Edwin Stanton, who waits his turn holding a hammer labeled "Draft." On the far right waits President Lincoln, with the ax "Emancipation Proclamation" over his shoulder. Stanton: "Halleck may use his skill and Mac his strategy, but this draft will do the business." Lincoln: "You can try him with that, but I'm afraid this axe of mine is the only thing that will fetch him." At left, behind the group, sits a dejected, bespectacled man holding a tiny hammer labeled "Compromise." Further left, on a wall behind Jefferson Davis, hangs a poster saying "Only 10,000 men and $1000,000 in Treasure per Crack. Step up and Try your Muscle."15Emancipation ProclamationMaking the proclamation legally challenge-proof forced Lincoln to restrain "my oft expressed personal wish that all men every where could be free," as well as muting any flights of eloquence about justice. The Proclamation not only provided the legal title to freedom that slaves could claim once the Union armies arrived, it also opened the gates to the enlistment of black soldiers in the Union army. And once in the uniform of the Union, Lincoln could no longer keep up the pretense of denying blacks equal civil rights. "As I live," Lincoln promised a crowd of jubilant blacks in Richmond in April, 1865, "no one shall put a shackle on your limbs, and you shall have all the rights which God has given to every other free citizen of this Republic."

Civil War Trust16

From 1919upper left=Paul Laurence Dunbar, upper right=Frederick DouglassLincoln is holding a copy of the Declaration of Independence17