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Engineering Computer Software
INTERNATIONAL STUDENT EDITION
McGRAW-HILL BOOK COMPANY
Auckland Bogota Guatemala Hamburg Johannesburg Lisbon London Madrid Mexico New Delhi Panama Paris
San Juan Sao Paulo Singapore Sydney Tokyo
CONTENTS
Chapter l Introduction to Geotechnics, Statistics, and SI
1-1 Generai Introduction 1-2 The Study or Soil Mechanics 2 1-3 Text Objectives 4 1-4 Some Typical Soil Problems 4 1-5 Historical Development or So il Mechanics 5 1-6 Soil Failures 9 1-7 Sources or Inrormation for Geotechnical Engineers 13 1-8 Elements of Statistics and Probability 16 1-9 SI Units 23
Chapter 2 Soil Proper ties- P hysical and Index 26
2-1 Introduction 26 2-2 Soil Composition and Terms - 26 2-3 Basic Defini tions and Mass-Volume Relationships 27 2-4 Noncohesive and Cohesive Soils 39 2-5 Atterberg (or Consistency) Limits _40 2-6 Soil Moisture 41 2-7 Indices of Soil Consistency 42 2-8 Specific Surface A3 2-9 Specific Gravity 44
2-10 Soil Texture 46 2- 11 Soil Phases 46 -- 2-12 Grain Size 48 2-13 Uni t Weight of Soils (Dry, W et, and Submerged) 50 2- 14 Effective or Intergranular Pressures 52 2- 15 Intergranular Pressures in Partially Saturated Soils 59 2-16 Summary 60
v
Cbapter 3 Geologie Propertie:;, Formations of 6-4 Determining Subsurface Conditions 174
Natura! Soil Deposits, and Groundwater 64 6-5 Location, Spacing. and Depth of Borings 177
3-1 Introduction 64 6-6 Sampling 179
3-2 The Earth 65 6-7 Water Table 184
3-3 Physìcal Properties of Minerals 66 6-8 Sample Quality and Engineering Practice 184
3-4 The Rock and Soil Cycle 9 67 6-9 The Standard Penetration Test (SPT) ...___-- 185
3-5 Igneous Rocks 70 6-10 SPT Correlations 186
3-6 Sedìmentary Rocks 74 6- 11 Boring Logs 188
3-7 Metamorphic Rocks 79 6-12 Cone Penetration Test (C PT) 189
3-8 Crustal Movements 80 6-13 Rock Drilling 192
3-9 Rock Weatheringand Soil Formation -- 85 6-14 Seismic Exploration 194
3-10 Generai Considerations in Rock Weathering 92 6-15 Resistivity Exploration 199
3-1 1 Soil Formations Produced by Weathering,...t- 92 6-16 The Total Stress Cell and Dilatometer 200
,3-12 Running Water and Alluvial Deposits 96 6-1 7 Summary 202 _. 3-13 Glacial Deposits 100
Compaction and Soil Stabilization 3-14 Wind Deposits 106 Chapter 7 204
3-15 Gravity Deposits 109 7-1 Generai Concept of Soil Stabilization _ \\_, 204
3-16 Subsurface Water~ 109 7-2 Soil as a Construction Materia!--------------- 205
3-17 Sources of Geologie Information 116 7-3 Soil Stabi1ization o-.._ 205
3-1 8 Summary 117 7-4 Soil Compaction -- 207 :208 7-5 Tbeory of Compaction Cbapter 4 Soil Classification Tests and
7-6 Compaction of Cobesionless Soils 212 Common Systems 119 7-7 Structure and Properties of Compacted
4-1 Generai 119 Cohesive Soils 213
4-2 Soil Tests for Classification.L.., 121 7-8 Stabilization of Expansive Clays · - . 215
4-3 The Unified Soil Classification System v 128 7-9 OtherCommentsonSoilCompactio~216 4-4 The AASHTO Soil Classification System 135 7-10 Excavation and Compaction Equipment 217
4-5 Generai Description of AASHTO Soil 7-11 Compaction Specifications 223
Classification Subgroups 137 7-12 Fie! d Contro! of Compaction 225
4-6 The AASHTO Group Index 138 7-13 Statistica! Field Unit Weight Contro! 230
4-7 Field Identification Tests 140 7-14 Deep Compaction of In Si tu Soils 232
4-8 Summary 141 7-15 Static Stabilization 234
7-16 Fabric Stabilization 234 Ch~pter 5 Soil Structure and Clay Minerals _g__ 145 7-17 Soil-Cement and Lime-Fly-Ash Soil Stabilization 236
5-1 Soils and Soil Formation .-. 145 7-1 8 Special Problems in Soil Compaction 238
5-2 Soìl Structure and Fabric 146 7-19 Summary 239
5-3 Soìl Cohesion and Friction ~ 146 5-4 Granular Soil Structure 147 Chapter 8 Soil Hydraulics, Permeability, 5-5 Other Considerations of Granular Soil Structure; Capillarity, and Shrinkage 24 1
Relative Density ~ 149 8-1 Water in Soil ~ 241 5-6 Structure of Cohesive Soìls q/ 154 8-2 Permeabilìty L 242 5-7 Clay and Clay Minerai' 158 8-3 Soil Water Flow and the Bernoulli Energy Equatìon 245
l 5-8 Generai Clay Minerai Properties 163 8-4 Determination of the Coefficient of Permeability < 249 5-9 Summary 167 8-5 Lìmitations and Other Considerations in Determìning k 252
Chapter 6 Soil Exploration and Sampling 170 8-6 Effective Coefficient of Permeabilìty of 4.-
Stratified Soils 254 6-1 Introduction 170 8-7 Capìllarity and Capillary Effects in Soìl 257 6-2 Site Investigation 171 8-8 Seepage Forces and Quick Conditions 267 6-3 Site Geology 172 8-9 Summary 274
,. COl'TEl'TS ix
viii COKTE:-:TS
Preconsolidation and Estimation of the 11 -5 Seepage and Flow Net Theory 277 Preconsolidation Pressure 365 Chapter 9
9-1 Introduction 277 11-6 The Compression Parameters 367 9-2 Seepage Flow through Soil- The LaPlace Equation 278 11-7 Compression Parameters fo r Arithmetic Plots 369 9-3 Flow Nets 280 11 -8 Empirica! Approximations for C, and C~ 370 9-4 Fio w ets for Sheet-Pile C ut-Oif Walls 282 11-9 Soil Structure and Consoliaation <! 372 9-5 Flow Nets fo r Ea rth Dams 286 11- 10 Settlement Computations 373 9-6 Methods for Obtaining the Phreatic Line !l - li Secondary Compression (Creep) Senlemems 374
for Earth Dams 289 ll -12 Illustrative Examples 376 9-7 Flo w Net Construction 293 ll - 13 Controlling Consolidation Settlements 382 9-8. Direct Computation of Seepage Quantity 296 11- 14 Reliability of Consolidation Settlement Computations 382
11- 15 Summary 383 9-9 The Flow Net When kx f k, 297 9-10 Contro) ofSeepage through Dams 299
Rate of Consolidation 387 9-11 Sudden Drawdown and Seepage Forces 301 Chapter l2 9- 12 Piping and Contro! of Piping 302 12-l The Coefficient of Consolidation ~ 387 9-13 Other Methods fo r Seepage Quantities 304 12-2 Percent Consolidation 391 9-14 Elements of W eli Hydrau lics 305 12-3 Methods of Obtaining the Ti me of < 9-15 Summary 307 Interest for Computing c,. 393
12-4 Rate of Consolidation Based o n Strain 396 Chapter 10 Stresses, Strains, and Rheological Concepts 310 12-5 Illustrative Examples 402 ~ 310 12-6 Consolidation Rates for Layered Media 410 IO-l Generai Considerations
Three-Dimensional Consolidation 411 10-2 Generai Stresses and Strains at a Point ~ 312 12-7
411 10-3 Theory of Elasticity Concepts Used in 12-8 Summary Soil Mechanics Problems 313 -< 10-4 Octahedral Stresses 31 4 Chapter 13 Shear Strength of Soils 414
10-5 Stress-Strai n Modulus and Hooke's Law 320 13-1 Introduction ~ 414 10-6 Anisotropie Soil 325 13-2 Shear Strength Parameters c and <P 41 6 10-7 Two-Dimensional Stresses a t a Poi m <::--"' 326 13-3 Soil Failure, Criticai Void Ratio, .c_ 10-8 Mohr's Stress Circle 328 and Resid ua! Strength 4 18 10-9 Mohr's Circle for lnclined Principal Axes 332 13-4 Soil Tests to Determine Shear Strength Parameters 420 10-10 Boussinesq Stresses in an Elastic Half Space 333 13-5 Stress Paths 435 10-11 Boussinesq Solution for Round Plates 335 13-6 Shear Strength of Cohesionless Soil 440 10-12 Numerica! Integratio n of the Bo ussinesq Equations 336 13-7 Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils 442 10-13 O ther Solutions fo r the Boussinesq Equations 337
13-8 Pore Pressure Elfects in Consolidated-Drained Tests '- 455 10-14 Pressure Bulbs and Stress Concentration Factors 341 13-9 Sensitivity of Cohesive Soils 455 10-15 The Vertical Pressure Profile 342 13-10 Empirica] Methods for Shear Strength ~ 456 10-16 The A verage Pressure 344
13-11 In-Si tu Direct Measurement of Shear Strength "<' 459 10-17 T he Newmark Influence Chart 345 13-12 Factors Alfecting Shear Strength <( 462 10-18 Westergaard's Stress 348 13-13 Normalized Soil Parameters 463· 10-19 Soil Deformation or Settlement 349 13-14 The sJp. Ratio ~ 464 10-20 Rheological Models 351 13-15 Pore Pressure Parameters 466 10-21 Summary 353 13-16 Summary 47 1 .L
l Chapter Il Consolidation and Consolidation Chapter 14 Static and Dynamic Stress-Strain Settlemen ts 356 Characteristics 476
Il - l Soil Consolidation and Settlement Problems ~ 356 14-1 Stress-Strain Data 476 11-2 Soil Consolidation ~ 358 14-2 The Stress-Strain Modulus 476 11-3 Interpreting the Consolidation Test t- 360 14-3 Poisson's Ratio 479 11-4 Correction of the Compression Curve for Disturbance j,-- 365
,. X CONTENTS
14-4 Factors Affecting the Stress-Strain Modulus and Approximations 482
14-5 Resilient Modulus 482 14-6 Dynamic Soil Stress-Strain Modulus 483 14-7 Cyclic Modulus o f Deformation and Liquefaction 486 14-8 Summary 496
Chapter 15 Latera! Pressures, Bearing Capacity, and Settlement 498
15-1 Introduction 498 15-2 Soi l Stresses at a Point-K. Conditions 498 15-3 Active and Passive Earth Pressures 501 15-4 Pressures against Walls 506 15-5 Inclined Cohesionless Ground 507 15-6 Latera! Earth Pressure for Cohesive Soils 510 15-7 The T riai Wedge Solution 513 15-8 Logarithmic Spirai and tP-Circle Methods for
Passive Pressure in Cohesionless Soil 514 15-9 Bearing Capacity-Theoretical 517
15-10 Bearing Capacity by Empirica! Methods 522 15-11 Other Bearing Capacity Problems 524 15-12 Deep Fountlations 525 15-13 Immediate Settlement Computations 529 15-14 Summary 533
Chapter 16 Stability of Slopes 536
16-1 Generai Considerations in Stability of Slopes 536 16-2 Infinite Slo pes 537 16-3 Stability of Infin ite Cohesive Slopes 539 16-4 Circular Are Analysis 540 16-5 The tP-Circle Method 542 16-6 S1ope Stability Charts 544 16-7 Slope Ana1ysis by Method of Slices 551 16-8 Wedge Block Analysis 555 16-9 Validity of S1ope Stability Analyses 558
16-10 Summary 559
l
BIBLIOGRAPHY
The following abbreviations are used t o simplify the reference list:
HRB
HRR
Highway Research Record. Publications available from TRB if in print
America n Society of Civ il Engineers
Journal of Geotechnical Engineering Division, ASCE (1974-­ Journal of Soil Mechanics and Foundations Division ASCE (1956-1973)
Proceedings ASCE Specialty Conferences 1st PSC: Shear Strength of Cohesive Soils (1960)
3d PSC: Placement and Improvement of Soil to Suppor! Struc­tures (1968)
5th PSC: Performance of Earth and Earth Supported Structures (1972)
6th PSC: In Si tu Measurement of Soil Properties (1975) American Society for Testing and Materials, Philadelphia, Pa. Special Technical Publication published by ASTM. Canadian Geotechnical Journal, Ottawa, Canada.
563
ICSMFE
ISSS
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566 PHYSICAL ANO GEOTECH:-JICA L PROPERTIES OF SOJLS
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