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Can J Diabetes 37 (2013) S301
Canadian Journal of Diabetesjournal homepage:
� Offer collaborative and interactive self-management education (SME)interventions as they are more effective than didactic SME.
� Incorporate problem-solving skills for ongoing self-management ofmedical, social and emotional aspects of care into the traditional knowl-edge and technical skills content of educational interventions.
� Design patient-centred learning to empower individuals to make informeddecisions toward achievement of patient-chosen goals.
� Individualize SME interventions according to type of diabetes and recom-mended therapy, the patient’s ability and motivation for learning andchange, and his or her culture and literacy level.
� Provide ongoing SME and comprehensive healthcare collaboratively tomake SME most effective.
1. People with diabetes should be offered timely diabetes education that istailored to enhance self-care practices and behaviours [Grade A, Level 1A(1e3)].
2. All people with diabetes who are able should be taught how to self-manage their diabetes [Grade A, Level 1A (3)].
3. SME that incorporates cognitive-behavioural educational interventions,such as problem solving, goal setting, and self-monitoring of healthparameters, should be implemented for all individuals with diabetes[Grade B, Level 2 (2,4e6)].
4. Interventions that increase patient participation and collaboration inhealthcare decision making should be used by providers [Grade B, Level 2(3)].
5. For people with type 2 diabetes, SME interventions should be offered insmall group and/or one-on-one settings, since both may be effective[Grade A, Level 1A (7,8)].
6. In both type 1 and 2 diabetes, interventions that target families’ ability tocope with stress or diabetes-related conflict should be included ineducational interventions when indicated [Grade B, Level 2 (9)].
7. Technologically based home blood glucose monitoring systems may beintegrated into SME interventions in order to improve glycemic control[Grade C, Level 3 (10,11)].
8. Culturally appropriate SME, which may include peer or lay educators, maybe used to increase diabetes-related knowledge and self-care behavioursand to decrease A1C [Grade B, Level 2 (12,13,14)].
9. Adding literacy- and numeracy-sensitive materials to a comprehensivediabetes management and education program may be used to improveknowledge, self-efficacy and A1C outcomes for patients with low literacy[Grade C, Level 3 (15)].
99-2671/$ e see front matter � 2013 Canadian Diabetes Associationp://dx.doi.org/10.1016/j.jcjd.2013.02.006
Highlights of Revisions
� Less focus on didactic teaching and greater focus on patient-centred learning.� Recognition of the need for culturally appropriate, literacy- and numeracy-
sensitive materials and education.� Acknowledgement of the role of technologically based home monitoring
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