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  • Sentence amalgamation

  • Published by

    LOT phone: +31 30 253 6006Trans 10 e-mail: lot@uu.nl3512 JK Utrecht http://www.lotschool.nlThe Netherlands

    Cover illustration: Intertwined. Photo by Karin Reezigt.

    ISBN: 978-94-6093-068-3NUR: 616

    Copyright c 2011 Marlies Kluck. All rights reserved.

  • Rijksuniversiteit Groningen

    Sentence amalgamation

    Proefschrift

    ter verkrijging van het doctoraat in deLetteren

    aan de Rijksuniversiteit Groningenop gezag van de

    Rector Magnificus, dr. E. Sterken,in het openbaar te verdedigen op

    maandag 14 november 2011om 14.30 uur

    door

    Marina Elisabeth Kluck

    geboren 12 maart 1980te s-Gravenhage

  • Promotor: Prof. Dr. J. Koster

    Copromotor: Dr. M. de Vries

    Beoordelingscommissie: Prof. Dr. J. Hoeksema

    Prof. Dr. J. Merchant

    Prof. Dr. H. van Riemsdijk

  • People think of these eureka moments, and my feeling is that they tend to belittle things, a little realisation and then a little realisation built on that.

    Sir Roger Penrose

  • Contents

    Acknowledgements . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xi

    Glossary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . xv

    1 Introduction 11.1 Lakoffs puzzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11.2 Theoretical background, empirical scope and terminology . . . 51.3 Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 9

    2 Ideas about amalgams 112.1 How it all started: Lakoff (1974) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 122.2 The relative clause approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    2.2.1 The IC as an empty-headed relative clause . . . . . . . 172.2.2 Tsubomoto and Whitman (2000) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 172.2.3 Grosu (2006, 2008) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 20

    2.3 The multidominance approach . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 252.3.1 Multidominance in minimalist theory . . . . . . . . . . 252.3.2 Van Riemsdijk (1998b, 2006b,c) . . . . . . . . . . . . . 272.3.3 Guimaraes (2004) . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 32

    2.4 Amalgams as layered derivations: Zwart (2006, 2009) . . . . . . 422.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 46

    3 The non-subordinate behavior of amalgams 493.1 Root phenomena in amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 50

    3.1.1 V2 patterns in Germanic amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . 503.1.2 Null subjects in Romance amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . 573.1.3 Speaker-oriented adverbs and illocutionary force . . . . 60

    3.2 Distribution of the IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713.2.1 Grosus generalization . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 713.2.2 Extraposition in Free Relatives and amalgams . . . . . 753.2.3 A linear restriction on ICs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 80

  • viii

    3.3 Interim discussion . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 863.4 The (in)transparency of the IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 89

    3.4.1 Movement within and out of the IC . . . . . . . . . . . 893.4.2 Variable binding into IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 943.4.3 Condition B and C effects . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 993.4.4 Licensing of NPIs . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1023.4.5 Idiom chunks . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 105

    3.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 107

    4 Amalgams as sluicing configurations 1094.1 Introducing sluicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 110

    4.1.1 Theories of sluicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1104.1.2 Four key properties of sluicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1124.1.3 Licensing ellipsis via an E-feature: Merchant (2001) . . 115

    4.2 Sluicing in Andrews amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1184.2.1 Licensing ellipsis in Andrews-amalgams by ES . . . . . . 1184.2.2 Varieties of sluicing in Andrews-amalgams . . . . . . . . 1204.2.3 Sluicing puzzles in the comp-domain . . . . . . . . . . . 124

    4.3 It -cleft reduction in Horn-amalgams as sluicing . . . . . . . . . 1264.3.1 A preliminary sketch of ellipsis in Horn-amalgams . . . 1264.3.2 The cleft clause as relative clause . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1284.3.3 A raising analysis for it -clefts . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1374.3.4 Ellipsis licensing by ERC in it -clefts . . . . . . . . . . . 145

    4.4 Puzzles and predictions of the sluicing account . . . . . . . . . 1534.4.1 The missing constituent is a null correlate . . . . . . . . 1534.4.2 Meeting e-givenness via a null correlate . . . . . . . . . 1544.4.3 Empirical predictions for amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . 157

    4.5 Theoretical embedding of the proposal . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1584.5.1 Generalizing sluicing to A-movement contexts . . . . . 1584.5.2 Focus movement and sluicing in fragments: EF . . . . . 1594.5.3 Sluicing in a layered CP and the Dutch comp-facts . . . 164

    4.6 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 166

    5 Empirical evidence for the sluicing approach 1695.1 A-movement in amalgams: reconstruction and islands . . . . . 170

    5.1.1 Reconstruction effects in Andrews-amalgams . . . . . . 1705.1.2 Reconstruction effects in it -clefts and Horn-amalgams . 1725.1.3 Island repair in Andrews-amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . . 1745.1.4 The unexpected island-insensitivity of Horn-amalgams . 179

    5.2 Amalgams and form-identity I: Case . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 1835.2.1 The case matching generalization for amalgams . . . . . 1835.2.2 Case matching in Andrews-amalgams . . . . . . . . . . 1845.2.3 Case in it -clefts and Horn-amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . 186

    5.3 Amalgams and form-identity II: P-stranding . . . . . . . . . . . 1885.3.1 Andrews-amalgams and the P-stranding generalization . 188

  • ix

    5.3.2 Patterns with PPs in Andrews-amalgams . . . . . . . . 1915.3.3 Patterns with PPs in Horn-amalgams . . . . . . . . . . 206

    5.4 Benefits and bottlenecks of the PF-approach . . . . . . . . . . . 2105.4.1 The content kernel as remnant of sluicing . . . . . . . . 2105.4.2 On the deviations from the P-stranding generalization . 2125.4.3 Island repair under sluicing . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 218

    5.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 224

    6 Parenthetical properties of amalgams 2276.1 Hallmarks of parentheticals . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 228

    6.1.1 Structural and truth-conditional independence . . . . . 2286.1.2 Free versus anchored parentheticals . . . . . . . . . . . 2346.1.3 Inherent speaker-orientation . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 236

    6.2 Inherent speaker-orientation in Horn-amalgams . . . . . . . . . 2396.2.1 Speaker-orientation via epistemic modality . . . . . . . 2396.2.2 Verba dicendi and epithets in Horn-amalgams . . . . . . 2416.2.3 A note on the obligatory intensionality in TFRs . . . . 2446.2.4 Trouble ahead for the multidominance theory . . . . . . 245

    6.3 The interpretation of Andrews-amalgams . . . . . . . . . . . . 2486.3.1 Refining Lakoffs intuition . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 2486.3.2 Speaker-orientation in Andrews-amalgams: Diverge . . 2546.3.3 You know what is not an amalgam? . . . . . . . . . . . 262

    6.4 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 267

    7 Amalgams as sluiced parentheticals with null correlates 2697.1 Parentheticals in grammatical theory . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 270

    7.1.1 Status quo: towards a parenthetical account . . . . . . . 2707.1.2 Radical independency: the orphanage approach . . . . . 2717.1.3 Parenthetical-inclusion as a primitive in grammar . . . . 275

    7.2 Anchoring, specification and the nature of Par . . . . . . . . . 2797.2.1 Parallel construal and the valency of Par . . . . . . . . 2797.2.2 Restrictive versus parenthetical parallel construal . . . . 2847.2.3 Anchoring to speaker as a selectional restriction of Par . 288

    7.3 Sluiced parentheticals with null correlates . . . . . . . . . . . . 2917.3.1 Sluicing as specificational construal . . . . . . . . . . . . 2917.3.2 Amalgams as specifications of a null correlate . . . . . . 2957.3.3 Matching the content kernel with the empty anchor . . 303

    7.4 Beyond Lakoffs puzzle . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3087.4.1 (Non)-detachability of the IC . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3087.4.2 What can move and what cannot in amalgams . . . . . 3107.4.3 Quirks of sluicing in parentheticals . . . . . . . . . . . . 316

    7.5 Summary . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 318

    8 Conclusions and outlook 321

  • x

    Bibliography . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 333

    Samenvatting in het Nederlands . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 361

    Curriculum Vitae . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 373

  • Acknowledgements

    The research carried out for this dissertation was financially supported bythe Netherlands Organization for Scientific Research (NWO) funding to theVidi-project The Syntax of Nonsubordination: Parentheses, Appositions andGrafts. I am grateful I could be part of this project and enjoyed the opportu-nity work at the Center for Language and Cognition Groningen (CLCG). Thisdissertation wouldnt have come into existence without the criticism, encour-agement and inspiration from numerous people.

    First of all, I thank Mark de Vries, my daily supervisor and co-promotor. Forthe open door of his office, the careful and prompt reading of new manuscripts,our many discussions, and his confidence (and patience) when I changed thedirection of my analysis. His way of going beyond conventional syntactic the-orizing awakened

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