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Sequential logic circuits

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Sequential logic circuits

2

Outline

• Sequential Circuit Models– Asynchronous– Synchronous

• Latches

• Flip-Flops

3

Sequential logic circuits

• The main characteristic of combinational logic circuits is that their output values depend on their present input values.

• Sequential logic circuits differ from combinational logic circuits because they contain memory elements so that their output values depend on both present and past input values

4

Sequential logic circuits

Sequential circuits can be Asynchronous or synchronous.Asynchronous sequential circuits change their

states and output values whenever a change in input values occurs.

Synchronous sequential circuits change their states and output values at fixed points of time, i.e. clock signals.

5

Sequential Circuit Models

Universal model

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Memory Devices

Latches A latch is a memory element whose excitation signals control the state of the device. A latch has two stages set and reset. Set stage sets the output to 1. Reset stage set the output to 0.

Flip-flops A flip-flop is a memory device that has clock signals control the state of the device.

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Latch Flip-flop

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Latches

RS LatchThe RS latch is the basic memory element

consists of two cross-coupled NOR gates. It has two input signals, S set signal and R reset signal. It also has two outputs Q and Q'; and two states, a set state when Q = 1 and a reset state when Q = 0 (Q' = 1)

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S R Q Q'

1 0 1 0

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

1 1 0 0

S R Q

0 0 hold

0 1 0 reset

1 0 1 set

1 1 unstable

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RS Latch excitation table

S R Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 0 0 0Hold

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0Reset

Q(t+1) = S(t) + R'(t)Q(t) 0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1Set

Q+ = S+ R'Q

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 XForbidden

1 1 1 X

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S R Q Q'

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 0

0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

S R Q

0 0 unstable

0 1 0 reset

1 0 1 set

1 1 hold

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Timing Diagram of RS-Latch

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JK Latch

S R Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 0 0 0Hold

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0Reset

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1Set

Q+ = K'Q+ JQ'

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 1toggle

1 1 1 0

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Level-Sensitive Latches

A level-sensitive latch is a latch with an additional enable input.

RS latch

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RS Latch with EnableC S R Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 X X 0 0Hold

0 X C 1 1

1 0 0 0 0Hold

1 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 0 0Reset

1 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 0 1Set

1 1 0 1 1

1 1 1 0 1toggle

1 1 1 1 0

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D Latch

C D Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 X 0 0Hold

0 X 1 1

1 0 0 0Reset

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1Set

1 1 1 1

Q+ = D

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Flip-Flops

A flip-flop is a level-sensitive latch with a clock input.

RS flip-flop

Q+ = S +R'Q