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Sequential logic circuits

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TRANSCRIPT Sequential logic circuits CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 2

Outline

• Sequential Circuit Models– Asynchronous– Synchronous

• Latches

• Flip-Flops CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 3

Sequential logic circuits

• The main characteristic of combinational logic circuits is that their output values depend on their present input values.

• Sequential logic circuits differ from combinational logic circuits because they contain memory elements so that their output values depend on both present and past input values CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 4

Sequential logic circuits

Sequential circuits can be Asynchronous or synchronous.Asynchronous sequential circuits change their

states and output values whenever a change in input values occurs.

Synchronous sequential circuits change their states and output values at fixed points of time, i.e. clock signals. CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 5

Sequential Circuit Models

Universal model CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 6

Moore machine model

Mealy machine model

Combinational circuit model CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 7

Sequential Circuit Models

Circuit type Excitation Output

Combinational None O = g(I)

Moore Machine E = f (I, St) O = g(St)

Mealy Machine E = f (I, St) O = g(I, St) CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 8

Memory Devices

Latches A latch is a memory element whose excitation signals control the state of the device. A latch has two stages set and reset. Set stage sets the output to 1. Reset stage set the output to 0.

Flip-flops A flip-flop is a memory device that has clock signals control the state of the device. CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 9

Latch Flip-flop CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 10

Latch and Flip-Flop Devices

Device # of Elements

Description

74LS73A 2 Negative-edge triggered JK flip-flop with clear

7474 2 Positive-edge triggered D flip-flop with preset and clear

74LS75 4 D Latch with enable

7476 2 Pulse-edge triggered JK flip-flop with preset and clear

74111 2 Master-slave JK flip-flop with preset, clear, and data lock out

74116 2 4-bit hazard-free D latch with clear and dual enable

74175 4 Positive-edge triggered D flip-flop with clear

74273 8 Positive-edge triggered D flip-flop with clear

74276 4 Negative-edge triggered JK flip-flop with preset and clear

74279 4 SR latch with active-low inputs CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 11

Inverter Chains

Ring oscillator CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 12

Latches

RS LatchThe RS latch is the basic memory element

consists of two cross-coupled NOR gates. It has two input signals, S set signal and R reset signal. It also has two outputs Q and Q'; and two states, a set state when Q = 1 and a reset state when Q = 0 (Q' = 1) CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 13

S R Q Q'

1 0 1 0

0 0 1 0

0 1 0 1

0 0 0 1

1 1 0 0

S R Q

0 0 hold

0 1 0 reset

1 0 1 set

1 1 unstable CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 14

Theoretical state diagram of cross-coupled NOR gates CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 15

Observed state diagram of cross-coupled NOR gates CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 16

RS Latch excitation table

S R Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 0 0 0Hold

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0Reset

Q(t+1) = S(t) + R'(t)Q(t) 0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1Set

Q+ = S+ R'Q

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 XForbidden

1 1 1 X CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 17

S R Q Q'

1 0 1 0

1 1 1 0

0 1 0 1

1 1 0 1

0 0 1 1

S R Q

0 0 unstable

0 1 0 reset

1 0 1 set

1 1 hold CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 18

State, Clock, Setup Time, and Hold Time

The Clocking event can be either from low to high or from high to low. The input signal around clocking event must remain unchanged in order to have a correct effect on the outcome of the new state.– Tsu: the minimum time interval preceding

the clocking event during the input signal

must remain unchanged

– Th: the minimum time interval after edge

of the clocking event during the input signal must remain unchanged CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 19

Timing Diagram of RS-Latch CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 20

JK Latch

S R Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 0 0 0Hold

0 0 1 1

0 1 0 0Reset

0 1 1 0

1 0 0 1Set

Q+ = K'Q+ JQ'

1 0 1 1

1 1 0 1toggle

1 1 1 0 CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 21

Level-Sensitive Latches

A level-sensitive latch is a latch with an additional enable input.

RS latch CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 22

RS Latch with EnableC S R Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 X X 0 0Hold

0 X C 1 1

1 0 0 0 0Hold

1 0 0 1 1

1 0 1 0 0Reset

1 0 1 1 0

1 1 0 0 1Set

1 1 0 1 1

1 1 1 0 1toggle

1 1 1 1 0 CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 23

D Latch

C D Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 X 0 0Hold

0 X 1 1

1 0 0 0Reset

1 0 1 0

1 1 0 1Set

1 1 1 1Q+ = D CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 24

Flip-Flops

A flip-flop is a level-sensitive latch with a clock input.

RS flip-flop

Q+ = S +R'Q CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 25

T (Toggle) flip-flop

D Q(t) Q(t+1)

0 0 0Hold

0 1 1

1 0 1Toggle

1 1 0

Q+ = TQ' + T'Q CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 26

Master Slave Flip-Flops

A master slave flip-flop consists of two latches and an inverter.

Master-slave RS flip-flop CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 27

Master-Slave JK Flip-Flops CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 28 CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 29

Positive Edge-Triggered Flip-Flops

Positive edge-triggered RS flip-flop timing diagram CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 30

Positive edge-triggered JK flip-flop timing diagram CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 31

Positive edge-triggered D flip-flop timing diagram CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 32

Positive Edge-Triggered Timing

A circuit that generates a positive edge-triggered timing signal can be constructed as follows: CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 33

Type When inputs are sampled When outputs are valid

Unclocked latch Always Propagation delay from input change

Level-sensitive latch Clock high Propagation delay from input change

Positive-edge latch Clock low-to-high transition Propagation delay from rising edge of clock

Negative-edge latch Clock high-to-low transition Propagation delay from falling edge of clock

Master/slave flip-flop Clock high-to-low transition Propagation delay from falling edge of clock CS 3402--Digital Logic Sequential logic circuits 34

Exercises

page 425, 6.1-6.6, 6.9, 6.10, 6.12, 6.13, 6.14, 6.17, 6.24, 6.25