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  • 1. Introduction To CSS by: Alexandra Vlachakis Sandy Creek High School, Fayette County Schools Content and Resources Used With Permission: Interact With Web Standards. Copyright 2010. Erin Anderson et. Al. W3 Schools. www.w3schools.com. 12-25-11.

2. HTML Review Whatis HTML used for? Give some examples of formatting tags in HTML? HTML is the most widely used language on the Web In todays lesson we will be discussing the second most widely used language on the web Does anyone know the name of the second most widely used language? 3. Lesson 1: History of CSS CSSwas proposed in 1994 as a web styling language. To helps solve some of the problems HTML 4. There were other styling languages proposed at this time, such as Style Sheets for HTML and JSSS but CSS won. CSS2 became the recommendation in 1998 by W3C CSS3 was started in 1998 but it has never been completed. Some parts are still being developed and some components work on some browsers. 4. Lesson 1: What is CSS? CSS stands for Cascading Style Sheets Styles - define how to display HTML elements Styles are normally stored in Style Sheets Definition:Cascading Style Sheets (CSS) is a rule based language that applies styling to your HTML elements. You write CSS rules in elements, and modify properties of those elements such as color, background color, width, border thickness, font size, etc. 5. Lesson 1: Examples of CSS Example 1: http://www.csszengarden.com/ Example 2: http://w3schools.com/css/demo_default.htm If you notice each time we click on a different CSS style sheet on the two pages above the look and feel of each page changes dramatically but the content stays the same. HTML did not offer us this option. HTML was never intended to contain tags for formatting a document. HTML was intended to define the content of a document, like: This is a heading

This is a paragraph.

When tags like , and color attributes were added to the HTML 3.2 specification, it started a nightmare for web developers. Development of large web sites, where fonts and color information were added to every single page, became a long and expensive process. To solve this problem, the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C) created CSS. 6. HTML Formatting Review What are the starting tags in HTML? What are the ending tags in HTML? How do you save in a Notepad document so itbecomes a web page? What is the tag for creating paragraphs in HTML? What is the tag for creating heading tags in HTML? What are the tags we use to format font: family, color, size, alignment in HTML? 7. Lesson 2: Syntax oF CSS The CSS syntax is made up of 5 parts: selector property/value declaration declaration block curly bracesWe will explore each part in the next slides. 8. Selector Definition: identifies the HTML elements that the rule will be applied to, identified by the actual element name, e.g. , or by other means such as class attribute values. Example:*The selector is normally the HTML element you want to style 9. Property & Value Definition: The property is the style attribute you want to change. Each property has a value.*Properties are separated from their respective values by colons : *Pairs are separated from each other by semicolons ; 10. Declaration Definition: Each CSS line that includes property and value*Each declaration consists of a property and a value. 11. Declaration Block Definition: multiple declaration lines including the curly braces 12. Curly Braces Definition: the curly braces contain the properties of the element you want to manipulate, and the values that you want to change them to. The curly braces plus their content is called a declaration block. Example: 13. Lesson 2 Assignment: Lets Create Our First CSS Page Open Notepad Type the following Code p {color:red; text-align:center;}

Hello World!

This paragraph is styled with CSS.

Instructor Note: You candemonstrate how to do this by using the example given on the W3schools site. Also as you are creating this file point out to students where they will find the different syntax found in CSS. After creating the file have students manipulate the color and alignment values.Save Your File as css-myfirstpage.html into a new folder called CSS 14. Lesson 3: Class and id Selectors In addition to setting a style for a HTML element, CSS allows you to specify your own selectors called "id" and "class".id - The id selector is used to specify a style for a single, unique element. The id selector uses the id attribute of the HTML element, and is defined with a "#".The style rule below will be applied to the element with id="para1":#para1 {text-align:center;color:red;} 15. Lesson 3: Class and id Selectors Class - The class selector is used to specify a style for a groupof elements. Unlike the id selector, the class selector is most often used on several elements.This allows you to set a particular style for any HTML elements with the same class.The class selector uses the HTML class attribute, and is defined with a "."In the example below, all HTML elements with class="center" will be center-aligned:.center {text-align:center;} 16. Lesson 3: Class and id SelectorsIn the image below what is the h1 selector an ID or a Class?#. 17. Lesson 3 Assignment: Lets Create A CSS Page that uses id Open Notepad Type the following Code #para1 { text-align:center; color:red; } Instructor Note: You candemonstrate how to do this by using the example given on the W3schools site. Also as you are creating this file point out to students where they will find the different syntax found in CSS After creating the file have students manipulate the name of the id

Hello World!

This paragraph is not affected by the style.

Save Your File as css-id.html into a your folder called CSS. 18. Lesson 3 Assignment: Lets Create A CSS Page that uses class Open Notepad Type the following Code .center { text-align:center; } Instructor Note: You candemonstrate how to do this by using the example given on the W3schools site. Also as you are creating this file point out to students where they will find the different syntax found in CSS After creating the file have students manipulate the name of the class Center-aligned heading

Center-aligned paragraph.

Save Your File as css-class.html into a your folder called CSS. 19. Lesson 3 Comments Comments are used to explain your code, and may help you when you edit the source code at a later date. Comments are ignored by browsers.You add comments by enclosing them in /* and */Comments can span several lines, and the browser will ignore these lines.Example:/* This is a basic comment it will not appear on the page*/ /* starts the comment */ is the end of the comment /*This is a comment*/ p{ text-align:center; color:black; font-family:arial;} 20. Lesson 3 Assignment: Lets Add A Comment Open Your CSS-ID example in Notepad Type the following Code right above the style you had written previously. /*This is an example of how to use ID in a CSS web page*/ #para1 { text-align:center; color:red; }

Hello World!

This paragraph is not affected by the style.

Save Your File as css-comment.html into a your folder called CSS. 21. PageLesson 4: How CSS is Applied to A Web CSS is applied to a web page using threedifferent methods: Inline style Internal style sheet External style sheet 22. Lesson 4: How CSS is Applied to A Web Page Inline CSS Applies styles directly to the elements byadding declarations into the style For Example:

This is a simple paragraph and the inline style makes it red.

23. Lesson 4: How CSS is Applied to A Web Page Internal Style Sheet Applies styles to HTML by placing the CSS rules inside the tag inside the document tag . For Example: my page p{color:red}

this is a simple paragraph

24. Lesson 4: How CSS is Applied to A Web Page External CSS Applies styles as a separate file with a .css extension. The file is then referenced from inside the element by a link to the file. For Example: my external style sheet page

this is a simple paragraph

You can create an external style sheet in your text editor. 25. Lesson 4: How CSS is Applied to A Web Page What style sheet is best? Web developers rarely use inline CSS. Since they prefer to not mix content with presentation. And it is not efficient since you have to declare the style individually for every component. Internal and External style sheets are more popular because you can style multiple elements with one rule.External style sheets are best because they allow you to save all the style information on a separate file from the content. You can then modify a style for a site and it will update all of the pages in a site. 26. Lesson 5: Colors and Formatting in CSS CSS Colors In the previous lesson you have seen a fewCSS styles that included color like:

There are a few ways that you can set colors in CSS: Keywords, Hex values, RGB, HSL(a) 27. Lesson 5: Colors and Formatting in CSS CSS Colors: Keywords Using the keywords like: red, fuchsia, yellow,blue, green you can specify what color you would like the CSS rule to display. For example: p{color:red} h2{color:yellow} There are 17 of these keyword colors you can use in CSS. 28. Lesson 5: Colors and Formatting in CSS Keyword ColorHexaqua#00ffffblack#000000blue#0000fffuchsia#ff00ffgray#808080green#008000lime#00ff00maroon#800000navy#000080olive#808000orange (added in CSS 2.1)#ffa500purple#800080red#ff0000silver#c0c0c0teal#008080white#ffffffyellow#ffff00 29. Lesson 5: Colors and Formatting in CSS Computers are capable of displaying a lot morethan 17 colors. In fact they can display approximately 16.7 million colors! Hex Values (hex is short for hexadecimal) are the most common way of specifying colors for web pages. (see hex# in the previous chart) For example: p{colo

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