skeletal system. 2 axial skeleton 80 bones 3 appendicular skeleton 126 bones

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Skeletal System

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Page 1: Skeletal System. 2 Axial Skeleton 80 bones 3 Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones

Skeletal System

Page 2: Skeletal System. 2 Axial Skeleton 80 bones 3 Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones

2

Axial Skeleton

• 80 bones

Page 3: Skeletal System. 2 Axial Skeleton 80 bones 3 Appendicular Skeleton 126 bones

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Appendicular Skeleton

• 126 bones

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Bony composition

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Endochondral Ossification

Diaphysis: refers to the shaft portion of the long bones. Primary site of ossification.

Epiphysis: expanded end portion and it’s the secondary site of ossification.

Metaphysis: growth zone between the epiphysis and diaphysis.

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Congenital and Hereditary Diseases

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Osteogenesis Imperfecta1. Often called brittle bone

disease

2. Hereditary or congenital1. Serious disease

3. Bone cortex is thin and porous, and trabeculae are thin, delicate and widely separated

4. X-ray demonstrates various fractures in various stages of healing and general decrease in bone mass

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Osteogeneis Imperfecta

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Achondroplasia1. Most common inherited

disorder of the skeletal system

2. Results in bone deformity & dwarfism1. Normal trunk size &

shortened extremities

2. Usually no more than 4ft tall

3. Clinical manifestation:1. Lumbar lordosis,

2. bowed legs,

3. bulky forehead with hypoplasia

4. narrowing of foramen magnum causing neural compression

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Achondroplasia

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Osteopetrosis1. Bones are abnormally heavy and compact but brittle

2. All bones are affected by most changes occur in long bones of extremities, vertebrae, pelvis and base of skull

3. X-rays demonstrate increase in thickness and density of bony cortex.

4. Increase in the # and size of trabeculae, reduction of the marrow space

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Osteopetrosis

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Scoliosis

1. Lateral curvature of the spine

2. Does not usually become visible until adolescents

3. Affects girl more

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Scoliosis

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Rotoscoliosis

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Transitional VertebraOften called Lumbar Ribs

1. Takes on characteristics of both vertebrae on each side of a major division of the spine

2. 1st lumbar may have a rib

3. At C7 there may be a cervical rib

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Cervical Ribs & Lumbar Ribs

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Anencephaly

1. Congenital abnormality

2. Brain and cranial vault do not form

3. Results in death shortly after birth

4. Can be diagnosed with US before they are born

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Anencephaly

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Inflammatory Diseases

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

1. Chronic autoimmune that may fluctuate in severity

2. Overgrowth of the synovial tissues

3. X-ray shows soft tissue swelling & osteoporosis of affected bone. Bone erosion & decalcification

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Rheumatoid Arthritis

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Osteoarthritis1. Most common form of

arthritis

2. Articular cartilage degenerates & gradually is worn away exposing underlying bone

3. Ostephytes & bone spurs are on x-rays

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Osteoarthritis

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Osteomyelitis1. Infection of the bone &

bone marrow

2. Symptoms & signs include fever, heat in the affected area, & dull pain

3. X-rays demonstrate loss of bone calcium and soft tissue swelling

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Osteomyelitis

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Ankylosing Spondylitis

1. Progressive form of arthritis affecting the spine

2. X-ray shows bilateral narrowing & fuzziness of the SI joints1. Calcification of the

bones of the spine with ossification of the vertebral ligaments

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Ankylosing Spondylitis

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Gout1. Is an inherited

metabolic disorder in which excessive amounts of uric acid is produced & deposited in the joint and adjacent bone

2. Bone changes include erosion & overhanging edges

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Gout

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Spondylolisthesis

1. Slipping of the body of the vertebra

2. Symptoms are similar to those of a herniated disk

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Spondylolisthesis

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Osteochondroma1. Benign bone tumor

2. Affects women more than men

3. Asymptomatic

4. Excessive bone growth

5. Cortex of osteochondroma blends in with normal bone and growth protrudes up & away from nearest joint

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Osteochondroma

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Osteosarcoma1. Most common

primary malignancy of the skeleton

2. Highly aggressive and most often occurs in the bone marrow

3. X-ray appears as a sunray or sunburst

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Osteosarcoma

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Bone Cyst

1. Idiopathitic disease and is not a true neoplasm

2. Consists of numerous blood filled arterivenous communications

3. Most common treatment is surgical removal

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Bone Cyst

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MRI1. Superior contrast resolution for soft tissue

detail1. Modality of choice for soft tissue tumor2. Extremely useful in eval of joints

2. MRi detects a larger number of musculoskeletal subtleties with higher resolution imaging

3. Bone marrow imaging is better than nuc med scans for subtle abnormalities

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CT1. Can be performed quickly & noninvasively

2. Defines extent of fractures and dislocations

3. Superior to MRI for cortical bone and visualization of bony detail

4. Gives better bone detail than plain x-ray

5. Has been largely replaced by MRI for soft tissue

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Nuclear Medicine

1. Has advantage over CT & MRI because it can scan the whole body at one time

2. Can show if an injury is old or new

3. Still the standard for examination of metastatic processes because it demonstrates metabolic reaction of bone to the disease process1. Is more sensitive than comparative radiographic

studies