small museums guide to making the jump to digital and the web

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  • 1.Small Museums Guide toMaking the Jump to Digitaland the Web Joe Hoover February 2012

2. It Depends. 3. Digital 4. Why Digitize?

  • Involve/engage public
  • Aid researchers
  • Altruistic (share the collection)
  • Minimize staff time on requests
  • Gain publicity
  • Reproduction sales
  • Increase donations

5. Project Planning: Labor

  • In House
    • Regular Staff
    • Volunteers
    • Interns
  • Outsource

6. Prioritizing Digital Preservation Media Tasks

  • Analog media that is deteriorating or fading in the case of color photos
  • Media that requires rare/outmoded devices for playback.
  • Material in your collection that could not be replaced if it were lost or damaged.
  • Material in your collection that is frequently requested or accessed and has high research value

7. Digital Asset Priority Matrix LowRisk HighRisk High Value Low Value 8. Dont Put the Cartbefore the horse

  • These are logical steps to complete before digitization
      • General collections survey
      • Collections inventory
      • Registration (cataloging)
      • Collections storage
      • Conservation treatment

9. Choices for online access

  • All, Some or None
  • Watermarks
  • Image size
  • Members only
  • Web hosting considerations

10. What to Digitize?What about Copyright?

  • Historical Collections (photos and text):
    • Public domain (1923)
    • No known copyright
  • Fare use
    • Smaller low resolution images online only

11. Key points to consider:

    • Dont assume everything should be digitized.
    • Assume Best Practices not Gold Standard
    • Access is key.
    • Digitizing makes it possible to produce a good catalog, which then makes the value of the materials obvious to others.
    • On-line catalogues and promotional information are critical to encourage broad usage.
    • Compared to film and photos, magnetic video and audio are often overlooked for preservation.
    • Transferring older videotapes and film to digital formats requires a plan and realistic timeline.

12. Digital Formats Media Preferred Possible Unacceptable Web Access Only Text - Plain text (encoding: US ASCII, UTF-8, UTF-16 with BOM) - PDF/A-1-a (*.pdf) - PDF/A-1-b (*.pdf)(embedded fonts) - Rich Text Format (*.rtf) - Microsoft Word (*.doc) - PDF (external font) - All other text formats not listed here - Plain text - PDF/A-1-a (*.pdf) - PDF/A-1-b (*.pdf) Images (ie: Photos, scanned documents) - TIFF (*.tiff) (uncompressed) - JPEG2000 (uncompressed)(*.jp2, *.jpx) - BMP (*.bmp) - TIFF (*.tiff)(with LZW compression or in Planar format) - GIF (*.gif) -JPEG/JFIF (*.jpg,jpeg) -PNG (*.png) - PhotoShop (*,psd) - All other raster image formats not listed here -JPEG/JFIF(*.jpg) -PNG(*.png) - GIF (*.gif) Audio - WAVE (.wav) - Standard MIDI (*.mid,*.midi) - Ogg Vorbis (*.ogg) - AIFF (uncompressed) (*.aif,*.aiff) - RealNetworks Real Audio (*.ra, *.rm, *ram) - QuickTime (*.mov) - Windows Media Audio (*.wma) - WAVE (compressed) (*.wav) - MP3 (*.mp3) - AIFC (*.aifc) - NeXT SND (*.snd) - All other audio formats not listed here - MP3 (*.mp3) - Windows Media Audio (*.wma) - QuickTIme (*.mov) - Windows Media Audio (*.wma) - Ogg Vorbis (*.ogg) - Adobe Flash (*.fla) Video - AVI (uncompressed or DV compression for Video Tape) (*.avi) - QuickTime Movie (uncompressed or DV compression for Video Tape) (*.mov) - Material Exchange Format(*.mxf) - Ogg Theora (*.ogg) - AVI (compressed) (*.avi) - QuickTime Movie (compressed) (*.mov) - Windows Media Video (*.wmv) - RealNetworks Real Video (*.rv, *.rm, *ram) - MPEG-1, MPEG-2 (*.mpg,*.mpeg) - All other video formats not listed here - MPEG-4 (*.mp4) - QuickTime Movie (*.mov) - Windows Media Video (*.wmv) - Ogg Theora (*.ogg) - Adobe Flash (*.fla) 13. Guidelines for Creating Digital Photographs MasterWeb AccessThumbnailFile FormatTIFFPNG or JPEGJPEGBit Depth16 bitgrayscale 24 bit color8 bit grayscale 24 bit color8 bit grayscale 24 bit colorSpatial Resolution400 to 800 ppi72ppi72ppiSpatial Dimensions4000 to 8000 pixels across the long dimension, depending on size of original, excluding mounts and borders600 pixels across the long dimension150 to 200 pixels across the long dimension 14. Digitizing Oral History Audio

  • WAV (BWF) format
  • Sample rate of 44.1kHz
  • 16 bit depth.
  • Gain level monitored to insure consistent range among all recordings
  • No effects processing (compressor, EQ, etc.)

15. Digitizing Video and Film 16. Web 17. CMS Web sites 18. WordPress vs. Drupal Average Monthly Maintenance Cost: Average set up and customization costs: Ease ofInstallation: Who is it for? Popular sites that use it WORDPRESS DRUPAL Information and graphics from view these and other stats go to: 19. Google sites

  • 100 MB of storage (for free account)
  • Site can display custom domain (e.g.
  • No ads are displayed, though each user may choose to monetize their site with the AdSense integration.
  • Multiple page layout options
  • Revision history for most page types
  • Access to a full library of custom gadgets which can be used to greatly extend the functionality of Google Sites.
  • Integrated with other Google Products
    • YouTube, Google AdSense, Google Calendar, Google Maps, and Google Analytics, Google Checkout, etc
  • Limitations:
  • Google logo at the top of pages (Free Account)
  • Limited page-design options
  • Limited Site storage capability
  • Limited e-store capabilities, can not add a custom shopping cart

20. Credit Card Work Around Solutions

  • Google Checkout
  • Paypal

21. Donation and member management


22. Collection management & Online exhibits Online Collection Management CMS Online Exhibits CMS ( ( ( ( ( 23. Mobile Tours ( ( ( ( ( 24. Thank You


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