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AN OVERVIEW OF SMART GRID Dr. Govind Bhagwatikar

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  • 1. Dr. Govind Bhagwatikar

2. A smart grid is an electricalgrid that uses information andcommunicationstechnology to gather and acton information, such asinformation about thebehaviors of suppliers andconsumers, in an automatedfashion to improve theefficiency, reliability, economics, and sustainability of theproduction and distribution ofelectricity. Smart grid consists of theapplication of digitalprocessing andcommunications to the powergrid, making data flow andinformation managementcentral to the smart grid. .Communicationbetweensystem componentsInterdisciplinary technologies:Data collection, processing andrecombinationMarket Grid OperationSmartGenerationSmartDistributionandTransmissionSmartConsumptionSmartStorage 3. Smart Grid is the concept of modernizing theelectric grid. The Smart Grid comprises everything related to theelectric system in between any point of generationand any point of consumption. Due to Smart Grid technologies, the grid becomesmore flexible, interactive and is able to provide realtime feedback. It is an electricity network that can intelligentlyintegrate the actions of all users connected to it generators, consumers and those that do both inorder to efficiently deliver sustainable, economicand secure electricity supplies. 4. A Smart Grid employs innovative products andservices together with intelligent monitoring,control, communication and self-healingtechnologies to: facilitate the connection and operation of generators of allsizes and technologies; allow consumers to play a part in optimizing the operationof the system; provide consumers with greater information and choice ofsupply; significantly reduce the environmental impact of thewhole electricity supply system; deliver enhanced levels of reliability and security of supply.(Ref. IEC) 5. CommunicationsTechnologyCommunicationsconsulting & servicesCommunicationsproducts & solutionsIT SystemsConsumer energymanagement &monitoring systemsUtility businesssystemsUtilityOperational ITMicrogrid SolutionsDistributed Generation& StorageDemand ResponseSmart ChargingSmart Grid ApplicationsSmart MeteringBuild. Autom.Indust. Autom.Smart HomeE-CarEnd User InfrastructureGenerationTransmissionDistributionUtility InfrastructureUtilities / ISOsIndustrial / Commercial /Residential 6. TodaysElectricity Power parkHydrogenStorageIndustrialDGTomorrowsChoices Combined Heatand PowerFuel Celle -WindFarmsRooftopPhotovoltaicsRemoteLoadsLoad as aresourceSMESSmartSubstation 7. Todays electrical grid suffers from a number of problems, like It is: Old (the average age of power plants is 35 years) Dirty (more than half of our electricity is generated from coal) Inefficient (the delivered efficiency of electricity is only 35% Vulnerable to blackout The electrical grid is not set up to handle the demands that arebeing placed on it by end-users or the changing generation mix ofthe 21st century. The grid is ill-equipped to handle both renewables, which areintermittent and less predictable than fossil fuel-basedgenerators, or distributed generation The current state of the grid limits the potential of energyefficiency efforts, as there are significant lags in the system suchthat users of electricity typically are unaware of their usage level atany given time. 8. CommunicationsTechnologyCommunicationsconsulting & servicesCommunicationsproducts & solutionsIT SystemsConsumer energymanagement &monitoring systemsUtility businesssystemsUtilityOperational ITMicro grid SolutionsDistributed Generation& StorageDemand ResponseSmart ChargingSmart Grid ApplicationsSmart MeteringBuild. Autom.Indust. Autom.Smart HomeE-CarEnd User InfrastructureGenerationTransmissionDistributionUtility InfrastructureUtilities / ISOsIndustrial / Commercial /Residential 9. The predominant Smart Grid market segments and applications includeadvanced metering infrastructure (AMI), demand response, gridoptimization, distributed generation, energy storage, PHEVs (including smartcharging and V2G), advanced utility control systems, and smarthomes/networks. A useful analogy for understanding the various components of the smart grid wasdeveloped in a report by Erb Institute scholar Dave Fribush and is presented in thetable below: 10. Smart grid technologies have emerged from earlierattempts at using electronic control, metering, andmonitoring. In the 1980s, Automatic meter reading was used formonitoring loads from large customers, and evolvedinto the Advanced Metering Infrastructure of the1990s, whose meters could store how electricity wasused at different times of the day. Smart meters add continuous communications sothat monitoring can be done in real time, and can beused as a gateway to demand response-awaredevices. 11. There are two main components of any AMI system: The physical smart meter itself, which replacesolder meters unable to communicate The communications network necessary totransport the data that the meter generates Advanced metering infrastructure (AMI) Refers asystem that collects, measures and analyzes energyusage by enabling data to be sent back and forth over atwo-way communications network connectingadvanced meters (smart meters) and the utilityscontrol systems. Provide interface between the utility and its customers: Advanced functionality Bi-direction control Real-time electricity pricing Accurate load characterization Outage detection/restoration 12. An AMI communication infrastructureallows for a multitude of new applications,which can include: Remote meter reading for billing Remote connect/disconnect capabilities Outage detection and management Tamper/theft detection Short interval energy readings (whichserve as the basis for market-basedenergy rates) Distributed generation monitoring andmanagement 13. Billing &CustomerServiceCustomerInterfaceDelivery EnergyProcurementFieldServices/SystemRecoveryInstallation &MaintenanceMultiple clientsread demand andenergy dataautomaticallyfrom customerpremisesCustomer reducesdemand inresponse to pricingeventDistributionoperator curtailscustomer load forgrid managementReal-timeoperationscurtails (or limits)load foreconomicdispatch (ES&M)AMI systemrecovers afterpower outage,communicationsor equipmentfailureUtility installs,provision andconfigure theAMI systemUtility remotelylimits orconnects/disconnects customersCustomer readsrecent energyusage and cost atsiteDistributionoperationsoptimize networkbased on datacollected by theAMI systemUtility procuresenergy andsettles wholesaletransactionsusing data fromthe AMI system--Utility maintainsthe AMI systemover its entirelife-cycleUtility detectstampering or theftat customer siteCustomer usespre-paymentservicesCustomerprovidesdistributedgeneration-- --Utility upgradesAMI system toaddress futurerequirementsMeter reading forgas and waterutilitiesMultiple clients usethe AMI system toread data fromdevices atcustomer siteDistributionoperator locatesoutage using AMIdata and restoresservice-- -- -- 14. Despite its widespread benefits, deployingAMI presents three majors challengesthat include high upfront investments costs, integration with other grid systems,and standardization. High Capital Costs: A full scale deployment of AMI requires expenditures on allhardware and software components, including meters, network infrastructureand network management software, along with cost associated with theinstallation and maintenance of meters and information technology systems. Integration: AMI is a complex system of technologies that must be integratedwith utilities information technology systems, includingCustomer InformationSystems (CIS), Geographical Information Systems (GIS),Outage ManagementSystems (OMS),Work Management (WMS), Mobile Workforce Management(MWM), SCADA/DMS, DistributionAutomation System (DAS), etc. Standardization: Interoperability standards need to be defined, which set uniformrequirements for AMI technology, deployment and general operations and arethe keys to successfully connecting and maintaining an AMI-based grid system. 15. In an electricity grid, electricity consumption and production must balance at all times; anysignificant imbalance could cause grid instability or severe voltage fluctuations and cause failureswithin the grid. Total generation capacity is therefore sized to correspond to total peak demand with some marginof error and allowance for contingencies (such as plants being off-line during peak demand periods). Operators will generally plan to use the least expensive generating capacity (in terms of marginalcost) at any given period, and use additional capacity from more expensive plants as demandincreases. Demand response in most cases is targeted at reducing peak demand to reduce the risk of potentialdisturbances, avoid additional capital cost requirements for additional plant, and avoid use of moreexpensive and/or less efficient operating plant. Consumers of electricity will also pay lower prices if generation capacity that would have been usedis from a low-cost source of power generation. Demand response refers to all functions and processes applied to influence the behavior of energyconsumption. This can range from simple signaling, e-mail, SMS, or a phone call to a person whoswitches a load on or off, to fully integrated load management, where many consumption devicesare dynamically controlled according to availability or to the price of energy. One of the most exciting applications that AMI allows for is demand-response, which gives theutilities the ability to turn off/down grid endpoints in real-time (thermostats, HVACs, lightingsystems, etc.), based on pre-arranged contractual agreements with customers, in order to curb peakdemand. 16. Participating in automated Demand Response stabilizes our energy supplyproviding utilities a source of virtual peaking power. One of the main reasons for blackouts can be unusually high demand for power This can lead to a critical peak load situation on the energy grid Utilities can prevent peak situations from escalating by shedding load Load is shed via customers that are signed up for a Demand Response programSystem load without instigating DR eventSystem load with instigating DR eventLoadEventtimeBuildings energy demand from grid 17. Load response for reliability purposes: Direct load control, partial, or curtailable load reductions Complete load interruptions Use ofAutoDR technologies Price response by end-use customers: TimeVaried Rates: Real-Time Pricing (RTP), Critical Peak Pricing(CPP),Time-of-Use rates (TOU) Demand Bidding Programs Capacity Bidding Programs Aggregator Managed Programs 18. Dedicatedfrequency/spectrumfor SMART GRID?? 19. 802.11 based wirelessLAN,IEEE 802.16 based WiMAX,3G/4G cellular,ZigBee based on IEEE 802.15,IEEE 802.20 based MobileFi 20. IEEE has nearly 100 standards and standards in development relevant tosmart grid, including the over 20 IEEE standards named in the NISTFramework and Roadmap for Smart Grid Interoperability Standards,Release 1.0. Standards currently in development include: IEEE P2030 Draft Guide for Smart Grid Interoperability of EnergyTechnology and Information Technology Operation with the ElectricPower System (EPS), and End-Use Applications and Loads IEEE 802 LAN/MAN Standards Series IEEE SCC21 1547 Standards for Interconnecting Distributed Resourceswith Electric Power Systems IEEE Standard 1159 for Monitoring Electric Power Quality IEEE Standard 762: Standard Definitions for Use in Reporting ElectricGenerating Unit Reliability, Availability, and Productivity IEEE SCC 31 Automatic Meter Reading and Related Services 21. The latest IEEE smart grid standards include: IEEE 1815-2012 Standard for Electric Power SystemsCommunications Distributed Network Protocol (DNP3) specifies the DNP3 protocol structure, functions and interoperable application options for operation oncommunications media used in utility automation systems. It revises the earlier standard, IEEE 1815-2010/ IEEE 1366-2012 IEEEGuide for Electric Power Distribution Reliability Indices defines the distributionreliability nomenclature and indices that utilities and regulators can use to characterize the reliability ofdistribution systems, substations, circuits and grid sections. It also defines the factors affecting the calculation ofthe indices.The standard revises the earlier standard, IEEE 1366-2003. IEEE 1377-2012 IEEE Standard for Utility Industry Metering Communication Protocol Application Layer (EndDevice DataTables) provides common structures for encoding data that is transmitted over advanced meteringinfrastructure and smart grids. It can be used to transmit data between smart meters, home appliances, networknodes that use the IEEE 1703 LAN/WAN messaging standard, and utility enterprise collection and controlsystems. IEEEC37.104-2012 IEEEGuide for Automatic Reclosing of Circuit Breakers for AC Distribution andTransmission Lines describes automatic reclosing practices for transmission and distribution line circuitbreakers, establishes the benefits of automatic reclosing, and details the considerations utilities must use whenapplying automatic reclosing technologies for proper coordination with other transmission and distributionsystem controls. It revises the IEEE C37.104-2002 standard by incorporating new smart grid communicationstechnologies that may affect utility automatic reclosing practices. Additionally, IEEE-SA has approved a new standards development project to categorize and describeapplications that are being considered as part of smart distribution system development and distributionmanagement systems for smart grids.The IEEE P1854 Guide for Smart DistributionApplications willcategorize the applications, describe their critical functions, define their most important components andprovide examples. 22. IEC/TR 62357: Service Oriented Architecture (SAO) - Power systemcontrol and associated communications - Reference architecture forobject models, services and protocols IEC 61970: Common Information Model (CIM) / Energy Management IEC 61850: Power Utility Automation IEC 61968: Common Information Model (CIM) / DistributionManagement IEC 62351: Security - Power systems management and associatedinformation exchange - Data and communications security IEC 62056: Data exchange for meter reading, tariff and load control IEC 61508: Functional safety of electrical/electronic/programmableelectronic safety-related systems 23. WindTurbines regarded as Power Projects Different power generations technologies in wind turbines Incorporation of power electronics Todays wind turbines are SMART Grid Integration Issues Must run status as IEGC 2010 Forecasting of wind power generation: Day ahead, weekahead forecasting Metering - Migration fromTOD/ABT meters to AMI 24. System operator may instruct the solar /wind generator to back downgeneration on consideration of grid security or safety of any equipmentor personnel is endangered and Solar/ wind generator shall comply withthe same. For this, DataAcquisition System facility shall be provided fortransfer of information to concerned SLDC and RLDC The outage planning of run-of-the-river hydro plant, wind and solarpower plant and its associated evacuation network shall be planned toextract maximum power from these renewable sources of energy. Rescheduling of wind and solar energy on three (3) hourly basis is alsoenvisaged Day ahead forecast:Wind/ power forecast with an interval of 15minutes for the next 24 hours for the aggregateGeneration capacity of10 MW and above. 25. While renewable energy cannot necessarily be operated in aconventional manner, its behavior can be predicted and the forecastinformation is exactly the kind of information that a smart grid must useto improve system efficiency. As renewable energy penetration levels continue to increase, non-scheduled renewable energy may become the single largest source ofvariability on the power system. This makes the employment of accuraterenewable energy forecasting a key component of a smart grid. Taking advantage of a vast communication network the forecast ofrenewable energy will be able to utilize this information from an evenwider set of sources. AMI will help grid operators to get real time data of wind/RE generation. 26. Advances in technology at all levels of the power system enable the integration ofwind energy into the emerging smart grid efficiently and reliably. This synergyworks both ways. A smart grid will allow connectivity of the wind turbines asintermittent sources of energy, and the advanced wind turbines with powerelectronics controls and other devices can support a grid with reactive power andprotect the equipment during severe grid disturbances. 27. Smart GridVision for India Transform the Indian power sector into asecure, adaptive, sustainable and digitallyenabled ecosystem by 2027 that providesreliable and quality energy for all with activeparticipation of stakeholders 28. Smart meter roll out for all customers by 2022 Development of utility specific strategic roadmap for implementation of smart grid technologies across theutility by 2013. Required business process reengineering, change management and capacity buildingprogrammes to be initiated by 2014. Development of reliable, secure and resilient grid supported by a strong communication infrastructure thatenables greater visibility and control of efficient power flow between all sources of production and consumptionby 2027. Implement power system enhancements to facilitate integration of 30 GW renewable capacity by 2017, 70 GWby 2022, and 120 GW by 2027. Formulation of policies and programmes by 2013, for mandatory demand response (DR) infrastructure for allcustomers with load above 1 MW by 2013, above 500 kW by 2015, above 100 kW by 2017 and above 20 kW by2020. Policies for grid-interconnection of captive/consumer generation facilities (including renewables) where evertechnically feasible; policies for roof-top solar; and policies for peaking power stations. Development of appropriate standards for smart grid development in India; and active involvement of Indianexperts in international bodies engaged in smart grid standards development. Ref: 29. Smart Grid cyber security remains a broad, complex, and highly dynamicchallenge. And with the continued increase in frequency, duration, andintensity of cyber attacks, there is mounting urgency to find new andmore effective means for securing critical smart grid infrastructures.(According to the US Department of Homeland Security, more than 40percent of reported infrastructure cyber attacks in 2012 were directedagainst the energy sector, including utilities and natural gas pipelines.) Integration of different technologies, protocols and products(Standardization) 30. A Smart Grid transforms the way power is delivered, consumed and accountedfor. Adding intelligence throughout the newly networked grid increases reliabilityand power quality; improves responsiveness; increases efficiency; handlescurrent and future demand; potentially reduces costs for the provider andconsumer; and provides the communication platform for new applications. Smart Grid needs to be implemented systematically in a diverse country likeIndia, a Power Starving Nation. Step by step approach is required. e.g. All sub-stations above 33 kV should be connected within SMART network Feeder wise AMI in Distribution System Each new RE Plant Each consumer having a load of 5 MW 31. This presentation is prepared using various reports, papers and picturesavailable on various web portals. Various documents are referred to compile this presentation.