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  • Smart Grid Technologies: Communication Technologies and Standards

    Submitted to

    Prof. Dr. Eduard Heindl By

    Mostafa Mansy

    07.01.2015

  • AGENDA

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 2

    • Introduction

    • Communication Technologies Available for Smart Grids

    • Conclusion

    • Smart Grid Communications Requirements

    • Smart Grid Standards

  • • Introduction

  • Authors – 2011

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 4

    • Vehbi C. Gungor

    • Dilan Sahin

    • Taskin Kocak

    • Salih Ergüt

    • Concettina Buccella

    • Carlo Cecati

    • Gerhard P. Hancke

  • Energy Infrastructure

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 5

    • 2.5% annually over the past 20 years.

    100 Years

  • Challenges with Current Networks

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 6

    • Lack of automated analysis. • Poor visibility. • Mechanical switches causing slow response times. • Lack of situational awareness. • Growing population and demand for energy. • Global climate change. • Equipment failures. • Energy storage problems. • Capacity limitations of electricity generation. • One-way communication. • Decrease in fossil fuels and resilience problems. • The greenhouse gas emissions on Earth have

    been a significant threat that is caused by the electricity and transportation industries.

    Grid Infrastructure

  • Smart Grids

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 7

    • The smart grid is a modern electric power grid infrastructure for improved efficiency, reliability and safety, with smooth integration of renewable and alternative energy sources, through automated control and modern communications technologies.

    • Smart grid enables new network management strategies provide their effective grid integration in Distributed Generation (DG) for Demand Side Management and energy storage for DG load balancing.

  • Smart Grids

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 8

    • The existing grid is lack of communication capabilities, while a smart power grid infrastructure is full of enhanced sensing and advanced communication and computing abilities.

    • Different components of the system are linked together with communication paths and sensor nodes to provide interoperability between them.

  • Countries Focus

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 9

    • Largest power grid modernization investment in the U.S. history - $ 3.4 billion.

  • AGENDA

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 10

    • Introduction

    • Communication Technologies Available for Smart Grids

    • Conclusion

    • Smart Grid Communications Requirements

    • Smart Grid Standards

  • • Communication Technologies Available for Smart Grids

  • Communication Importance

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 12

    Data

    Analyse & Control

    • Real time pricing.

    • Reliable, secure and cost effective service.

    • Customer participation for efficient electricity usage.

    • Outages after disasters.

  • Communications Media

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 13

    • low cost infrastructure.

    • Ease of connection to unreachable areas.

    Weak Signal Problems.

    • No interference problems.

    • No dependency on batteries.

    Smart Meter & Electric Utilities

  • Information Flow Infrasctructure

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 14

    Electrical Appliances

    Smart Meter

    Utility’s Data Centres

    Cellular TechnologiesInternet

    • Time of deployment. • Operational costs.

    • Availability of the technology.

    • Rural/urban or indoor/outdoor environments. Consider

    The technology choice that fits one environment may not be suitable for the other.

  • ZigBee

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 15

    Power Usage

    Wireless Communication

    Data Rate

    Complexity

    Cost of Deployment

    • Smart lightning. • Energy monitoring.

    • Home automation.

    • Automatic meter reading. Ideal For:

    Relatively Low

  • ZigBee – Pros & Cons

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 16

    Pros

    16 channels in the 2.4 GHz band

    Simplicity & Mobility & Robustness

    Low bandwidth requirements

    Low cost of deployment

    Easy network implementation

    Standardized based on the IEEE

    802.15.4

    Load control and reduction,

    demand response, real-time pricing programs, real-

    time system

    Gas, water and electricity utilities

    Cons

    Low processing capabilities

    Small memory size

    Subject to interference with other appliances, which share the

    same transmission medium

    Interference avoidance schemes and energy-efficient

    routing protocols, should be

    implemented

  • Wireless Mesh

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 17

    • Flexible network. • Consisting of a group of nodes.

    • New nodes can join the group.

    • Each node can act as an independent router.

    • Self-healing enables the communication signals to find another route via the active nodes.

  • Wireless Mesh – Pros & Cons

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 18

    Pros

    Cost effective

    Dynamic self- organization

    Self-healing & self

    configuration

    Improving the network

    performance and balancing

    the load

    Good coverage with the ability of

    multi-hop routing

    Meters act as signal

    repeaters.

    Cons

    Fading and interference

    Reliable and flexible routing needs sufficient number of smart nodes and cost

    Third party company to manage the

    network

    Encryption techniques

    required for security

    Un-needed loops causing

    additional overheads and

    reducing bandwidth.

  • Cellular Network Communication

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 19

    • Save time of building new dedicated communication infrastructure. • Avoid spending operational costs.

    • Using 2G, 2.5G, 3G, WiMAX and LTE to spread in wide area environments.

    • Huge data could be transferred between meter and utility in 15 minutes which requires high data connection.

    Using existing cellular

    networks:

    • GSM technology performs up to 14.4 Kbps, GPRS performs up to 170 Kbps and they both support AMI (Advanced Metering Infrastructure), Demand Response, Home Area Network (HAN) applications.

  • Cellular Network Communication – Pros & Cons

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 20

    Pros

    Using existing networks

    Wide-spread and cost-effective.

    Small data intervas leads to huge

    amount of data transfer and

    suffecient bandwidth provided

    Strong security control already

    exists

    Lower maintenance costs

    Fast installations

    Cons

    Sharing with customer

    market which could result in

    reduced performance in

    emergencies

    Service is not garanteed in

    abnormal situations – wind storm

  • Power Line Communication (PLC)

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 21

    • Using existing power lines to transmit high speed (2 - 3 Mbps) data signals from one device to the other.

    • Direct connection with the meter and successful implementations of AMI in urban areas.

    • Smart meters are connected to the data concentrator through power lines and data is transferred to the data centre via cellular network technologies.

    France: PLC technology is chosen for data communication between smart meters and the data concentrator, while GPRS technology is used for transferring the data from the data concentrator to the utility’s data centre

    Italy: PLC technology to transfer smart meter data to the nearest data concentrator and GSM technology to send the data to data centres.

  • Power Line Communication (PLC) – Pros & Cons

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 22

    Pros

    Standardization s of PLC

    Cost effective

    Widely available

    Very suitable for urban areas

    as infrastructure is already there.

    Cons

    Harsh and noisy environment

    Wiring distance between

    transmitter and receiver

    Hybrid solutions in which PLC technology is combined with other

    technologies (GPRS or GSM).

  • Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL)

    04.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 23

    • High speed digital data transmission. • Uses the wires of the voice telephone network.

    • Frequencies greater than 1 MHz through an ADSL enabled telephone line

    • Already existing infrastructure of DSL lines.

  • Digital Subscriber Lines (DSL) – Pros & Cons

    03.01.2015 Smart Grid Technologies 24

    Pros

    Widespread availability

    Low cost High

    bandwidth transmisions

    Cons

    Reliability and potential

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