Social Learning Kinds of Social Contingencies Learning about Others Learning from Others

Download Social Learning Kinds of Social Contingencies     Learning about Others     Learning from Others

Post on 25-Jan-2016

39 views

Category:

Documents

3 download

Embed Size (px)

DESCRIPTION

Social Learning Kinds of Social Contingencies Learning about Others Learning from Others Observational Learning Imitation The Social Origins of Language Learning about Oneself Discriminating Properties of One s Own Behavior - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

TRANSCRIPT

  • Social Learning

    Kinds of Social Contingencies Learning about Others Learning from Others Observational Learning Imitation The Social Origins of Language Learning about Oneself Discriminating Properties of Ones Own BehaviorThe Selection of Cultural Contingencies

  • The human species took a crucial step forward when its vocal musculature came under operant control in the production of speech sounds. Indeed, it is possible that all the distinctive achievements of the species can be traced to that one genetic changep. 117 in Skinner, B. F. (1986). The evolution of verbal behavior. Journal of the Experimental Analysis of Behavior, 45, 115-122.

  • The irreducible function of verbal behavior is that it is an efficient way in which one individual can get another individual to do somethingSometimes the effects are nonverbal, as when we ask someone to do something; sometimes the effects are verbal, as when we change what someone has to say about somethingAll other functions of verbal behavior (e.g., communication, truth, logic) are derivatives of this primary function and gain their significance only through itVerbal behavior is effective only through the mediation of other persons (Skinner, 1957, p. 2)

  • Some examples:We communicate items of information or convey our thoughts or ideas because a consequence is that others may act upon themWe express our feelings and emotions because a consequence is that others may then behave differently toward usThe thoughts or ideas or feelings or emotions do not travel from the speaker to the listener. Only the words do - and that only in a special senseThe Functions of Verbal Behavior

  • Verbal behavior can emerge only in organisms whose behavior is sensitive to social contingenciesConsider the advantages of a single vocal releaser functionally equivalent to Stop!A minimal repertory of fixed action patterns elicited by vocal releasers may evolve into a richly differentiated repertoryOnce in place, ontogenic contingencies may begin to supplement this rudimentary vocal controlThe Origin and Evolution of Verbal Behavior

  • Verbal behavior requires 3 varieties of selection:Phylogenic selection, as populations of organisms (and their genes) are selected by evolutionary contingenciesOntogenic selection, as populations of responses are selected within lifetimesCultural or memetic selection, as populations of responses are passed on within groups and across generationsThe Origin and Evolution of Verbal Behavior

  • Why should contingencies favor repetition?The effects of repetitions may summateOnce verbal governance is in place, the listeners replication of the speakers verbal behavior extends the influence of the speakerThe listeners replication of the listeners own verbal behavior creates conditions under which verbal governance may become extended over time, in the speakers absenceVerbal governance can then be maintained by powerful social contingenciesThe Origin and Evolution of Verbal Behavior

  • (p. 11) The emphasis is upon an orderly arrangement of well-known facts, in accordance with a formulation of behavior derived from an experimental analysis of a more rigorous sort. The present extension to verbal behavior is thus an exercise in interpretation rather than a quantitative extrapolation of rigorous experimental resultsSome history: the William James lectures (1948), publication (1957), a review by Chomsky (1959), some decades of eclipse, but enduring effectsPolitical and social factors: the German WWII Enigma code broken, Turings mathematics, Sputnik and the space race, language translation, granting agencies, ABA and autismSkinners book, Verbal Behavior

  • (p. 6) There is obviously something suspicious in the ease with which we discover in a set of ideas precisely those properties needed to account for the behavior which expresses them(p. 7) One unfortunate consequence is the belief that speech has an independent existence apart from the behavior of the speaker. Words are regarded as tools or instruments....(p. 7) We have no more reason to say that a man uses the word water in asking for a drink than to say that he uses a reach in taking the offered glass Verbal Behavior and traditional views

  • (p. 461) The languages studied by the linguist are the reinforcing practices of verbal communities. When we say that also means in addition or besides in English, we are not referring to the verbal behavior of any one speaker of English or the average performance of many speakers.... In studying the practices of the community rather than the behavior of the speaker, the linguist has not been concerned with verbal behavior in the present senseVerbal Behavior is not about language

  • (p. 8) To define a proposition as something which may be said in any language does not tell us where propositions are, or of what stuff they are made. Nor is the problem solved by defining a proposition as all sentences which have the same meaning as some one sentence, since we cannot identify a sentence as a member of this class without knowing its meaning---at which point we find ourselves facing our original problemVerbal Behavior on Meaning

  • Verbal Behavior on Meaning(p. 9) ...dictionaries do not give meanings; at best they give words having the same meaning(pp. 13-14) ...meaning is not a property of behavior as such but of the conditions under which behavior occurs(p. 87) ...we do not behave toward the word fox as we behave toward foxes.... [The word may] lead us to look around....but we do not look around when we see a fox, we look at the fox

  • (p. 2) The behaviors of speaker and listener taken together compose what may be called a total verbal episode. There is nothing in such an episode which is more than the combined behavior of two or more individuals(p. 14) In defining verbal behavior as behavior reinforced through the mediation of other persons we do not, and cannot, specify any one form, mode, or mediumVerbal Behavior --- and nothing else!

  • Skinner and Chomsky:Historical parallels from biologyIssues of structure versus functionThe argument from the poverty of the stimulus: Where are the negative instances?Sources of novel behavior (productivity) and their implications for the development of verbal behaviorWas there sufficient time?Where are the intermediate forms?

  • Skinner and Chomsky:Historical parallels from biologyChomsky was particularly concerned with issues of whether utterances were grammatical (structure)Skinner was particularly concerned with the circumstances under which verbal behavior occurred (function)The difference was similar to the difference between anatomy (structure) and physiology (function) in biologyBesides, Chomsky had nothing to say about semantic novelty and the creation of new verbal entities such as angels and demons

  • What are linguists talking about when they speak of universal grammar?Examples

    X talked while he wroteHe talked while Y wroteWhile he talked, Y wrote

    X who is writing is talkativeIs X who writing is talkative?Is X who is writing talkative?

  • The Darwinian ParallelsThe Eclipse of Darwinism: Alternatives to Darwinian SelectionOrthogenesis: The unfolding of structureLamarckism: The inheritance of acquired characteristicsMendelian genetics: It did not provide sufficient variation to allow for selectionBut variations are the sources of novelty --- so the Darwinian issue, like the Skinnerian one, was where the new forms came from

  • LEARNING WITH WORDS

    Verbal Function: Formal Classes

    Correspondences Between Spoken and Written ClassesEchoic Behavior The Development of Echoic Behavior Categorical Perception of PhonemesTranscriptionTextual BehaviorDictationTakingRelations Among the Classes The Replication of Verbal Behavior Parallels in Music

  • ANTECEDENTS

    BEHAVIOR(WORDS)

    CONSEQUENCES

  • What are the functional partsof verbal behavior,what are they good for,and how are they shaped?

  • Verbal Behavior

  • THE FORMAL VERBAL CLASSESEchoic BehaviorDictation-TakingTextual BehaviorTranscriptionVerbal Behavior

  • Verbal BehaviorTHE FORMAL VERBAL CLASSESEchoic BehaviorDictation-TakingTextual BehaviorTranscription

    THE TACT AND TACTINGNamingExtensions of the TactMetaphorPrivate Events

  • Verbal BehaviorTHE FORMAL VERBAL CLASSESEchoic BehaviorDictation-TakingTextual BehaviorTranscription

    THE TACT AND TACTINGNamingExtensions of the TactMetaphorPrivate EventsINTRAVERBAL BEHAVIOR

  • Verbal BehaviorTHE FORMAL VERBAL CLASSESEchoic BehaviorDictation-TakingTextual BehaviorTranscription

    THE TACT AND TACTINGNamingExtensions of the TactMetaphorPrivate EventsINTRAVERBAL BEHAVIOR

    THE MAND AND MANDING

  • Verbal BehaviorTHE FORMAL VERBAL CLASSESEchoic BehaviorDictation-TakingTextual BehaviorTranscription

    THE TACT AND TACTINGNamingExtensions of the TactMetaphorPrivate EventsINTRAVERBAL BEHAVIOR

    THE MAND AND MANDING

    AUDIENCES

  • Verbal BehaviorTHE FORMAL VERBAL CLASSESEchoic BehaviorDictation-TakingTextual BehaviorTranscription

    THE TACT AND TACTINGNamingExtensions of the TactMetaphorPrivate EventsINTRAVERBAL BEHAVIOR

    THE MAND AND MANDING

    AUDIENCES

    COMBINATIONS OF VERBAL PROCESSESMultiple CausationAutoclitic ProcessesHigher-Order Classes and AdductionVerbally Governed Behavior

  • They are defined by function and not by formFew instances of verbal behavior have only a single function, so it is not often profitable to analyze a complex utterance by saying some parts of it are members of one verbal class and other are members of another classLinguists and