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    SOCIOECOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY SHAPES LIVELIHOOD STRATEGIES IN AN AMAZONIAN EXTRACTIVE RESERVE: IMPLICATIONS FOR LONG-TERM RESERVE

    VIABILITY

    By

    VIVIAN KARINA ZEIDEMANN

    A DISSERTATION PRESENTED TO THE GRADUATE SCHOOL OF THE UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA IN PARTIAL FULFILLMENT

    OF THE REQUIREMENTS FOR THE DEGREE OF DOCTOR OF PHILOSOPHY

    UNIVERSITY OF FLORIDA

    2012

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    2012 Vivian Karina Zeidemann

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    To my family for the love and support provided along this journey, and to Amy Jade who is my inspiration

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    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS

    Many people contributed to the development of this dissertation and were side-by-

    side with me on this long journey. My chair Dr. Karen A. Kainer, however, played an

    important part. She was an exceptional mentor, supporter, and especially a good friend.

    Her outstanding knowledge, guidance, and feedback regarding the socioecological

    aspects of natural resource management and Amazon conservation were invaluable to

    the development of this work and my perseverance throughout this journey.

    All members of my doctoral committee, Dr. Marianne Schmink, Dr. Christina

    Staudhammer, Dr. Grenville Barnes, and Dr. Christopher McCarty offered their unique

    contributions to all the important steps that I had to overcome during the process of

    developing my research. I would like also to thank the Amazon Conservation

    Leadership Initiative and the School of Natural Resource and Environment for their

    invaluable financial support during my time in Gainesville. This doctoral research would

    not have been possible without the financial support provided for my fieldwork in

    Riozinho do Anfrsio Extractive Reserve by the PSTC-Compton Program, Rufford Small

    Grant, Botany in Action Program, and USAID-ICRAF Linkages Programme.

    I want to thank all of my family for their great support that allowed me to always

    believe in my capacity to accomplish this professional achievement. My mother has

    always offered her emotional and financial support, especially during the final stage of

    this process. To my brother Eduardo and my sister Patricia, who were always ready to

    help and support me in so many different ways. To my father, who believed since the

    beginning of my career that the planet Earth would need the hard work of

    conservationists to overcome the environmental problems that our society is generating.

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    And to my niece Rebeca and my nephew Samuel who have provided me with their

    happiness and beautiful smiles when I most needed them.

    Support from my friends has been invaluable, especially while being in a foreign

    country - far from my loved ones- and having to overcome cultural and language

    barriers. I am a believer that life without friends is not worth it! The fulfillment that my

    friends provided is not easy to express in words especially in English words. Since

    they all know me very well, however, they can understand the difficulties that I have to

    express my feelings and thank them. First of all, I want to thank Ane Alencar, whom I

    consider by far to be my best friend. I only came to Gainesville and UF through her

    incentive and support. During the almost 5 years that we spent in UF as colleagues and

    friends, she was by my side helping me in all the tasks of a PhD student. She was

    always ready to discuss my doctoral research and ideas, and gave me feedback on

    many important aspects related to Amazon conservation, and also made me beautiful

    and colorful maps.

    To my gator roommates, Marco Lentini, Lucimar Souza, Iran Rodrigues, Boni

    Ramey, and especially Thaissa Sobreiro, thanks for the provision of free housing when I

    could not afford to pay rent. My roommates provided me the best environment needed

    to concentrate and work by preparing me tasty dishes, just being at home, and giving

    me their smiles when I was discouraged. Thanks to the Lab gals, Amy Duchelle, Tita

    Alvira, Marlene Soriano, Shoana Humphries, Marina Londres, Christie Klimas, Joanna

    Tucker, Rosa Cossio, Jennifer Arnold, Cara Rockwell, Jamie Cotta, Constanza Rios,

    and to Antonio Huelsz for the nice meetings, discussion and moments that we shared

    during our academic life.

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    Thanks also to my friends and colleagues of the Library, Paula Pinheiro, Ana

    Carolina Barbosa de Lima, Carol Felix de Oliveira, and especially to Flavia Leite. I want

    to thanks also all the other friends that participated of my journey in one way or another:

    my closer friends Arika Virapongse and Simone Athayde, Denyse Mello, Ricardo Mello,

    Lucimar Souza, Valerio Gomes, Eric Carvalho, Raissa Guerra, Bruna Brando

    Cavalcanti, Rosana Resende, Sam Schramski, Lucas Fortini, Geraldo Silva, Ana Alice

    Eleutrio, Antonio de la Pea, Matthew Palumbo, Vanessa R. da Silva, Ingrid Marisa

    Tohver, Patricia Delamonica Sampaio, Ludmila Ribeiro, Leonardo Pacheco, Paulo

    Brando, Alexander Shenkin, Hillary del Campo, Patricia Mupeta, Bothepha Mosetlhi,

    and Ari Martinez. Thank you very much Mason Mathews for the help with the social

    network analysis and the productive discussions, and Wendy-Lyn Bartels for the English

    corrections and the nice feedback provided on Chapter 4.

    This research was developed in formal partnership with two Brazilian

    organizations: Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amaznia IPAM and Fundao

    Viver Produzir e Preservar FVPP. I want to thank them for all the support they

    provided that made my days in Brazil during my fieldwork so much more productive and

    easy. I also want to thank Galvanda Queiroz Galvo, Flvio Barros Bezerra, Osias

    Costa Santos, and Marcio Luiz da Silva Souza for their nice company and help during

    my fieldwork in Riozinho do Anfrsio Extractive Reserve. I am grateful to Ana Paula

    Souza Paulinha, Antnia Melo, Marcos Rocha and all the staff of FVPP and IPAM

    based in Altamira for their support. I must also thank Dr. Bruce Forsberg of INPA, Dr.

    Barbara Zimmerman of The International Conservation Fund of Canada, Dr. Stephan

    Schwartzman of the Environmental Defense Fund, and Dr. Jos Maria Cardoso da Silva

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    of the Conservao Internacional for the recommendation letters they provided, which

    allowed me to obtain enough funding to carry out my fieldwork in a remote place like

    Riozinho do Anfrsio Extractive Reserve.

    Finally, I want to thank immensely all of Riozinho do Anfrsio Extractive Reserve

    residents for their smiles, their help, the good food and shelter that they provided me. I

    have wonderful memories of the amazing moments that I spent with them. I learned so

    much with them that it is difficult to explain with just few words. Riozinho do Anfrsio

    Extractive Reserve is a place that I will never forget and all the people that I met there

    will be in my thoughts and my heart forever!

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    TABLE OF CONTENTS

    page

    ACKNOWLEDGMENTS .................................................................................................. 4

    LIST OF TABLES .......................................................................................................... 11

    LIST OF FIGURES ........................................................................................................ 12

    LIST OF ABBREVIATIONS ........................................................................................... 13

    ABSTRACT ................................................................................................................... 14

    CHAPTER

    1 INTRODUCTION .................................................................................................... 16

    What is the Problem?.............................................................................................. 18 The Place and Community Involved ....................................................................... 20 Expected Broader Impacts of this Study ................................................................. 22

    2 INTERNAL SOCIOECOLOGICAL HETEROGENEITY SHAPES BRAZIL NUT CONTRIBUTION TO HOUSEHOLD INCOME IN AN AMAZONIAN EXTRACTIVE RESERVE ....................................................................................... 24

    Non-Timber Forest Products and Conservation ...................................................... 24 Riozinho do Anfrsio Extractive Reserve ................................................................. 28 Methods .................................................................................................................. 30

    Livelihood Survey ............................................................................................. 30 Structured Interviews ........................................................................................ 31 Forest Inventories ............................................................................................. 32 Data Analysis ................................................................................................... 34

    Brazil nut stand quality ............................................................................... 35 Brazil nut tree access and management, household characteristics and

    income .................................................................................................... 36 Results ................................................................................................

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