space debris removal system
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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)
SPACE DEBRIS REMOVAL SYSTEM
Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology
Mohammad Shadab University Roll No 1302931086
Presented By:- Presented To:
Shipra &Saumya MAM
Types of orbits
Sources of debris
Tracking and Measurement of Space Debris
Mitigation of Space Debris
Points of Discussion
Current Space Congestion
INTRODUCTIONSpace Debris , also known as orbital debris , space junk and space waste , is the collection of defunct objects in orbit around Earth.
They can include anything from entire used rocket stages and out of order satellites to explosion fragments, paint flakes, dust, slag from solid rocket motors, coolant released by Upravlyaemy Sputnik Aktivnyj (Russian: Управляемый Спутник Активный),also known in the west as Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite or RORSAT other small particles from equipments.
Debris poses a growing threat to satellites and could prevent the use of valuable orbits in the future.
SPACE SURVEILLANCE NETWORK (SSN)
Debris Size 0.1-1cm 1-10cm >10cm
Total Number at all altitudes 150 million 780,000 23,000
Debris in Low-Earth Orbit 20 million 400,000 15,000
Estimated amount of Space Debris:
Currently more than 15,000 objects are tracked and kept in catalogue by SSN
Space debris number is much more than catalogued
Threat of this size?
• Category I (<1cm) - They can make significant damage to vulnerable parts of a satellite.
• Category II (1-10cm) - They tend to seriously damage or destroy a satellite in a collision.
• Category III (>10cm) – They may completely destroy a satellite in a collision and can be tracked easily.
Debris Distribution Graph
Low Earth Orbit (LEO)
Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)
Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO)
TYPES OF ORBITS
Low Earth Orbit
The International Space Station is in an LEO that varies between 320 km (199 miles) and 400 km (249 miles) above the Earth's surface.
Hubble Space Telescope
Earth's plates, remote sensing, spatial investigation, meteorology.
Experiments and Installation
Features of LEO:
Presence of debris in LEO a function of altitude(h) and declination(δ)
GRAPHIC EVOLUTION OF TRACKABLE LEO
Graphic evolution of total trackable Low-Earth Obit (LEO) object population since 1994Source: Marshall H. Kaplan, Survey of Space Debris Reduction Methods, AIAA SPACE 2009 Conference & Exposition 14 - 17 September 2009,
Pasadena, California,AIAA 2009-6619
The number of space debris increases very quickly:
Hypervelocity accidents in space
Case of Iridium33 and Cosmos2251
Fourth hypervelocity accident February 10 2009 Collision velocity 11 km/s
Distribution of the collision Debris
Altitude -2000 km to 36,000 km approx.
Common Use :Navigation , GPS Communication ,MAPS and Space and Environment science.
Orbital Period –Apogee ,Perigee
Medium Earth Orbit
Geostationary Earth Orbit
Altitude - 35786 Km ,Precise and Calculative.
Weather Forecast-Storm movements and developments.
Highly Elliptical Orbit These satellites do not follow a circular orbit, but its orbit is elliptical.
Its orbital period is of 8 to 24 hours.
The perigee about 500 km and apogee of 50000 km.
The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC)
Tracking of debris
INTEGRATED SATGPS SYSTEMS
Electro dynamic tethers
Space nets and collectors
Fleming’s Left Hand Rule
Laser brooms Fast
Drag by photon force
Technology is mature
• Could not be move freely in a huge range• Threat- Space based weapon system
Ground based laser
Space based laser
Solar sails Principle
Outer Orbit Reach
No propellant or engines
Less maintenance• Difficult to control• Deployment • Crashes
Space Nets and Collector satellites
Space nets or umbrellas are satellites which eject a huge net that ‘fishes’ or collects the debris and is later disposed off into a graveyard orbit .
Uses momentum generated through throwing for movement
Graveyard Orbit -Conceptualization
Research and development
Guidelines By IADC- Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee Implementation
Bullets Raining From The Sky