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Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE) SPACE DEBRIS REMOVAL SYSTEM Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology Mohammad Shadab University Roll No 1302931086 Presented By:- Presented To: Shipra &Saumya MAM

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Page 1: Space Debris Removal System

Department of Electronics and Communication Engineering (ECE)


Krishna Institute of Engineering and Technology

Mohammad Shadab University Roll No 1302931086

Presented By:- Presented To:

Shipra &Saumya MAM

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Types of orbits

Sources of debris

Tracking and Measurement of Space Debris

Mitigation of Space Debris


Points of Discussion

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Current Space Congestion

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INTRODUCTIONSpace Debris , also known as orbital debris , space junk and space waste , is the collection of defunct objects in orbit around Earth.

They can include anything from entire used rocket stages and out of order satellites to explosion fragments, paint flakes, dust, slag from solid rocket motors, coolant released by Upravlyaemy Sputnik Aktivnyj  (Russian: Управляемый Спутник Активный),also known in the west as Radar Ocean Reconnaissance Satellite or RORSAT other small particles from equipments.

Debris poses a growing threat to satellites and could prevent the use of valuable orbits in the future.

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Debris Size 0.1-1cm 1-10cm >10cm

Total Number at all altitudes 150 million 780,000 23,000

Debris in Low-Earth Orbit 20 million 400,000 15,000

Estimated amount of Space Debris:

Currently more than 15,000 objects are tracked and kept in catalogue by SSN

Space debris number is much more than catalogued

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Threat of this size?

• Category I (<1cm) - They can make significant damage to vulnerable parts of a satellite.

• Category II (1-10cm) - They tend to seriously damage or destroy a satellite in a collision.

• Category III (>10cm) – They may completely destroy a satellite in a collision and can be tracked easily.


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Debris Distribution Graph

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Low Earth Orbit (LEO)

Medium Earth Orbit (MEO)

Geostationary Orbit

Highly Elliptical Orbit (HEO)


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Altitude Range

Higher Velocity


Low Earth Orbit

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The International Space Station is in an LEO that varies between 320 km (199 miles) and 400 km (249 miles) above the Earth's surface.

Hubble Space Telescope

Earth's plates, remote sensing, spatial investigation, meteorology.

Phone Satellites

Experiments and Installation

Features of LEO:

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Presence of debris in LEO a function of altitude(h) and declination(δ)

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Graphic evolution of total trackable Low-Earth Obit (LEO) object population since 1994Source: Marshall H. Kaplan, Survey of Space Debris Reduction Methods, AIAA SPACE 2009 Conference & Exposition 14 - 17 September 2009,

Pasadena, California,AIAA 2009-6619

The number of space debris increases very quickly:

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Hypervelocity accidents in space

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Case of Iridium33 and Cosmos2251

Fourth hypervelocity accident February 10 2009 Collision velocity 11 km/s

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Distribution of the collision Debris

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Altitude -2000 km to 36,000 km approx.

Common Use :Navigation , GPS Communication ,MAPS and Space and Environment science.

Orbital Period –Apogee ,Perigee

Medium Earth Orbit

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Geostationary Earth Orbit

Altitude - 35786 Km ,Precise and Calculative.

Television Broadcasting

Weather Forecast-Storm movements and developments.


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Highly Elliptical Orbit These satellites do not follow a circular orbit, but its orbit is elliptical.

Its orbital period is of 8 to 24 hours.

The perigee about 500 km and apogee of 50000 km.

Fig. HEO

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The Inter-Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee (IADC)

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Tracking of debris





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Electro dynamic tethers

Laser brooms

Solar sails

Space nets and collectors

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Electro-dynamic tethers


Fleming’s Left Hand Rule

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Laser brooms Fast

Direct Impact

Drag by photon force

Technology is mature

• Could not be move freely in a huge range• Threat- Space based weapon system

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Ground based laser

Space based laser

Laser Brooms

Ground Based

Space based

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Solar sails Principle

Outer Orbit Reach

No propellant or engines

Less maintenance• Difficult to control• Deployment • Crashes

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Space Nets and Collector satellites

Space nets or umbrellas are satellites which eject a huge net that ‘fishes’ or collects the debris and is later disposed off into a graveyard orbit .

Uses momentum generated through throwing for movement

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Graveyard Orbit -Conceptualization

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Mathematics Involved

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Research and development

Guidelines By IADC- Inter Agency Space Debris Coordination Committee Implementation

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Bullets Raining From The Sky

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