Spanish colonial texts and Pre-colonial texts Compilation
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- 1. 21st Century Literature from the Philippines and the World Spanish Colonial Texts and Pre-colonial Texts
- 2. PRE-COLONIAL TEXTS Literature
- 3. Some of the pre-colonial literary pieces showcased in traditional narratives, speeches and songs are tigmo in Cebuano, bugtong in Tagalog, patototdon is Bicol and paktakon in Ilongo. Philippine epics and folk tales are varied and filled with magical characters. They are either narratives of mostly mythical objects, persons or certain places, or epics telling supernatural events and bravery of heroes, customs and ideologies of a community.
- 4. Poetry Dalawang Balon Hindi Malingon Sa araw ay Bunbong Sa gabi ay dahon Sang dalagang marikit Nakaupo sa tinik Kung bayaay nabubuhay Kung himasiy namamatay
- 5. Ethno-epics Biag ni Lam-ang (Life of Lam-ang) of the Ilocanos narrates the adventures of the prodigious epic hero, Lam-ang who exhibits extraordinary powers at an early age. At nine months he is able to go to war to look for his fathers killers. Then while in search of lady love, Ines Kannoyan, he is swallowed by a big fish, but his rooster and his friends bring him back to life.
- 6. The Agyu or Olahing of the Manobos is a three part epic that starts with the pahmara (invocation) then the kepuunpuun ( a narration of the past) and the sengedurog (an episode complete in itself). All three parts narrate the exploits of the hero as he leads his people who have been driven out of their land to Nalandangan, a land of utopia where there are no landgrabbers and oppressors.
- 7. Sandayo, of the Subanon tells of the story of the hero with the same name, who is born through extraordinary circumstances as he fell out of the hair of his mother while she was combing it on the ninth stroke. Thence, he leads his people in the fight against invaders of their land and waterways.
- 8. Aliguyon or the Hudhud of the Ifugaos tells of the adventures of Aliguyon as he battles his arch enemy, Pambukhayon among rice fields and terraces and instructs his people to be steadfast and learn the wisdom of warfare and of peacemaking during harvest seasons.
- 9. Labaw Donggon is about the passionate exploits of the son of a goddess Alunsina, by a mortal, Datu Paubari. The polygamous hero battles the huge monster Manaluntad for the hand of Abyang Ginbitinan; then he fights Sikay Padalogdog, the giant with a hundred arms to win Abyang Doronoon and confronts the lord of darkness, Saragnayan, to win Nagmalitong Yawa Sinagmaling Diwata.
- 10. Myths Iloko The Gods and the Goddesses Cabalangegan was a formerly a jungle at the edge of the river Abra. On the far side of the river were mountains, high and steep. On these mountains lived an old man named Abra, the father of Caburayan. The old man controlled the weather. It is said that the river Abra was covered by a gathering of water vapor at night, and during the days, it was always bright with sunlight. At that time, Anianihan, god of harvests, was in love with Caburayan, goddess of healing. Her mother, Lady Makiling, knew about their mutual attraction, but Abra did not know it because the three were afraid to tell him since he might punish them as he disapproved of Anianihan. Abra wanted his daughter to marry either Saguday, god of the wind, or Revenador, god of thunder and lightning. This being so, Anianihan took Caburayan from her home. Abra wept a great deal. He sent Lady Makiling away after beating her. When Abra was alone, he wept day and night till Bulan, god of peace and calm, came. Though Bulan was there to brighten Abra's spirits, Abra did not stop weeping. He could not express his anger. He begged the other gods to bring back his daughter. One day the sun, eye of Amman, shone so brightly that the water of the river Abra was excessively heated. Smoke rose from the river. Soon, thick, black clouds began to darken the sky. Then Saguday sent the strongest wind until the crowns of the trees brushed the ground. The god Revenador sent down the largest strings of fire. The heaviest rains fell. All these frightful events lasted seven days. The river Abra then rose and covered the trees. There rose a vast body of water until only the highest part of the mountain could be seen. It looked like a back of a turtle from a distance. This was the spot where Abra lived. On the seventh day, Abra heard a cry. He also heard a most sorrowful song. Abra dried his tears and looked around, but he saw no one. He was determined to find Maria Makiling, his grandchild. He did not find her, for the cries of the baby stopped. The search for the baby lasted three full moons but to no avail, and the poor old man returned to his home very sad. He lost all hope; his wits were gone. At that time Maria Makiling was under the care of the fierce dog, Lobo, who was under a god of the Underworld. He had been punished by the other gods, and that is why he looked like a fierce dog. He was sent down to do charity.
- 11. Ibanag Why There is High Tide during a Full Moon Long, long ago only gods lived in this world, the earth, seas, and sky were ruled by three different powerful gods.The sun god, who ruled the sky, had a very beautiful daughter, Luna, the moon. Luna enjoyed going around the heavens in her golden chariot. One day she found herself taking another path which led her outside her kingdom. She wandered on until she reached the place where the sky met the sea. Beautiful and unusual sights greeted her eyes. As she was admiring the beautiful things around, a voice startled her. It asked, "Where has thou come from, most beautiful one?" Turning around she saw a young man who looked much like her father though fairer. She wanted to run away, but when she looked at him again, she saw that he was smiling at her. Taking courage she answered, "I am Luna, daughter of the sun god." The young man smiled at her and answered, "I am Mar, the son of the sea god. Welcome to our kingdom." Soon the two became good friends. They had many interesting stories to tell each other. When it was time for Luna to go, they promised to see each other as often as they could, for they have many more tales to tell. They continued meeting at the same spot until they realized that they were in love with each other. One day after one of their secret meetings, Luna went back to the heavens full of joy. She was so happy that she told her secret to one of her cousins. The cousin, jealous of her beauty and her happiness, reported the affair to the sun god. The sun god was angered at his daughter's disobedience to the immortal laws. He shut her in their garden and did not allow her to get out. Then he sent a messenger to the sea god informing him that his son Mar disobeyed the immortal law. The sea god, who was also angered by his son's disobedience, imprisoned him in one of his sea caves. Luna stayed in the garden for some time. She was very sad at not being able to see Mar. She longed to be with him again. Feeling very restless one day, she escaped from the garden. She took her golden chariot and rushed to their meeting place. Mar, who was imprisoned in the sea cave, saw her reflection on the water. He wanted to get out to meet her. He tried hard to get out of his cave causing unrest in the sea. Luna waited for Mar to appear, but he did not come. Then she went back home very sad. Each time she remembered Mar, she would rush out in the golden chariot to the meeting place in hopes of seeing him again. The fishermen out in the sea believe that each time Luna, the moon, appears, the sea gets troubled. "It is
- 12. Ifugao Why the Dead Come Back No More A very long time ago, there lived a very kind woman with her three little children. She loved her children so much that she worked hard to be able to feed them. One day she fell ill, and in a short time she died. Her spirit went to Kadungayan, of course, as she lived a good life, but one night she thought of her poor little children whom she left on earth. She imagined that no one cared for them and that they must be hungry and cold. She pitied them so much that she decided to go back to earth. When she reached their house, she called her eldest child to open the door for her. The children recognized their mother's voice and opened the door at once. She went in and spoke to them, but they could not see her because it was so very dark and their fire had gone out. The children had not built a fire since their mother died. The children were too small, and they did not know how to build one. So the woman sent her eldest child to beg for fire from the neighbors as she felt very cold. The poor child went to the first house, but when she told them that she wanted fire for her mother who had come back home, the people just laughed at her. They did not give her fire. She went to the next house, but the same thing happened. Thus, she went to the next house, from house to house, but no one believed that her mother had come back. They thought the poor child had gone out of her mind. So the poor child went home without fire. The woman was very angry with all the unkind people. She said, "Am I to die a second death because men are so selfish? Come, my children, let us all go to that better place where I came from - Kandungayan. There are no selfish people there." She took a jar of water and went outside in the yard. She shouted to all the people, "Ah, what selfish people you all are. From this time on all people will follow my example. No man will ever come back again to earth after death." With these words she smashed the jar on a big stone. This made a horrible sound. All the people became silent with fear. The next morning the people came out to see what had caused the great voice. They saw the bits of broken jar and they found the three children dead. They now knew that the woman had really come back home that night and that in her anger at their selfishness had taken her three children with her. The people were so sorry for not having given fire to the little girl. Since then no dead person has ever come back to earth.
- 13. Tagalog Mag-asawang Tubig In the olden days, there was a small town in which few farmers' families lived. Among them was the couple known as Ba Imo and Ba Sinta. They were well liked and respected in that place, for although they were well off, they were humble and generous. One day Bathala put them to the test. A beggar in tattered clothes came to their house and asked for lodgings. The couple very hospitably welcomed their guest and even joined him for a meal at their table. To the great amazement of the couple, although they had been eating for some time, the food at the table did not decrease. Realizing that their guest was God, the couple knelt before him and prayed. The old man blessed them. In their prayer, the couple asked that they may die at the same time, so that neither of them would experience grief and loneliness which would surely happen if one of them died first. God granted the wish of the couple. They died at the same time and were buried in adjoining graves. Not long afterwards, a brook sprang from their graves. This later grew and grew until it became a river, which was named Mag-asawang Tubig in memory of the loving couple.
- 14. Bukidnon (Mindanao) How the Moon and the Stars Came to Be One day in the times when the sky was close to the ground a spinster went out to pound rice. Before she began her work, she took off the beads from around her neck and the comb from her hair, and hung them on the sky, which at that time looked like coral rock. Then she began working, and each time that she raised her pestle into the air it struck the sky. For some time she pounded the rice, and then she raised the pestle so high that it struck the sky very hard. Immediately the sky began to rise, and it went up so far that she lost her ornaments. Never did they come down, for the comb became the moon and the beads are the stars that are scattered about.
- 15. Legend Kalinga The Legend of the Sleeping Beauty In those days, tribes were not in good terms with each other. Tribal wars were common. There was a man in Tinglayan called Banna, who had extraordinary bravery and strength. He had an unusual charm so people look up to him for leadership. He was also a very good "ullalim" singer. One day Banna realized that he needed a life time partner, someone to share his life with, so he went in search for a wife. Since there were no eligible women in his barrio he decided to ascend Mount Patukan, a mountain east of Tinglayan and go to the sitio of Dacalan, Tanudan. While it was still daylight, he stopped and rested under a big tree at a distance away from the village so that no one could see him. This is because he might provoke trouble by his presence. When night came, Banna slowly went down nearer to the village and searched for a place to observe. After some time, he heard a soft, melodious female voice singing the ullalim. He was drawn to the voice and moved closer to the hut. Peeping, he saw the most beautiful woman he had ever set eyes on. Long, wavy hair, dark, fringed eyes, and a voice that grew sweeter and sweeter as he drew closer to the hut. Banna was mesmerized...captivated by the lyrical voice. The leaves of the trees around him seemed to be dancing in unison with the woman's ululations. He knew it was extremely dangerous for him to reveal himself inside the village territory, but his burning desire to meet the woman, was stronger than his sense of survival. He knocked boldly at the "sawali" (bamboo made) walls of the hut. " Anna tago," (Someone's here.) " Umma sanat?" (Who is it?), the singing stopped, but the spoken words were the most appealing sound Banna had ever heard. " This is Banna" from Tinglayan. He heard hurried movements from the house, then a male voice spoke harshly, "What do you need?" The natives were very protective of their women and properties, and Banna knew that he could get killed by his boldness.
- 16. "I don't mean any harm, I come in peace. I would like to meet the woman who sings the ullalim with passion." The family was so nervous of letting a stranger in the house and had urged him to go home instead. But Banna was persistent and had refused to go. Dongdongan - the father of the woman - slowly opened the door and saw a young, handsome man standing like a sentinel at the door. He repeated his plea for Banna to leave but the stance of the Banna indicated, he would not be budged from where he stood. So, he reluctantly let him in. "I am Banna from Tinglayan" Once inside the house, as dictated by tradition, Dongdongan handed Banna a bowl of water. It was an old tradition that once a stranger is accepted into a house, it is also understood that he will be protected and kept safe by the host family. As a symbol of this unwritten agreement, the stranger would be given a drink of water. This is called "paniyao". If a stranger is not given one, then it denotes an existing hostility which may...
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