spins of supermassive black holes in quasars and galaxies

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Spins of supermassive black holes in quasars and galaxies. Jian -Min Wang ( 王建民 ) Institute of High Energy Physics Chinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing Dec 1, 2009, ITP. SMBH properties. Physical BHs: mass, spin and charge Astrophysical SMBHs - PowerPoint PPT Presentation

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Cosmological Evolution of Supermassive Black Holes and Unification Scheme of Active Galactic Nuclei

Spins of supermassive black holes in quasars and galaxiesJian-Min Wang ()Institute of High Energy PhysicsChinese Academy of Sciences, Beijing

Dec 1, 2009, ITPSMBH propertiesPhysical BHs: mass, spin and charge

Astrophysical SMBHsGrowth: accretion and mergersSpins: accretion manner, mergersFormation: high redshiftDuty cycle: activity, coevolutionObscuration: unification schemeOutlineIntroduction: quasars and AGNsSpins 1) Spins: measured from X-rays 2) Spins: measured from -rays 3) spins: cosmological evolution

Dual AGNs: gravitation wave

Conclusions open questions AGNs and Quasars: IntroductionObservations: spectra and classificationsMorphologyTheoretical modelSpectral classification

Obscured AGNs by IR observatiosn

NGC 1068

NGC 5548 (AGN) versus NGC 3277 (Normal)

Accretion disks: AGNs and Quasars

10Coevolution of SMBH and galaxies

Quasar evolution

Measuring SMBH spins from X-raysBH accretion diskRelease of Gravitational energy

Accretion rates hot corona ADAFs (advection-dominated accretion flows)

Geometry of Accretion

Measurements of SMBH spins from X-raysSpectral shapeLast stable orbit: radiative efficiency

a*: specific angular momentumSpectral shape + last stable orbita*

Reflection of X-rays from cold disk

Line profiles:

affected by the Doppler shifts and gravityDependences of profiles on parameters(Fabian et al. 1989; Laor 1990)Model parameters: orientation emissivity R- spins: a*a*=0.998, =0.5

On orientation

On spinsOn

ASCA observation of MCG 6-30-15(Tanaka, et al. 1995, Nature, 375, 659 )

22XMM/Newton observations(Fabian et al. 2002, MNRAS, 335, L1)

Suzaku observations (Miniutti et al. 2007, PASJ, 59, S315)

2 Spins of SMBHs from -rays: in M87(Wang et al. 2008, ApJ, 676, L109; Li, Y. et al. 2009, ApJ, 699, 513 )

M87: MBH=3.2 109M; D=16MpcM8725

Conclusions:

t 2 days; 2) Non-beaming effectsGLAST/Fermi observations(Abado et al. 2009, ApJ, 707, 55)

-rays escaping from the central region 28

3 Spins: cosmological evolution

tgalaxytQSO

Wang et al. (2006;2008): duty cycle

Soltan (1982); Chokshi & Turner (1992); Yu & Tremaine (2002); Marconi et al. (2004): =0.1

Main growth of SMBH is driven by accretion

Understanding trigger of SMBHs: spins

Spin evolution: -equation(Wang, Hu et al. 2009, ApJ, 697, L141)

Properties and advantages: 1) only depends on observables2) deep survey data for : up to redshift z3) no need to compare with local BH mass density4) Spin evolution Bolometric luminosity function and density(Hopkins et al. 2007)

Mass function and BH density(Vestergaard et al. 2008; 2009)

Results Luminosity density SMBH densityVestergaard et al. (2009)Duty cycleHopkins et al. (2007)

Cosmological evolution of SMBH spins

King & Pringle (2007;2008): random accretionRandom accretion: spin-down

Evidence for random accretionSchmidt (1997), Pringle (1998) jet/disk is randomly-orientated torus is randomly-orientated disk+torus+galaxy have random orientation. Munoz Marin (2007)

Numerical simulations(Berti & Volonteri 2008)

Pure mergersMerger+standard accretionMerger+random accretionWhat is driving the random accretion onto SMBH?4 Dual AGNs: gravitational wave(Wang et al. 2009, ApJ, 705, L76)

SDSS: Sloan Digital Sky Survey

87 type 2 AGN sample

Measurements: redshifts

Properties?Double peaked [O III] profile:

T. Heckman (1980; 1981)Whittle (1985)Kepler Relation

Liu, Shen, Strauss et al. (2009, arXiv: 0908:2426)

Kepler relation

Merritt & Ekers (2002)Conclusions 1) fast spins: in MCG -6-30-15 and M87

2) strong evolution of SMBH spins: spin-down

3) merging galaxies: dual AGNsOpen questionsX-rays: more detailed and high energy solution-rays: more observationsSpin evolution: co-evolution of SMBHs and galaxiesMergers: major and minor mergers.Thanks for Attention