Spring Boxes

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Spring boxes

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<ul><li><p>SpringBoxDesignandConstruction</p><p>CE5993</p><p>Acknowledgment:Acknowledgment:LaurenFry</p><p>Civil &amp; Environmental EngineeringCivil&amp;EnvironmentalEngineeringMichiganTechnologicalUniversity</p></li><li><p>Unprotected SpringUnprotectedSpring</p><p>Figure1.UnprotectedspringinthevillageofBilikBikot,Cameroon.Beforei f h i b h i ll d ll i hiconstructionofthespringbox,thespringwaterwasallowedtocollectinthis</p><p>openpool.Waterstagnated,peoplewereabletodipdirtybucketsinthepool,andthespringwasamosquitobreedingarea.</p></li><li><p>WaterRelatedDiseases</p><p>(Cairncross andFeachem,1993)</p></li><li><p>Choosing a SpringChoosingaSpring</p><p> Why people choose a specific source:Whypeoplechooseaspecificsource: Waterlookscleanerandtastesbetter. Itiscloserthanothersources. Theflowisconstantandsufficient.</p><p> Other considerations:Otherconsiderations: Actualwaterquality(bacteriafree?Taste,odor) Abilityforwatertodrainy Reliabilitythroughdryseason Accessibilityy</p></li><li><p>Preparation of the SpringPreparationoftheSpring</p><p>Atypicalarrangementofanunimprovedspring.Toprepareforspringboxconstruction,theimpermeablelayerofsandorsoilshouldberemovedatthespringpool,downtotheimpermeablelayer.</p></li><li><p>Spring Box Design: Profile ViewSpringBoxDesign:ProfileView</p><p>(Filtermaybeomittedfromdesign.)</p></li><li><p>Spring Box Design: Plan ViewSpringBoxDesign:PlanView</p><p>(Filtermaybeomittedfromdesign.)</p></li><li><p>Slow Sand FiltrationSlowSandFiltration</p><p> Foraslowsandfiltertofunction,thesandshouldhaveaneffectivegrainsizeof0.15to0.30mmanduniformitycoefficient(D60/D10)lessthan5. D60isthesievesizethatallows60%ofthesandtopassand</p><p>D10 i th i i th t ll 10% tD10isthesievesizethatallows10%topass. Minimumheightofthesandlayershouldbe0.5m,andthe</p><p>rateoffiltrationshouldbenofasterthan0.1to0.23/ 2/h (Vi h t l 1987)m3/m2/h(Visscher etal,1987).</p><p> Forafiltrationrateof0.1m/hthroughacleanfilter,theminimumheadoverthefilteris5cm(Tchobanoglous andB t 2003)Burton,2003).</p><p> Evenwithasmallspringoutputlike1.7L/min,thesurfaceareaofthefiltermuststillbeatleast1.0m2.</p></li><li><p>Rapid Sand FiltrationRapidSandFiltration</p><p> Filter may be omitted to save money or as aFiltermaybeomittedtosavemoney,orasacompromise,rapidsandfiltrationmaybeusedused.</p><p> Forrapidfiltration,verycoarsesandorsmallgravel is usedgravelisused.</p><p> Inthiscasethefilterisdesignedtobei l 0 5 l b 1 5 id b 1approximately0.5mlongby1.5mwideby1</p><p>mhigh,withfiltermediaheightof0.4m.</p></li><li><p>ReservoirReservoir Thereservoirshouldbesizedbasedontheoutputofth i d t i i th t f tthesourceinordertomaximizetheamountofwaterthatisstoredovernight. Forexample,ifaspringhasamaximumoutputof6L/min,p , p g p / ,</p><p>assumingthatnoonedrawswaterbetween6:30pmand5:30am(11hoursoffilling),thereservoirsizewouldbe3.96m3.</p><p> Size may be restricted by available materials and funds, however.Sizemayberestrictedbyavailablematerialsandfunds,however. Reservoirwallsaremadeofsteelreinforcedconcrete. Floorshouldbeslopedandmadewithsmoothedconcrete.</p><p> Allsurfacesinsidethereservoirshouldbesmoothedt ll f i l itoallowforeasiercleaning.</p></li><li><p>Typical Construction BudgetTypicalConstructionBudget</p></li><li><p>Typical Construction BudgetTypicalConstructionBudget</p></li><li><p>Typical Maintenance ScheduleTypicalMaintenanceSchedule</p><p>Itisveryimportantthatthecommunityandmanagementcommitteearey p y geducatedandtrainedontheimportanceofmaintenancesotheprojectissustainableinthelongterm.</p></li><li><p>Measuring Spring DischargeMeasuringSpringDischarge</p><p>Weirusedtodeterminetheoutputofthesprings.Awelderwashired to produce this weir from a flat piece of metal roofing materialhiredtoproducethisweirfromaflatpieceofmetalroofingmaterial.Allyieldandheadmarkingswerealsoengravedonthemetal(MannandWilliamson,1973).</p></li><li><p>ConstructionConstruction</p><p>(Filtersizelimitedbymaterials.)</p></li><li><p>Typical Construction ScheduleTypicalConstructionSchedule</p></li><li><p>Completed SpringboxCompletedSpringbox</p></li><li><p>Completed SpringboxCompletedSpringbox</p><p>Overflowpipebendsdowntopreventchildrenfrombreakingit.</p></li><li><p>Common Construction ProblemsCommonConstructionProblems Accidentallydiggingthroughtheimpermeablelayermaycause</p><p>water to be lost from the springwatertobelostfromthespring. Whenfillingthewoodenformswithconcrete,unevenpressuremay</p><p>causethewallstograduallytiltduringplacement. When filling the primary filtration and capture area there is a Whenfillingtheprimaryfiltrationandcapturearea,thereisa</p><p>possibilityforblockingtheveinsaugmentingthespring.Besurethattheveinsarenotblockedbymud.C i th i filt ti d t ith th ft it Coveringtheprimaryfiltrationandcaptureareawithearthafteritisfilledwithrocksmaybeappropriateinsomeplaces,butwheresoilisveryfine,theearthmayendupfilteringthroughtherocksd bl k h l l h handblockingthegravellayerentrance.Inthiscase,theprimary</p><p>filtrationandcaptureareacanbefilledwithrocksandcoveredwithaplastictarporotherimpermeablematerialbeforecoveringwithearth.</p></li><li><p>ReferencesReferences Cairncross, S., and R.G. Feachem. Environmental Health Engineering in the Tropics: an</p><p>Introductory Text, Second Edition. Chichester: John Wiley and Sons, 1993. Fry, L. "Spring Improvement as a Tool for Prevention of Water-Related Illness in Four </p><p>Villages of the Center Province of Cameroon," M.S. Report, Civil &amp; Environmental Engineering, Michigan Technological University, 137 pages, 2004. </p><p> Fry, L., J.R. Mihelcic, D.W. Watkins, Improving public health by improving water supply: y, , , , p g p y p g pp yresults from springbox projects in Cameroon. Journal of Engineering for Sustainable Development: Energy, Environment, Health, 2006. </p><p> Huisman L., De Azevedo Netto J.M., Sundaresan B.B., Lanoix J.N., and Hofkes E.H. SmallCommunity Water Supplies: Technology of Small Water Supply Systems in DevelopingCommunity Water Supplies: Technology of Small Water Supply Systems in DevelopingCountries. IRC Technical Paper Series #18. The Hague, The Netherlands: IRC InternationalWater and Sanitation Centre, 1981.</p><p> Tchobanoglous, G. and F. L. Burton. Wastewater Engineering: Treatment and Reuse. Metcalf&amp; Eddy Boston: McGraw Hill 2003&amp; Eddy. Boston: McGraw Hill, 2003.</p><p> Visscher J.T., Paramasiram R., Raman A., and Heijnen H.A. Slow Sand Filtration forCommunity Water Supply: planning, design, construction, operation, and maintenance.Technical Paper Series #24. The Hague, The Netherlands: IRC International Water andS i i C 1987Sanitation Centre, 1987.</p></li></ul>