ss.912.a.6.1 examine causes, course, and consequences of world war ii on the united states and the...
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SS.912.A.6.1 Examine causes, course, and consequences of World War II on the United States and the world. Slide 2 1935-created embargo on trading arms and war materials with all parties in a war 1936- forbade all loans or credit to belligerent nations 1937- American ships could not transport any passengers or articles of war to belligerent nations Cash and Carry- Countries at war could purchase goods from us if they arranged transport 1939- Decided that passive aid could be given to an aggressor. Repealed 1935 and 1937 SS.912.A.6.2 Describe the United States response in the early years of World War II (Neutrality Acts, Cash and Carry, Lend Lease Act). Slide 3 Cash and Carry- Gave the United States the right to trade with nations at war as long as they picked up the goods and paid in full Lend-Lease Act- Gave the United States the right to trade with nations who were in vital need Effectively ended United States Neutrality Slide 4 Embargo of 1940 passed by Congress (July) U.S. placed embargo on export of aviation gasoline, lubricants, scrap iron and steel to Japan. In December, extended embargo to include iron ore and pig iron, some chemicals, machine tools, and other products. Japan signs treaty with Italy and Germnay Pearl Harbor Attack- surprise attack on Hawaiian naval base-December 7, 1941 United States declares war 3 days later End of US Neutrality Slide 5 Military mobilization Selective Service registration expanded to men 18-65 after Pearl Harbor. 258,000 women enlisted as WAAC's (Women's Army-Air Corp), WAVES (Women Appointed for Voluntary Emergency Service), and WAFS (Women's Auxiliary Ferrying Squadron). women provided their services in medical and technical support flying military equipment to war zones cryptography decoding By war's end, 16 million men and women served in the military. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy Slide 6 Economic Mobilization War Production Board (WPB) WPB established in 1942 by FDR to regulate the use of raw materials. "Rosie the Riveter" More than five million women joined the labor force during the war, often moving to new communities to find jobs in the aircraft, ship building, munitions, and automobile industries. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy Slide 7 Office of Price Administration (OPA) In charge of rationing and creating ration coupons for people to use. Certificate Rationing Plan: Used by businesses to buy cars, tires, typewriters, etc.: Coupon Rationing Plan: Used by families to buy meat, coffee, sugar, gas, etc. Number of coupons received depended on size of family. No coupons, no purchase. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy Slide 8 Taxes were increased to finance the war Many who had never had to pay taxes were now required to. 1939 -- 4 million filed tax returns; in 1945 -- 50 million filed tax returns Smith-Connolly Antistrike Act (1943) expired in 1947 Authorized government seizure of factory or mine idled by a strike if war effort was impeded. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy Slide 9 Science goes to war: Office of Scientific Research and Development (OSRD) Led to advances in technology, radar, insecticides. Manhattan Project--1942 Established to research all aspects of building A-bomb. Formed after Albert Einstein and Enrico Fermi warned FDR in a letter in 1939 that the Germans were working on building a bomb through nuclear fission. Los Alamos, New Mexico -- group charged with building the bomb itself. Headed by Dr. J. Robert Oppenheimer Trinity -- first test July 16, 1945 in desert outside of Alamogordo, New Mexico. SS.912.A.6.5 Explain the impact of World War II on domestic government policy Slide 10 African American civil rights issues During war years, there was massive migration of minorities to industrial centers. Resulted in competition for scarce resources (e.g. housing) and tension in the workplace. Violence plagued 47 cities, the worst example occurring in Detroit. Detroit Race Riot in June, 1943; 25 blacks dead; 9 whites dead. SS.912.A.6.4 Examine efforts to expand or contract rights for various populations during World War II. Slide 11 Bracero Program During the war, the need for increased farm production led to a U.S. government policy for short- term work permits to be issued to Mexican workers. Zoot Suit riots in L.A. (1943) Young Mexican and Mexican-Americans became object of frequent violent attacks in Los Angeles. Sailors on leave roamed streets beating "zooters," tearing their clothes, cutting their hair. SS.912.A.6.4 Examine efforts to expand or contract rights for various populations during World War II. Slide 12 Internment of Japanese Americans Japanese relocation Executive Order 9066 (February 19, 1942) FDR authorized the War Department to declare the West Coast a "war theater". 110,000 people of Japanese ancestry were forcibly put into internment camps (concentration camps). Pearl Harbor left public paranoid that people of Japanese ancestry living in California might help Japan. One-third of Japanese who were forced into the internment camps were Issei foreign born Two-thirds of Japanese who were forced into the internment camps were Nisei American born. SS.912.A.6.4 Examine efforts to expand or contract rights for various populations during World War II. Slide 13 Early Defeats- US lost land in the Philippines to Japan Bataan Death March 85-mile forced march of U.S. GIs who were tortured and eventually burned alive. Early Defeats in Europe and Africa German submarines sunk 8 million tons worth of allied supplies Germans were as far east as Stalingrad by fall 1942, and as deep as El Alamein, Egypt WWII Course Slide 14 Battle of Stalingrad (September 1942) Perhaps most important battle of the war. First major Nazi defeat on land. The German army in retreat from the east until Berlin is occupied by the Russians in the spring of 1945. Turning Points Slide 15 Casablanca Conference (January 14-25, 1943) At the Casablanca Conference, Franklin D. Roosevelt and Winston Churchill met and agreed to invade Italy in the spring of 1943 and France later in the same year. The two leaders also agreed on the term of unconditional surrender when defeating the enemy. Winston Churchill opted for North African invasion instead. Stalin never forgave the Allies for not opening a second front earlier; USSR had to bear the full brunt of Nazi invasion. Diplomacy Slide 16 Moscow Conference (October 1943) Secretary of State Cordell Hull obtained Soviet agreement to enter the war against Japan after Germany was defeated and to participate in a world organization after the war was over. Tehran Conference (November 28-December 1, 1943) First meeting of the "Big Three" -- FDR, Stalin, and Churchill Allies agree to an invasion of the Western Europe in 1944. Initial planning for Operation Overlord. Stalin reaffirmed the Soviet commitment to enter the war against Japan and discussed coordination of the Soviet offensive with the Allied invasion of France. Diplomacy Slide 17 North Africa -- "Operation Torch" - led by General Eisenhower, November 8, 1943 British had been desperately fighting German Panzer (tanks) divisions in North Africa since 1941. Germans led by General Irwin Rommel (the "Desert Fox") November 1943, 100,000 Allied troops invaded North Africa in Algeria and Morocco (Casablanca) Major victory at the Battle of El Alamein (Egypt) signaled end of the Nazi presence in North Africa Turning Points Slide 18 Invasion of Italy (commanded by US General George C. Patton) July 10, 1943, British and U.S. forces land on Sicily; victorious within 1 month Mussolini forced out of power by officials within the Fascist Party and was now on the run. Two years later, he and his mistress were shot to death, beat up, lynched upside down, spat on by the people and then quartered. June 4, 1944 -- Allies march into Rome First capital city freed from Nazi control Other parts of Italy remain under Nazi control until May 2, 1945. Europe Slide 19 D-Day (June 6, 1944) -- "Operation Overlord Planned and commanded by General Dwight D. Eisenhower 120,000 troops left England and landed at 5 beachheads at Normandy Coast (NW France). 800,000 more men within 3 weeks; 3 million total Casualties during D-Day: 2,245 Allies killed; 1,670 wounded Europe Slide 20 Invasion of Germany Pre-invasion bombing To soften up the Germans for the impending Allied invasion of Germany, the U.S. and Great Britain bombed many major German cities and vital factories, oil refineries and railroads. Berlin was consistently bombed, Hamburg, Dresden and Nuremburg were all but wiped out by the bombing in the summer 1943. Other major cities and targets were repeatedly bombed as well. Allied invasion in September 1944 initially repelled by Germany, but eventually the Allies took the upper hand. Europe Slide 21 Battle of the Bulge (December 16, 1944) Germans launched last major offensive on U.S. positions in Belgium and Luxembourg; U.S. casualties: nearly 80,000 General George Patton and his 101st Airborne Division stopped Hitlers last gasp counter-offensive By January, the Allies were once more advancing toward Germany. Europe Slide 22 Battle of the Coral Sea (May 1942) entire battle fought with aircraft. Japan prevented from successfully invading New Guinea and Australia. Battle of Midway (June 4-7, 1942) turning point in the Pacific war Allies broke the Japanese code. Japan lost 4 aircraft carriers (of 10)--7 of 11 other ships destroyed; 250 planes. Significance: Japan no longer had any hopes of attacking U.S. mainland. Yet, Japanese-Americans still in internment camps. Japan Slide 23 Island Hopping campaign begins in 1943 eventually pushed Japanese forces a