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    Staff Ride Guide

    BATTLEOF

    FIRST BULL RUN

    TED BALLARD

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    Staff Ride Guide

    BATTLE

    OF

    FIRST BULL RUN

    by

    Ted Ballard

    CENTER OF MILITARY HISTORY

    UNITED STATES ARMY

    WASHINGTON, D.C., 2007

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    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Ballard, Ted.Battle of First Bull Run / by Ted Ballard.

    p. cm. (Staff ride guide)Includes bibliographical references. (p. ).

    1. Bull Run, 1st Battle of, Va., 1861. I. Center of MilitaryHistory. II. Title. III. Series.E472.18.B23 2004973.731dc22

    2003018820

    First Printed 2004CMH Pub 3521

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    FOREWORD

    The U.S. Army has long used the staff ride as a tool for professionaldevelopment, conveying the lessons of the past to contemporary soldiers.In 1906 Maj. Eben Swift took twelve officer-students from FortLeavenworths General Service and Staff School to the Chickamaugabattlefield on the Armys first official staff ride. Since that time Armyeducators have employed staff rides to provide officers a better under-

    standing of past military operations, of the vagaries of war, and of mili-tary planning. A staff ride to an appropriate battlefield can also enliven aunits esprit de corpsa constant objective in peacetime or war.

    To support such Army initiatives, the Center of Military History pub-lishes staff ride guides, such as this one on the Battle of First Bull Run.This account is drawn principally from contemporary after action reportsand from the sworn testimony of participants before the Joint Committeeon the Conduct of the War, a congressional entity created to investigate

    the Union defeats at First Bull Run and Balls Bluff.A First Bull Run staff ride can offer significant military lessons.Revisiting this battle through the eyes of the men who were there, bothleaders and rank-and-file soldiers, allows one insights into decision mak-ing under pressure and the human condition during battle. The campaigncontains many lessons in command and control, communications, intelli-gence, logistics, the accommodation of advances in weapon technology,and mobilization in the absence of universal military training.

    First Bull Run was a first battlea major engagement after a pro-longed period of peace. For some it constitutes a metaphor of the pricepaid for military unpreparedness. Hopefully, this volume will prove auseful tool for those conducting a staff ride to First Bull Run.

    Washington, D.C. JOHN S. BROWN30 October 2003 Brigadier General, USA

    Chief of Military History

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    THE AUTHOR

    Ted Ballard has been a historian with the U.S. Army Centerof Military History since 1980 and a part of the Centers staff rideprogram since 1986. Battle of Fi rst Bull Runjoins his other battlefieldguides to Balls Bluff, Second Bull Run, Antietam, Fredericksburg,Chancellorsville, Gettysburg, and Wilderness/Spotsylvania. In additionto being the author of numerous articles on military history, he was a con-

    tributor to the Centers publication, The Stor y of the NoncommissionedOfficer Corps; the author ofRhineland, a brochure in the Centers seriescommemorating the fiftieth anniversary of World War II; and a contribu-tor to the U.S. Army Training and Doctrine Command publication,American Mili tary Her itage, and to the Virginia Army National Guardpublication, The Tradition Continues: A History of the Virginia NationalGuard, 16071985.

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    PREFACE

    On 16 July 1861, the largest army ever assembled on the NorthAmerican continent up to that time marched from the vicinity ofWashington, D.C., toward Manassas Junction, thirty miles to the south-west. Commanded by newly promoted Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell, theUnion force consisted of partly trained militia with ninety-day enlistments(almost untrained volunteers) and three newly organized battalions of

    Regulars. Many soldiers, unaccustomed to military discipline or roadmarches, left the ranks to obtain water, gather blackberries, or simply torest as the march progressed.

    Near Manassas, along a meandering stream known as Bull Run, wait-ed the similarly untrained Confederate army commanded by Brig. Gen.Pierre G. T. Beauregard. This army would soon be joined by anotherConfederate force, commanded byGeneral Joseph E. Johnston.

    After a minor clash of arms on 18 July, McDowell launched the firstmajor land battle of the Civil War by attempting to turn the Confederateleft flank on 21 July. A series of uncoordinated and sometimes confusingattacks and counterattacks by both sides finally ended in a defeat for theUnion Army and its withdrawal to Washington.

    The Battle of First Bull Run highlighted many of the problems anddeficiencies that were typical of the first year of the war. Units were com-mitted piecemeal, attacks were frontal, infantry failed to protect exposedartillery, tactical intelligence was nil, and neither commander was able toemploy his whole force effectively. McDowell, with 35,000 men, wasonly able to commit about 18,000, and the combined Confederate forces,with about 32,000 men, committed only 18,000.

    A First Bull Run staff ride can provide many lessons in command andcontrol, communications, intelligence, weapons technology versus tactics,and the ever-present fog of battle. Hopefully, participants will see howdecisions made by the various commanders can influence tactical out-comes, how terrain shapes engagements, and how technology, tactics, andorganization interact in a battlefield setting.

    Several persons assisted in the creation of this staff ride guide. At theU.S. Army Center of Military History, Linda F. Moten and Diane SedoreArms of the Editorial Branch edited the manuscript, and in the GraphicsBranch Teresa K. Jameson designed the final product. S. L. Dowdy turnedsketch maps into finished products. John J. Hennessy, AssistantSuperintendent, Fredericksburg and Spotsylvania National Military Park,

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    was kind enough to review the narrative for historical accuracy. Mythanks go to all.

    In the narrative the names of Confederate personnel and units appearin italic type, Union personnel and units in regular type. Any errors thatremain in the text are the sole responsibility of the author.

    Washington, D.C. TED BALLARD30 October 2003

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    Page

    First Bull Run: An Overview . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3Prelude to Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 3The Battle. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Summary. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 35

    Further Readings . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 37Chronology . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 38Order of Battle, 21 July 1861 . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 45Casualties. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 51Organization. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52Tactics . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54

    Infantry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 54Artillery. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55

    Cavalry. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 55Small Arms . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 56Artillery . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Arti ll ery Projectiles. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60

    Logistics. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 62U.S. Army Bureau System. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 63Supply Operations. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 64

    Selected Biographical Sketches. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Union Officers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Confederate Officers. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72

    Suggested Stops. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 79

    Maps

    No.

    1. Order of Battle, Mid-July 1861. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 52. Beauregards Defensive Situation, Mid-July 1861. . . . . . 73. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situation

    05300600. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 13

    vii

    CONTENTS

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    No. Page

    4. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situationat 10301100. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 17

    5. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situationat 11001130. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 196. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situation

    at 12001230. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 217. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situation

    at 1300. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 238. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situation

    at 14301500. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 25

    9. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situationat 1500. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 27

    10. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situationat 1530. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 31

    11. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situationat 1600. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 33

    12. Battle of First Bull Run, 21 July 1861, Situationat 16301730. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 34

    Illustrations

    Ruins of the Cub Run Bridge . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 11Ruins of the Stone Bridge. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 14Sudley Ford . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 15Henry House . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 26

    Stone House. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 30Cannon Firing Positions . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 58Artillery Projectiles . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 60Irvin McDowell . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 68Ambrose E. Burnside. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 69Erasmus Keyes. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 71Daniel Tyler. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 72Pierre G. T. Beauregard. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 73

    Joseph E. Johnston. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 74Thomas J. Stonewall Jackson. . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 75Nathan G. Evans . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . . 76

    Cover: Capture of Ricketts Batteryby Sidney E. King, courtesy of

    William V. Fleitz, Manassas National Battlefield Park.

    viii

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    BATTLE

    OF

    FIRST BULL RUN

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    FIRST BULL RUN: AN OVERVIEW

    Prelude to Battle

    On 15 April 1861, the day after South Carolina military forces hadattacked and captured Fort Sumter in Charleston Harbor, PresidentAbraham Lincoln issued a proclamation declaring an insurrection against

    the laws of the United States. Earlier, South Carolina and seven otherSouthern states had declared their secession from the Union and formedthe Confederate States of America.

    To suppress the rebellion and restore Federal law in the Southernstates, Lincoln called for 75,000 volunteers with ninety-day enlistmentsto augment the existing U.S. Army of about 15,000. He later accepted anadditional 40,000 volunteers with three-year enlistments and increasedthe strength of the U.S. Army to almost 20,000. Lincolns actions caused

    four more Southern states, including Virginia, to secede and join theConfederacy, and by 1 June the Confederate capital had been moved fromMontgomery, Alabama, to Richmond, Virginia.

    In Washington, D.C., as thousands of volunteers rushed to defendthe capital, General in Chief Lt. Gen. Winfield Scott laid out his strate-gy to subdue the rebellious states. He proposed that an army of 80,000men be organized and sail down the Mississippi River and capture NewOrleans. While the Army strangled the Confederacy in the west, the

    U.S. Navy would blockade Southern ports along the eastern and Gulfcoasts. The press ridiculed what they dubbed as Scotts AnacondaPlan. Instead, many believed the capture of the Confederate capital atRichmond, only one hundred miles south of Washington, would quick-ly end the war.1

    By July 1861 thousands of volunteers were camped in and aroundWashington. Since General Scott was seventy-five years old and phys-

    3

    1 Report of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, 3 vols. (Washington, D.C.:

    Government Printing Office, 1863) (hereafter cited as RJCCW), 1:37; Maurice Matloff,ed., Ameri can Mi li tary History, Army Historical Series (Washington, D.C.: U.S. Army

    Center of Military History, 1973), p. 193; U.S. War Department, The War of the

    Rebell ion: A Compil ation of the Offi cial Records of the Union and Confederate Armies

    (Washington, D.C.: Government Printing Office, 1893) (hereafter cited asOR), ser. 1, vol.

    51, p. 369.

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    ically unable to lead this force, the administration searched for a moresuitable field commander. Secretary of the Treasury Salmon P. Chasechampioned fellow Ohioan, 42-year-old Maj. Irvin McDowell.Although McDowell was a West Point graduate, his command experi-ence was limited. In fact, he had spent most of his career engaged invarious staff duties in the Adjutant Generals Office. While stationed inWashington he had become acquainted with Chase, a former Ohio gov-ernor and senator. Now, through Chases influence, McDowell was pro-moted three grades to brigadier general in the Regular Army and on 27May was assigned command of the Department of NortheasternVirginia, which included the military forces in and aroundWashington.2 (Map 1)

    McDowell immediately began organizing what became known as theArmy of Northeastern Virginia, 35,000 men arranged in five divisions.Brig. Gen. Daniel Tylers 1st Division, the largest in the army, containedfour brigades, led by Brig. Gen. Robert C. Schenck, Col. Erasmus Keyes,Col. William T. Sherman, and Col. Israel B. Richardson. Col. DavidHunter commanded the 2d Division of two brigades. These were led byCols. Andrew Porter and Ambrose E. Burnside. Col. Samuel P.Heintzelman commanded three brigades of the 3d Division, led by Cols.

    William B. Franklin, Orlando B. Willcox, and Oliver O. Howard. The 4thDivision, commanded by Brig. Gen. Theodore Runyon, contained sevenregiments of New Jersey and one regiment of New York volunteerinfantries. Col. Dixon S. Miles 5th Division contained two brigades,commanded by Cols. Louis Blenker and Thomas A. Davies. McDowellsarmy also had ten batteries of artillery and a battalion of Regular cavalry.

    Under public and political pressure to begin offensive operations,McDowell was given very little time to train the newly inducted troops.

    Units were instructed in the maneuvering of regiments, but they receivedlittle or no training at the brigade or division level. In fact, on one occa-sion, when McDowell reviewed eight infantry regiments at one time, thevisiting General Scott chastised him for trying to make a big show.3

    While McDowell organized the Army of Northeastern Virginia, asmaller Union command was organized and stationed northwest ofWashington, near Harpers Ferry. Commanded by Maj. Gen. RobertPatterson, 18,000 men of the Department of Pennsylvania protected

    against a Confederate incursion from the Shenandoah Valley. Althoughalmost seventy years old and a veteran of the War of 1812 and theMexican War, Patterson had been given a three-month volunteer officers

    4

    2 OR, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 653.3 RJCCW, 1:243.

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    5

    ORANGE

    AN

    DALEX

    ANDR

    IAR

    R

    LOUDOU

    N AND HAM

    PSHIRE RR

    BA LTIMORE AND OHIO RR

    MANASSAS GAP RR

    X X X X

    PATTERSON

    (18,000)

    X X X X

    MCDOWELL(35,000)

    X X X X

    JOHNSTON(12,000)

    X X X X

    BEAUREGARD(22,000)

    P

    O

    T

    O

    MACRIVER

    Rapp

    ahan

    nock Rive

    r

    O ccoquan River

    Potom

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    Sh

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    River

    Bu

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    Run

    Winchester

    Harpers Ferry

    Frederick

    Leesburg

    Front Royal

    Warrenton

    Manassas Junction

    CentrevilleALEXANDRIA

    WASHINGTON

    Orange C.H.

    CulpeperCourthouse

    SpotsylvaniaCourthouse

    StaffordCourthouse

    Fairfax Courthouse

    Fredericksburg

    Port Royal

    0 2010 30

    Miles

    Mid-July 1861

    ORDER OF BATTLE

    Confederate Force

    Union Force

    Map 1

    commission in April 1861 and now commanded a varied force of

    Pennsylvania volunteers.At Winchester, Virginia, southwest of Pattersons command, were

    12,000 Confederate troops of theArmy of the Shenandoahunder 54-year-oldGeneral Joseph E. Johnston. Before the war Johnstonhad served asquartermaster general of the United States Army. Now, as a Confederatecommander, he was charged with defending the Shenandoah Valley and,

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    if necessary, going to the support ofBrig. Gen. Pierr e G. T. Beauregardscommand at Manassas Junction. TheArmy of the Shenandoahconsistedof five infantry brigades: the 1st, commanded by Brig. Gen. Thomas J.Jackson; the 2d, commanded by Col. Francis S. Bartow; the 3d, com-manded by Brig. Gen. Barnard E. Bee; the 4th, commanded by Col.Arnold Elzey; and the5th, commanded byBrig. Gen. E. Ki rby Smith. Inaddition to the infantry, there were twenty pieces of artillery and about300 Virginia cavalrymen underCol. J. E. B. Stuart.

    Thirty miles southwest of Washington, at Manassas Junction, the22,000-man Confederate Army of the Potomacblocked McDowellsroute to Richmond and defended the junction of the Orange andAlexandria and Manassas Gap Railroads. That force was commanded by43-year-old General Beauregard, a former West Point classmate ofMcDowell. Beauregardhad commanded the Confederate troops that hadforced the surrender of Fort Sumter, and the Hero of Sumter had beenassigned to the Confederate army being organized at Manassas Junction.The Army of the Potomacwas organized into seven infantry brigades.These were the 1st Brigade, under Brig. Gen. Mi lledge L. Bonham; 2dBrigade, underBrig. Gen. Richard S. Ewell; 3d Brigade, underBrig. Gen.David R. Jones; 4th Brigade, under Br ig. Gen. James Longstreet; 5thBrigade, under Col. Phil ip St. George Cocke; 6th Brigade, under Col.Jubal A. Early; and 7th Brigade, under Col. Nathan G. Evans.Beauregards army also contained thirty-nine pieces of field artillery anda regiment of Virginia cavalry.

    Expecting McDowell to march on Manassas Junction by way ofCentreville, Beauregardbegan preparing a defensive position along thesouth bank of Bull Run, a small creek flowing into the Occoquan River.(Map 2) Beauregardplaced his right flank near the railroad bridge at

    Union Mills, extending the line northward over seven miles along BullRun to the Stone Bridge on the Warrenton Turnpike. General Ewellsbrigade was located near Union Mills; General Jones brigade was atMcLeans Ford, supported by the brigade of Colonel Ear ly; GeneralLongstreets brigade was placedat Blackburns Ford;General Bonhamsbrigade was at Mitchells Ford; Colonel Cockes brigade was betweenLewis and Balls fords; andColonel Evans brigade held the armys leftflank at the Stone Bridge on the Warrenton Turnpike.4

    McDowell planned to march his army toward Manassas Junction on9 July and, while Patterson held Johnstons army in the ShenandoahValley, defeat Beauregards command. However, a lack of sufficientsupplies postponed the maneuver for a week. Prior to the operation,

    6

    4 OR, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 485.

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    B

    E

    A

    U

    R

    E

    G

    A

    R

    D

    X

    EARLY

    X

    EVANS

    X

    COCKE

    X

    LONGSTREET

    X

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    X

    JONES

    XEWELL

    Bull

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    WARRENTON

    TURNPIKE

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    ASSA

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    Ball'sFord

    PoplarFord

    SudleyFord

    LewisFord

    Mitchells

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    McLean'sFord

    Centreville

    CubRun

    Bridge

    SudleySprings

    Doganhouse

    Matthews

    house

    G

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    arket

    Henryhouse

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    UnionMills

    S

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    ORANGE

    AND

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    GAP

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    UNFINIS

    HEDR

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    0

    2

    1

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    Miles

    BEAU

    REGARD'SDEFENSIVES

    ITUATION

    Mid-July1861

    Map2

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    8

    McDowell warned the War Department that unless Johnstonwas pre-vented from reinforcingBeauregard, McDowell felt he had little chanceof victory. General Scott assured McDowell that ifJohnstondid manageto slip out of the valley he would have Patterson on his heels.5

    Finally, on 16 July, McDowells army headed for Manassas Junction.Amid cries of On to Richmond, the excited soldiers marched south,confident that in a few days the war would be over, won by one grand bat-tle. Since some of his regiments wore gray uniforms like many of theConfederate units, McDowell ordered that U.S. flags be displayed promi-nently at all times to prevent units from firing at each other.6

    By the following day General Beauregardhad been alerted to theUnion advance and asked the Confederate government for reinforce-ments. An independent infantry brigade stationed at Fredericksburg,commanded by Brig. Gen. Theophilus H. Holmes, was ordered toManassas Junction, and in Richmond six companies of South Carolinainfantry of the independentHampton Legion, commanded byCol. WadeHampton, boarded trains and hurried north.

    McDowell had hoped to have his army at Centreville by 17 July, butthe troops, unaccustomed to marching, moved in starts and stops. Alongthe route soldiers often broke ranks to wander off to pick apples or black-

    berries or to get water, regardless of the orders of their officers to remainin ranks. By 1130, 17 July, the head of McDowells army, Tylers divi-sion, had only reached Fairfax Courthouse. McDowell wanted the men topush on to Centreville, but they were too exhausted to continue andcamped near Fairfax.

    It was not until 1100 on 18 July that Tylers division arrived atCentreville. While McDowell brought up the rest of the army, Tyler wasordered to observe the roads to Bull Run and Warrenton but under no cir-

    cumstances to bring on an engagement. However, Tyler led a portion ofColonel Richardsons brigade to Blackburns Ford where it becameengaged with troops of General Longstreet. An aide to McDowell,accompanying the expedition, reminded Tyler of the commanding gener-als admonition not to bring on an engagement, but Tyler ordered up theremainder of Richardsons brigade. After a brief clash Richardsonsbrigade fell back to Centreville. Union casualties at what became knownas the Battle of Blackburns Ford were eighty-three killed, wounded, and

    missing. The Confederates suffered fifteen killed and fifty-three wound-ed, of which several later died.7

    5 RJCCW, 1:36.6 OR, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 305.7 Ibid., pp. 314, 446.

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    At Centreville McDowell personally rebuked Tyler for exceeding hisorders. McDowell had been considering launching an attack against theConfederate right flank, east of Union Mills, but after Tylers actionMcDowell feared Beauregardhad strengthened his right flank.McDowell began looking for a way around the Confederate left, near theWarrenton Turnpike. The narrow Stone Bridge carried turnpike trafficacross Bull Run, but McDowell believed the bridge was heavily minedand sent engineers farther north, looking for another crossing point.

    Also on the morning of 18 JulyJohnstonhad received a telegram sug-gesting he go to Beauregards assistance if possible. Johnstonmarchedout of Winchester about noon, whileStuarts cavalry screened the move-ment from Patterson. Patterson was completely deceived. One hour afterJohnstons departure Patterson telegraphed Washington, I have suc-ceeded, in accordance with the wishes of the General-in-Chief, in keep-ing General Johnstons force at Winchester.8

    About 0730 on 19 July, the first ofJohnstons command arrived atPiedmont Station (now Delaplane), a stop on the Manassas Gap Railroad.An hour and a half later Jacksons brigade was the first to board cars anddepart for Manassas Junction, arriving late in the afternoon. Bartowsbrigade followed shortly thereafter. The following morning, 20 July, Bee

    and a portion of his brigade, accompanied by Johnston, departed the sta-tion and arrived at Manassas Junction about noon. Johnston, being seniortoBeauregard, assumed command of all Confederate forces at the junc-tion, with his headquarters at the nearby Lewis house.9 General Smithremained at Piedmont to expedite the loading and transportation of theremainder ofJohnstons command. WhileJohnstons infantry continuedto move by rail, the cavalry and artillery continued to Manassas Junctionby road.

    The same day that Johnstonarrived at Manassas Junction, more ofMcDowells troops arrived at Centreville. The divisions of ColonelsMiles, Heintzelman, and Hunter arrived at the village and camped eastand southeast of the town. The division of General Runyon was posi-tioned between Fairfax and Alexandria, guarding the Orange andAlexandria Railroad. Also on 20 July McDowells engineers reported twofavorable crossing sites on Bull Run north of the Stone Bridge. The first,Poplar Ford, was a mile north of the bridge, and the other, Sudley Ford,

    was two miles north of the bridge. Still believing the Confederates hadstrengthened their right flank, McDowell decided to feint toward

    9

    8 Ibid., p. 168.9Joseph E. Johnston, Narrative of Mi li tary Operations . . . (New York: D. Appleton,

    1874), pp. 3738.

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    Blackburns Ford and the Stone Bridge while his main attacking forcemarched around the Confederate left flank.

    For the maneuver to be successful McDowell felt he needed to actquickly. He had already begun to hear rumors that Johnstonhad slippedout of the valley and was headed for Manassas Junction. If the rumorswere true, McDowell might soon be facing 34,000 Confederates, insteadof 22,000. Another reason for quick action was McDowells concern thatthe ninety-day enlistments of many of his regiments were about to expire.In a few days I will lose many thousands of the best of this force, hewrote Washington on the eve of battle. In fact, the next morning two unitsof McDowells command, their enlistments expiring that day, would turna deaf ear to McDowells appeal to stay a few days longer. Instead, to thesounds of battle, they would march back to Washington to be musteredout of service.10

    McDowell planned his attack for early the following morning.Richardsons brigade, along with the brigade of Colonel Davies of Milesdivision, would feint toward Blackburns Ford. Tylers other brigades,Sherman, Keyes, and Schenck, would feint toward the Stone Bridge onthe Warrenton Turnpike. Miles other brigade, commanded by ColonelBlenker, would remain in reserve at Centreville. While the attention of

    the Confederates was occupied east of Bull Run, Hunters andHeintzelmans divisions, 13,000 men and 20 cannon, would march northaround the Confederate left. Hunter would cross the stream at SudleyFord, while Heintzelman would cross at Poplar Ford and align onHunters left. Then, both divisions would march south to the WarrentonTurnpike. It was a workable plan but depended on the flanking forcemoving quickly before the Confederates discovered the ruse. McDowellordered the march to begin at 0230 the following day and planned for

    Hunters column to cross Sudley Ford by 0700.11

    Meanwhile, Johnstonwas concerned that Patterson might have fol-lowed him from the valley and expressed to Beauregardhis desire toattack McDowell as soon as possible. Beauregardsuggested an attackagainst the Union left flank. Ewellwould advance across Bull Run atUnion Mills, while the commands of Longstreetand Jonescrossed atBlackburns and McLeans Fords, respectively, and fell in onEwells left.The three brigades would then march north to Centreville and attempt to

    turn McDowells left flank. JohnstonaskedBeauregardto place the planin writing and he would approve it, which was done at 0430 the next day.12

    10

    10 OR, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 308.11 Ibid., p. 318;RJCCW, 1:5, 39.12 OR, ser. 1, vol. 2, pp. 36265.

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    The Battle

    About 0230 on Sunday, 21 July, units of McDowells army beganleaving their camps at Centreville. From the start the march was besetwith delays. Tylers division moved onto the Warrenton Turnpike first,which delayed the movement of the flanking columns of Hunter andHeintzelman. Tyler, stung by his rebuke from McDowell two days earli-er, took his time and moved cautiously westward. Traveling with Tylersdivision was a 2 1/2-ton, 30-pounder Parrott rifle. When it arrived at the

    Cub Run Bridge, there was concern the structure might not hold the gunsweight. The column halted while engineers reinforced the bridge, causingfurther delay.

    It was not until 0530 that the rear of Tylers column finally crossedCub Run Bridge, allowing Hunter and Heintzelman to cross and begintheir march north toward Sudley and Poplar fords. (Map 3) The twocommanders discovered, however, that the route chosen by the engi-neers soon turned into a little-used footpath through the woods. With

    frequent halts to clear trees and brush, the column slowly worked itsway northward.

    At 0600 the head of Tylers column reached the vicinity of the StoneBridge. Shermans brigade deployed to the north side of the pike, whileSchencks brigade moved to the south side. Keyes brigade remained onthe turnpike, some distance in the rear in reserve. Tyler began his demon-

    11

    Ruins of the Cub Run Br idge (Library of Congress)

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    12

    stration by having the 30-pounder Parrott rifle, joined by his otherartillery, open fire across Bull Run.

    On the west side of Bull Run, near the Stone Bridge, waited the 1,100-man brigade of 37-year-old Colonel Evans. Evans, a West Point gradu-ate, was known as a tough, profane fighter and a hard drinker. Evanscommand consisted of the4th South Caroli na Infantryand the1st SpecialLouisiana Infantry Battalionand two guns of theLynchburg Arti ll ery. AsUnion shells crashed in and around his command,Evanskept his men outof sight. After a while, with Union artillery eliciting no Confederateresponse, Tyler ordered skirmishers forward. Evansresponded with hisown skirmishers and sent word to Beauregardthat he was under attack.

    With no indication that the activity near Stone Bridge was anythingbut a small unit action, Beauregardcontinued with his plan to attackMcDowells left at Centreville. Johnston, however, grew concernedabout the growing sound of battle in the direction of the Stone Bridge anddecided to send forces closer to the bridge as a precaution. About 0700 heordered the brigades ofBeeand Bartow, south of Blackburns Ford, tosupportEvans, whileJacksons brigade, also south of Blackburns Ford,was ordered to a position between Balls and Mitchells fords where itcould support either the brigades of Cockeor Bonham.The HamptonLegion, having just arrived from Richmond, was also ordered byBeauregardto march in the direction of the Stone Bridge. Elsewhere,Stuarts cavalry, with about 300 troopers, guarded possible crossing sitesalong Bull Run between Mitchells and Balls fords, and Holmesbrigade, having arrived from Fredericksburg two days earlier, had beenplaced in support ofEwells brigade at Union Mills.

    Despite the shift of these troops away from his right, Beauregardpro-ceeded with his attack plan. About 0700 he had sent orders for Ewell,

    Jones, andLongstreetto cross Bull Run and move together to Centreville.Upon receipt of their orders Jonesand Longstreetcrossed the creek andwaited. However, for reasons unexplained, Ewellfailed to receive hiscopy of the order. By 0800, when JohnstonandBeauregardmoved nearMitchells Ford in preparation for the attack, Ewellwas still waiting onthe south side of Bull Run.

    As the sun rose higher in the sky scores of civilians, many travelingfrom Washington, began arriving on the heights at Centreville, all eager

    to witness the coming battle. Carriages containing congressmen and theirfamilies, reporters, and others crowded the roads and fields, eager to geta good view. Six miles to the west the smoke and noise of Tylers demon-stration at the Stone Bridge maintained a sense of excitement.

    While Tylers division skirmished with Evansand Beauregardsflank attack stalled, Hunters and Heintzelmans columns struggled

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    X

    JACKSON

    XBEE

    X

    BARTOW

    X

    HOLMES

    XEWE

    LL

    X

    EVANS

    III

    STUART

    X

    COCKE

    X

    LONGSTREET

    X

    BONHAM

    X

    JONES

    XEARLY

    XX

    HUNTER

    XX

    HEINTZELMAN

    X

    BLENKER

    (Miles'Division)

    X

    DAVIES

    (Miles'Division)

    XX

    TYLER

    (Schenck,Keyes,Sherman)

    X

    RICHARDSON

    (Tyler'sDivision)

    J

    O

    H

    N

    S

    T

    O

    N

    B

    E

    A

    U

    R

    E

    G

    A

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    C

    D

    O

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    E

    L

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    llRu

    n

    Cub Ru

    n

    Yo

    un

    gsBr

    an

    ch

    B

    ull

    Ru

    n

    WARRENTON

    TURNPIKE

    MAN

    ASSA

    S-

    SUDL

    EY

    ROAD

    Ball'sFordL

    ewisFord

    Mitchells

    Ford

    Blackburn'sFord

    McLean'sFord

    P

    oplarFord

    SudleyFord

    Centreville

    SudleySprings

    Groveton

    N

    ewMarket

    UnionMills

    StoneBridge

    CubRu

    n

    Bridge

    Doganhouse

    Henryhouse

    Lewishouse

    Stonehouse

    Matthews

    house

    ORANGE

    AND

    ALEXANDRIA

    R

    R

    MANASSAS

    GAP

    RR

    UNFIN

    ISHED

    RR

    0

    2

    1

    3

    Miles

    Situation05300600

    BATTLEOFFIRSTBULLRUN

    21July1861

    UnionMovement

    Map3

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    14

    13 Gary W. Gallagher, ed., Fighting for the Confederacy: The Personal Recoll ections ofGeneral Edward Porter Alexander(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina Press,1989), p. 50.

    along the narrow wooded trail toward the northern fords. By 0800 the

    firing at the Stone Bridge had been going on for two hours, and Evanswas growing uneasy that the action in his front might be a feint for anattack elsewhere. About 0830Capt. E. Porter Al exander, commandinga Confederate signal station near the junction, was receiving a messagefrom near the Stone Bridge when he noticed a flash of light on the hori-zon, a few miles north of the bridge. He immediately identified thereflection as coming from a bronze field gun. A closer look also dis-covered the sun glinting off large numbers of bayonets. Alexanderhad

    spotted Hunters and Heintzelmans columns. He immediately sentEvansa message, Look out for your left. You are flanked.13 Evansquickly took the Louisiana battalion and nine hundred men of the 4thSouth Carol ina Infantryand headed in the direction of Sudley Ford.The remaining two hundred men of the South Carolina regiment stayedat the Stone Bridge. While Evans infantry moved to block the Unionflank march, one gun of the Lynchburg Arti l lerymoved to Buck Hill,north of the Stone house, and the other gun unlimbered just north of the

    turnpike, across the road from the home of a free African-American,James Robinson. Following a path from the Stone Bridge, Evans

    Ruins of the Stone Bridge, looking toward the position ofColonel Evans(www.geh.org)

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    deployed his small command on the southern slope of Matthews Hill

    to cover the Manassas-Sudley Road.Alexanderalso alerted Beauregardand Johnstonto the Union flank

    march. Stationed a half mile south of Mitchells Ford, the two command-ers were still waiting for word that Beauregards offensive had begun.AlthoughJohnstonwas apprehensive that the Union troops seen north ofthe Stone Bridge might be Pattersons force arriving from the valley, hedecided to continue with the attack on Centreville.

    About 0930, hours behind schedule, the head of Hunters column

    reached Sudley Ford. After a short halt to rest and replenish canteens themarch resumed, past the Sudley Church, where parishioners preparing forSunday service stopped to stare at the passing column. McDowell soonjoined the column and urged haste. Meanwhile, Heintzelmans divisionmissed the road to the crossing at Poplar Ford and continued to followHunter. The result would be that both divisions would enter the battle onebehind the other, rather than two abreast.

    Leading Hunters advance south from Sudley Ford was the brigade of

    Colonel Burnside. Burnsides command included the 1st and 2d RhodeIsland Infantries, which were accompanied by the governor of RhodeIsland, William Sprague. Sprague had come along to see how the RhodeIsland units acquitted themselves in battle. Also in Burnsides brigadewere the 2d New Hampshire Infantry and the 71st New York Infantry, thelatter regiment dragging two 12-pounder boat howitzers borrowed from

    15

    Sudley Ford, with the Sudley Church in the background (Library of Congress)

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    the Washington Navy Yard. Burnsides brigade artillery, Company A, 1stRhode Island Light Artillery, was commanded by Capt. WilliamReynolds.

    About 1030 Burnsides command approached Matthews Hill andcame under fire fromEvans skirmishers on the crest. After a couple ofvolleys the Confederate skirmishers withdrew to Evans main commandon the southern slope. Burnside deployed his brigade, and Reynolds six,bronze, 14-pounder rifles unlimbered only 200 yards from Evans line,the batterys right resting on the Manassas-Sudley Road. (Map 4)Reynolds guns quickly became engaged with the two guns of theLynchburg Arti l leryto the south.

    While Burnside battled for Matthews Hill, the brigade of ColonelPorter arrived behind Burnsides line. Porters command consisted of the8th New York Infantry, 14th New York State Militia (known as the 14thBrooklyn), 27th New York Infantry, a U.S. Infantry Battalion, a U.S.Marine Corps Battalion, and a U.S. Cavalry Battalion. Battery D, 5th U.S.Artillery, commanded by Capt. Charles Griffin, completed the brigade.Shortly after Porters arrival, Hunter was wounded and carried to the rear,telling Burnside, I leave the matter in your hands.14

    About 1100 the brigades ofBeeandBartow(Beein overall command

    of both brigades) arrived near the Henry house. Although earlier orderedtoward the Stone Bridge, Beehad diverted his column toward the soundof the firing on Matthews Hill.Bees brigade contained the4th AlabamaInfantryand2d Mississippi Infantry(the6th North Carolina Infantryhadyet to arrive from Piedmont Station). Bartows command consisted of the7thand 8th Georgia Infantries. Although Bartows artillery, the WiseArtillery, had not accompanied the brigade, Beehad brought along hisStaunton Arti l lery, commanded byCapt. John Imboden. Imbodenunlim-

    bered his four 6-pounder smoothbores in a depression about one hundredyards north of the Henry house and opened long-range fire on the Unionartillery on Matthews Hill.

    Evanshad seen the arrival ofBeeandBartowon Henry Hill and rodeback to ask for support. Beewas at first reluctant, believing that HenryHill was a better defensive position, and suggested Evansfall backinstead. But Evanswas adamant and Beeordered the two brigades for-ward, where they extendedEvans right flank.

    After McDowell arrived on Matthews Hill to take command, Porterextended the Union line to Dogan Ridge, west of the Manassas-SudleyRoad. Griffins six guns and six guns of Battery I, 1st U.S. Artillery

    16

    14 August Woodbury, The Second Rhode Island Regiment: A Narrative of MilitaryOperations(Providence, R.I.: 1873), p. 33.

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    EVAN

    S

    2G

    uns

    LYNCHBURG

    ARTILLERY B

    ARTOW

    BEE

    4Guns

    IMBODEN

    REYNOLDS

    6Guns

    BURN

    SIDE

    Bu l l Ru n

    Yo

    u

    n

    g

    s

    B

    ra

    n

    ch

    BaseSource:TheOfficialMilitaryAtlasoftheCivilWar,PlateV,Map1.

    WARRENTONT

    URNPIKE

    M AN A

    SSAS

    -SUD

    LEY

    ROAD

    Matthewshouse

    Doganhouse

    Stonehouse

    Robinsonh

    ouse

    Stone

    Bridge

    VanPelt

    Henryhouse

    0

    5

    10

    15

    45

    30

    ScaleofChains

    Situationat10301100

    BA

    TTLEOFFIRSTBULLRU

    N

    21July1861

    Note:1Chain=22YardsC

    ontourInterval10feet

    Map4

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    (commanded by Capt. James D. Ricketts), of Franklins brigade, unlim-bered in front of Porters line and opened fire.

    With the fight growing in intensity on Matthews Hill, McDowell sentorders for Tyler to end his demonstration at the Stone Bridge and bringhis brigades across Bull Run. About 1130 Sherman crossed his brigade,the 13th, 69th, and 79th New York and 2d Wisconsin Infantries, at asmall ford several hundred yards north of the Stone Bridge. Tyler accom-panied Keyes brigade, consisting of the 2d Maine and 1st, 2d, and 3dConnecticut Infantries, and followed Sherman across Bull Run.Schencks brigade remained on the east side of the stream in reserve.

    On Matthews Hill Evans position was becoming untenable. Evenwith the assistance ofBees and Bartows brigades the Union line wasextending beyond both Evans flanks. Franklins and Willcoxsbrigades of Heintzelmans division were also arriving, with Howardsbrigade not far behind. Franklins brigade included the 5th and 11thMassachusetts and 1st Minnesota Infantries. Willcox brought along the11th and 38th New York and 1st and 4th Michigan Infantries. AlsoEvansreceived reports of Union forces (Tylers two brigades) crossingBull Run to his rear near the Stone Bridge. Outnumbered and out-flanked, Evansreluctantly gave the order to fall back to Henry Hill.

    (Map 5) The retreat was anything but orderly. Pounded by Unionartillery, the three Confederate brigades became disorganized and inter-mingled as they hurried south across the turnpike. The Confederatesrushed past the Robinson house and milled around southeast of thehouse while officers tried to reorganize the various units. Near theRobinson house the 600-man Hampton Legionarrived and set up adefensive position along the turnpike.

    It was now shortly before noon, and to McDowells men on

    Matthews Hill it seemed they had just won a great victory. TheConfederates appeared to be in full retreat. One of McDowells staff offi-cers rode around the field shouting, Victory, victory! We have done it!Some soldiers, just arriving, lamented the fact that the war might be overand they had missed all the excitement.15 Although McDowell joined inthe celebration, he had cause for concern, having learned from prisonersof war that at least a portion ofJohnstons army had arrived from the val-ley.16 Meanwhile, Burnside requested and received permission to with-

    draw his brigade to reorganize and replenish ammunition. The brigadewithdrew a short distance where it would remain in reserve for the rest ofthe day.

    18

    15 RJCCW, 1:201.16 Ibid., p. 40.

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    EVANS

    BEE

    BARTOW

    1 Gun

    LYNCHBURG ARTILLERY

    1 Gun

    LYNCHBURGARTILLERY

    WILLCOX

    FRAN

    KLIN

    KEYES

    SHERM

    AN

    PORTER

    BURNSIDE

    6 GunsREYNOLDS

    12 Guns

    GRIFFINand RICKETTS

    Bull Ru n

    Youngs

    Bran

    ch

    Base Source: The Official Military Atlasof the Civil War, Plate V, Map 1.

    WA RR E N

    T O NT U R

    N P IK E M

    ANASSAS-SUDLEY

    ROAD

    L. Carterhouse

    Matthews house

    Dogan house

    Stone house

    Robinson house

    Henry house

    0 5 10 15 4530

    Scale of Chains

    Situation at 11001130

    BATTLE OF FIRST BULL RUN

    21 July 1861

    Note: 1 Chain = 22 Yards

    Contour Interval 10 feet

    Map 5

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    Near Blackburns FordJohnstonhad decided to ride toward the soundof fighting to the west. Any thought of a flank attack against Centrevillewas forgotten and the commands of Longstreetand Joneswere with-drawn to their former positions south of Bull Run. Beauregard, hisplanned attack in shambles, followed Johnston.

    About noonJacksons 2,600-man brigade arrived on Henry Hill. (Map6) Jacksonhad earlier been ordered to a position near Balls andMitchells fords but, likeBeeandBartow, marched instead to the sound offiring on Matthews Hill. Arriving southeast of the Henry house, Jacksonwas met by an excitedGeneral Bee, shouting that the Federals were driv-ing them back. Jacksonresponded calmly that his command would givethem the bayonet, then moved his regiments into position on the southeastslope of a ridgeline about 400 yards from the Henry house. On Jacksonsright, toward the Robinson house, Jacksonplaced the 5th VirginiaInfantry. On that regiments left the4th Vir ginia Infantrymoved into posi-tion, behind which was placed the27th Vir ginia Infantry. The2d VirginiaInfantryextendedJacksons line southward, and the33d Virginia Infantryheld Jacksons left flank near the Manassas-Sudley Road.17

    After Jacksons arrival Imbodens battery, nearly out of ammunition,began withdrawing from the vicinity of the Henry house. Jackson, how-

    ever, halted the unit and ordered it into position along the ridge in frontofJacksons line. Even out of ammunition the battery could at least givethe appearance of a threat. Shortly after Imbodenrelocated his battery,Beauregardand Johnstonarrived, bringing additional guns from variousbatteries they had encountered along the way. As Jacksongestured forImbodento go to the rear, Jacksonwas struck in the hand by a stray bul-let. Jacksonwrapped a handkerchief around his hand and assuredImbodenthe wound was only a scratcha mere scratch. Before with-

    drawing, Imbodenreceived permission to fire his last three rounds. Theyoung officer stood too close to the gun and suffered an injury that wouldcause permanent deafness in one ear. After Imbodens withdrawal, theguns brought by JohnstonandBeauregard, thirteen in all, were placed onthe ridge in front ofJacksons line.18

    Near the Robinson house Johnstonand Beauregardattempted toassist in rallying the remnants ofEvans, Bees, andBartows commands.

    20

    17 Henry Kyd Douglas, I Rode With Stonewall(Chapel Hill: University of North Carolina

    Press, 1940), p. 21.18John D. Imboden (Brig. Gen., Confederate States Army [CSA]), Incidents of the FirstBull Run, inBattles and Leaders of the Civil War(hereafter cited asB& L), ed. Clarence

    C. Buel and Robert U. Johnson, 4 vols. (New York: Century Co., 1884, 1887, 1888),1:23536.

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    (Remnants)

    EVA

    NS

    BEE

    BAR

    TOW

    JA

    CKS

    ON

    4Guns

    IMBODEN

    HAMPT

    ON

    LEGIO

    N

    5Va4Va

    2Va

    33Va

    27Va

    KEYES

    1Conn

    2Conn

    3Conn

    2Maine

    FRA

    NKL

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    BaseSource:TheOfficial

    MilitaryAtlasoftheCivilWar,PlateV,Map

    1.

    WARRENTONT

    URNPIKE

    MANA S

    S A S- S U

    D L EY

    R O AD

    Matthewshouse

    Doganhouse

    Stonehouse

    Robinsonhouse

    Stone

    Bridge

    VanPelt

    Henryhouse

    0

    5

    10

    15

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    30

    ScaleofChains

    Situationat12001230

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    ATTLEOFFIRSTBULLR

    UN

    21July1861

    Note:1Chain=22Yards

    ContourInterval10feet

    Map6

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    Discovering that all the officers of the 4th Alabama Infantryhad beenwounded, Johnstongrabbed the units colors and offered to lead the reg-iment personally, but Beauregardintervened and placed one of Beesaides in command of the Alabamians.19

    On Matthews Hill and Dogan Ridge the brigades of Burnside andPorter of Hunters division; Franklins, Willcoxs, and Howardsbrigades of Heintzelmans division; and Shermans brigade of Tylersdivision waited. McDowell made no immediate attempt to commit themto battle. Neither did McDowell give any orders to Keyes brigade, whichhad separated from Sherman and marched to Youngs Branch, just northof the Robinson house.

    On Henry Hill the Confederates worked to establish a strong defensefor an expected Union assault. Although Evans, Bees, and Bartowscommands were yet to be fully reorganized, Jacksons brigade and theartillery brought forward by Johnstonand Beauregardheld theConfederate left flank and center, while the Hampton LegiononJacksons right, held the high ground around the Robinson house. Withthe situation on Henry Hill stabilized, Beauregardsuggested thatJohnston, although senior in command, return to his headquarters at theLewis house and forward reinforcements to the battlefield. As Johnston

    later reported, he assigned Beauregardcommand of the armys leftwing, while Johnstonretained overall army command. Johnstonthenrode back to his headquarters to hasten more troops to Henry Hill.20

    While the Confederates brought up reinforcements to Henry Hill andMcDowell rested his troops on Matthews Hill, Tyler was about to get thebattle restarted. After crossing Bull Run Tyler had led Keyes brigade toa position along Youngs Branch, north of the Robinson house. Withoutany consultation with McDowell, Tyler ordered Keyes to attack the

    Henry Hill. About 1300 Keyes left the 1st and 2d Connecticut Infantriesin reserve and sent the 2d Maine and 3d Connecticut Infantries across theturnpike and into the yard of the Robinson house. (Map 7) TheHamptonLegionfell back and Keyes regiments soon confronted Jacksons 5thVirginia Infantry. The 2d Maine Infantry and5th Vir ginia Infantrywereboth uniformed in gray, and they hesitated to open fire on one another.But the Virginians took only a brief moment to determine the identity ofthe Maine regiment and opened the fight with a volley. For almost twen-

    ty minutes the two sides exchanged shots, with the Virginians, joined bythe Hampton Legion, firing from the wood line, while the Maine andConnecticut regiments remained in the open ground around the Robinson

    22

    19 OR, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 492.20 Ibid., p. 475.

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    J

    AC

    KS

    ON

    5Va

    HAMPTON

    LEGIO

    N

    4Va

    27Va

    2Va33Va

    13Guns

    (from

    variousbatteries)

    (Remnants)

    E

    VANS

    BEE

    BARTOW

    1Conn2Con

    n

    KEYES

    2Maine

    3C

    onn

    FRA

    NKLIN

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    MAN

    WIL

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    PO

    RTER

    BUR

    NSID

    E

    Bull Run

    Young

    sBr

    anc

    h

    BaseSource:TheOfficialMilitaryAtlasoftheCivilWar,PlateV,Map1.

    WARRENTONT

    URNPIKE

    MANA S

    SA S- S U

    D L EY

    R O AD

    Doganhouse

    Stonehouse

    Robinso

    n

    house

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    Bridge

    VanPe

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    Henryhouse

    0

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    ScaleofChains

    Situationat1300

    BA

    TTLEOFFIRSTBULLRU

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    ontourInterval10feet

    Map7

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    house. Instead of committing the rest of his brigade as support, Keyesordered the 2d Maine and 3d Connecticut Infantries to withdraw. Theentire brigade then shifted east toward the Stone Bridge where itremained out of the fight for the rest of the day. Keyes withdrawal wasfollowed by another, short lull in the battle.

    About 1400, almost two hours after the Union victory on MatthewsHill, McDowell finally issued orders for a forward movement. But itwas not for a general advance. Instead, he ordered Maj. William F.Barry, the Union armys chief of artillery, to send the batteries ofGriffin and Ricketts from Dogan Ridge to Henry Hill. Both Griffin andRicketts protested the move. Placement of the guns on Henry Hillwould bring the artillery perilously close to the Confederate line. Thebattery commanders asked that they be sent to the high ground west ofHenry Hill (Chinn Ridge).21The order stood, however, and the two bat-teries, with Griffin leaving a disabled gun behind, limbered up andheaded for Henry Hill.

    The guns rumbled across the turnpike and up the Manassas-SudleyRoad, with Ricketts unlimbering his left gun a hundred yards south of theHenry house. When Confederate sharpshooters in the house opened fireon Ricketts men and horses, Ricketts ordered his guns to fire into the

    house, mortally wounding the 85-year-old, bed-ridden widow JudithHenry.22 Griffins five guns soon unlimbered just north of the Henryhouse, and his and Ricketts batteries began a close-range artillery duelwith the Confederate artillery along Jacksons line, only three hundredyards away. One of the Union shells exploded near Beauregard, killinghis horse and knocking the heel from one of his boots.23

    Shortly after the two Union batteries were in position, infantry fromHeintzelmans division, ordered up by Major Barry, began to arrive on

    Henry Hill. (Map 8) To support Ricketts battery, Willcoxs 11th NewYork Infantry moved into position behind and slightly to the south of theguns. Franklins 1st Minnesota Infantry moved farther south and fell inon the New Yorkers right. The two infantry regiments suddenly foundthemselves confronting the33d Virginia Infantryon the left ofJacksonsline. Unsure of one anothers identity, the units eyed each other briefly.The confusion resulted from the fact that the New York regiment wasdressed in gray and the Virginians were still wearing civilian clothes.

    Both sides soon opened fire, and the New Yorkers and Minnesotans fellback to the Manassas-Sudley Road.

    24

    21 RJCCW, 1:169.22 Imboden, Incidents of the First Bull Run, inB& L, 1:234.23 Pierre G. T. Beauregard (General, CSA), The First Battle of Bull Run, inB& L, 1:211.

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    (Remnants)

    EVANS

    BEE

    BARTOW

    HAMPTON

    LEGIO

    N27V

    a

    33Va

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    4Va5Va

    STUART

    J

    A

    C

    KS

    ON

    KEYES

    11NY

    1Minn

    SHER

    MAN

    HOW

    ARD

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    5Guns

    GRIFFIN

    6Guns

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    URNPIKE

    MAN A S

    S A S- S U

    D L EY

    R O AD

    Doganh

    ouse

    Stonehouse

    Robinson

    house

    Lewishouse

    Stone

    Bridge

    VanPelthouse

    Henryhouse

    BaseSource:TheOfficialMilitaryAtlasoftheCivilWar,PlateV,Map1.

    0

    5

    10

    15

    45

    30

    ScaleofChains

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    at14301500

    BATTLEOFF

    IRSTBULLRUN

    21J

    uly1861

    Note:1Chain=22Yards

    Contour

    Interval10feet

    Map8

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    26

    Earlier, Jacksonhad placedColonel Stuart, along with about ahundred and fifty cavalrymen, onthe Manassas-Sudley Road south-west of the 33d Vir ginia Infantry.Stuartsaw some of the gray-cladNew Yorkers falling back andmistook the two Union regimentsfor retreating Confederates. Hequickly rode forward, shouting,Dont run, boys; we are here.The Northerners ignored the

    Confederate officers pleas, and, after seeing a color bearer passingwith the United States flag, Stuartrealized his mistake. He quicklyordered his men to charge, and the Union troops were driven into thewoods west of the road. As Stuarts men withdrew, additional Uniontroops began to arrive on Henry Hill.24

    The 14th Brooklyn of Porters brigade arrived behind Ricketts battery,and the33d Virginia Infantryfell back to its former position in the woodline southeast of the Henry house. The Marine battalion of Porters brigade

    had arrived behind Griffins battery, but hearing the firing to the south ofRicketts battery the marines had fallen back to the turnpike. They werereplaced by the 38th New York Infantry of Willcoxs brigade, which laydown below the crest of Henry Hill to escape the Confederate artillery fire.

    It was now about 1430 and while three of his guns dueled withConfederate artillery in front of Jacksons line, Griffin took his tworemaining guns and moved about two hundred yards south of Rickettsposition. (Map 9) That movement placed the two guns near the 33d

    Virginia Infantry. As the guns unlimbered and prepared to open fire, theVirginians calmly marched out of the woods and halted in front of thesection. Griffin immediately gave the order to fire but Major Barry, whohad accompanied the guns, shouted that the troops were actually part ofGriffins infantry support. Griffin argued they were the enemy, and, whilethe two discussed the matter, the Virginians fired a volley that torethrough the section. Griffin, Barry, and other survivors escaped back tothe Manassas-Sudley Road, and the Virginians rushed forward and cap-

    tured both guns. Said Griffin later, that was the last of us.25 North of theHenry house gunners manning Griffins remaining three guns saw the

    24 OR, ser. 1, vol. 2, p. 483.25James B. Fry (Brev. Maj. Gen., USA), McDowells Advance to Bull Run, in B& L,1:189.

    Home of the widow Judith Henry,

    shortl y after the Battle of Fi rst Bull

    Run (Manassas National Battlefield

    Park)

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    11NY

    38NY

    1

    4Brooklyn

    1M

    inn

    GRIF

    FIN

    (-3)

    GRIFFIN

    RICKETTS

    27

    Va

    33

    Va

    2Va

    4Va

    5V

    a

    HAMPT

    ONLE

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    J

    A

    C

    K

    S

    O

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    WAR R E

    NT ON T

    U R NP I K

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    MANASSAS-SUDLEY

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    Base Source: The Official Military Atlas of the Civil War, Plate V, Map 1.

    Stone house

    Robinson house

    Henry house

    0 5 10 25

    Scale of Chains

    15 20

    Situation at 1500

    BATTLE OF FIRST BULL R UN

    21 July 1861

    Note: 1 Chain = 22 Yards

    Contour Interval 10 feet

    Map 9

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    28

    capture of the section and withdrew their guns back to the turnpike. The38th New York Infantry, although without a battery to support, remainedlying behind the crest of the hill. The Confederate capture of the two gunswas short-lived, however. The 14th Brooklyn rushed up the slope anddrove the33d Virginia Infantryback to the wood line and recaptured thetwo guns.

    After recapturing Griffins section, the 14th Brooklyn continued tofire into the left flank ofJacksons line, driving the33d Virginia Infantryback through the 2d Virginia Infantry. Meanwhile, Colonel Cockehadbeen ordered to forward troops to the left and the first of them began toarrive on Henry Hill.Cockes49th Virginia Infantryarrived onJacksonsleft, while two of his other regiments, the 8thand 18th VirginiaInfantries, were not far behind. Two companies of the 2d MississippiInfantryofBees brigade also arrived on the hill.

    Under pressure from the 14th Brooklyn, a large portion of the 2dVirginia Infantryjoined the retreat of the 33d Virginia Infantry, andJacksonsaw the left of his line collapsing. While he sent his artillery tothe rear, Jacksonordered the4thand27th Vir ginia Infantriesforward.

    They were joined by the49th Virginia Infantry, two companies of the2d Mississippi Infantry, and the 6th North Caroli na InfantryofBees

    brigade, which had just arrived from Piedmont Station. In hand-to-handcombat the New Yorkers were driven back to the Manassas-Sudley Roadand Ricketts battery and Griffins two guns captured. Ricketts himself waswounded in the thigh. For the next hour the Union guns would become thefocal point of the fight on Henry Hill, as both sides fought to capture them.

    While the Confederates halted among Ricketts battery, the newlyarrived 1st Michigan Infantry of Willcoxs brigade attempted to recapturethe guns but was driven back. The 5th and 11th Massachusetts Infantries

    of Franklins brigade arrived next and made an attempt to reclaim theguns. Although the 5th Massachusetts Infantry broke and fled backtoward the Manassas-Sudley Road, the 11th, wearing gray uniforms,drove the disorganized Confederates back and captured the guns. The4thand27th Vir ginia Infantriesthen fell back to their original positions.

    Near the Robinson houseBeauregard, seeing the guns again in Unionhands, personally led the 5th Virginia Infantryand theHampton Legionacross the plateau. Beejoined in the assault, leading the 4th Alabama

    Infantry, followed byBartowat the head of the7th Georgia Infantry. Asthe Confederates passed over the ridge whereJacksonhad earlier placedhis artillery, Bartowwas shot and killed, andBeefell mortally wounded.(Sometime earlier Beeis said to have pointed to Jacksons brigade andremarked that it was standing like a stonewall. There is controversy asto exactly what Beesaid, when he said it, or if he even said the phrase.

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    Regardless, after the battle Stonewall Jacksonand the StonewallBrigadewould go down in Southern legend.) Beauregards attack drovethe 11th Massachusetts Infantry back to the Manassas-Sudley Road andRicketts guns changed hands once again. While theHampton Legionlaydown around the Henry house and the5th Virginia Infantryhalted amongRicketts guns, Beauregardpaused to offer assistance to the woundedRicketts.26

    Rather than launch large-scale, coordinated assaults against theConfederates on Henry Hill, McDowell had spent the morning and earlyafternoon allowing his army to be committed piecemeal, frittering awayhis numerical advantage. This allowed the Confederates to defend withlesser numbers while bringing reinforcements to the field. McDowellissued orders for forward movement, but again it would be gradual anduncoordinated. First, Howards 2,000-man brigade on Dogan Ridge wasordered to Chinn Ridge, south of the turnpike and several hundred yardswest of Henry Hill. Shermans 3,000 men, also on Dogan Ridge, weresent to assault Henry Hill itself. Porters Regular infantry battalion wassent from Dogan Ridge to support Sherman.

    About 1500, while Howard headed for Chinn Ridge, Sherman crossedthe turnpike and halted on the Manassas-Sudley Road. The Regular

    infantry battalion halted along Chinn Branch, west of the Henry houseand Manassas-Sudley Road. Sherman began his attack but, like earlierUnion assaults, he would not commit his entire command at once.Instead, he sent the 13th New York Infantry up the slope of Henry Hill.The regiment soon engaged theHampton Legionaround the Henry house,where it halted, lay down, and continued a short-range gun battle.Sherman next ordered the 2d Wisconsin Infantry up the Manassas-SudleyRoad. When abreast of the Henry house, the regiment left the road and

    advanced toward the house. Clad in gray uniforms, the Wisconsin troopstook fire from Confederates on Henry Hill as well as from Union troopswest of the Manassas-Sudley Road and were forced to fall back to the rel-ative safety of the road.

    Shermans 79th New York Infantry then moved forward. Commandedby Col. James Cameron, brother of Secretary of War Simon Cameron, theregiment charged to within yards of the Henry house. But Colonel Cameronwas mortally wounded and the New Yorkers, like the Wisconsin troops

    before them, fell back to the Manassas-Sudley Road. As Sherman commit-ted his last regiment, the 69th New York Infantry, two guns of Reynoldsbattery of Burnsides brigade arrived and unlimbered in a clearing west ofthe Manassas-Sudley Road and opposite the Henry house.

    29

    26 Beauregard, The First Battle of Bull Run, inB& L, 1:21314.

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    Under cover of Reynolds two guns, the 69th New York Infantry,

    joined by the 38th New York Infantry on its right, left the Manassas-Sudley Road and charged up the slope toward the Henry house. After abrief struggle in whichHamptonwas severely wounded, the4th AlabamaInfantry, 7th Georgia Infantry, and other Confederates were driven backto the woods south of the Henry house, and the two New York regimentscaptured Ricketts and Griffins guns. (Map 10)

    The New Yorkers celebration was short-lived. The 18th Vir giniaInfantryofCockes brigade had arrived from Balls Ford and, along with

    remnants of various Confederate units, drove the New Yorkers back to theManassas-Sudley Road and recaptured the Union guns. Cockes 8thVirginia Infantryalso reached the Henry house from Balls Ford and set upa defensive position just west of the house. The Union guns and Henry Hillhad changed hands for the last time. Shermans battered brigade, along withportions of other Union brigades in the woods west of the Manassas-SudleyRoad, began withdrawing back to the Warrenton Turnpike. While thetroops milled around the intersection near the Stone house and McDowell

    tried to rally them, someHampton Legionsoldiers turned one of Rickettsguns around and fired a few shots toward the Stone house.27

    It was about 1600, and, with the Union threat against Henry Hillapparently over, the Confederates turned their attention to Chinn Ridge

    30

    27 RJCCW, 1:147.

    Stone house on the Warrenton Turnpike (Library of Congress)

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    6

    NC

    4A

    la

    and

    7Ga

    (Remnants)

    Remna

    nts

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    HAMPTONLEGION

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    Y

    38N

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    13

    NY

    GRIF

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    2Guns(a

    bandoned)

    REYNOLDS

    2Guns

    RICKETTS

    6Guns(a

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    Remnants

    Yo u n g sB r an

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    Base Source: The Official Military Atlas of the Civil War, Plate V, Map 1.

    WAR R E

    NT ON T

    U R NP I K

    E

    M

    ANASSAS-SUDLEY

    ROAD

    Stone house

    Robinson house

    Henry house

    0 5 10 30

    Scale of Chains

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    Situation at 1530

    BATTLE OF FIRST BULL RUN

    21 July 1861

    Note: 1 Chain = 22 Yards

    Contour Interval 10 feet

    Map 10

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    where Howards brigade had arrived. Leaving his 3d and 5th MaineInfantries in reserve near the Warrenton Turnpike, Howard had led the 2dVermont and 4th Maine Infantries to the crest of Chinn Ridge and openedfire on Henry Hill. (Map 11) Howards arrival on the Confederate leftflank, however, coincided with the arrival of fresh Confederate troops.About 1600 the 2dand 8th South Carolina Infantriesof Bonhamsbrigade reached Henry Hill from Mitchells Ford. The two regimentsentered the Manassas-Sudley Road south of the Henry house and openedlong-range fire on Howards men. Also appearing on the field wasColonel Elzeys brigade, the last ofJohnstons troops to arrive from thevalley that day. AccompanyingElzeywasGeneral Smith, whose brigadewould not show up until the following day and who, by virtue of rank,briefly assumed command ofElzeys brigade.Smithled the brigade to theManassas-Sudley Road, where he was wounded, andElzeyresumed com-mand. Along withStuarts 150 cavalrymen,Elzeycrossed the Manassas-Sudley Road southwest of the Henry house and moved toward ChinnRidge. Close behind Elzeywas Colonel Earlys brigade, which hadrecently arrived from McLeans Ford and now fell in on the left and per-pendicular toElzeys line. Stuarts cavalry coveredEarlys left.

    At a distance of about 200 yards Elzeyand Earlyopened fire on

    Howards thin line. While the 2d Vermont and 4th Maine Infantriesreturned volley for volley, Howard rode back to the turnpike to bring for-ward his other regiments. With difficulty he managed to bring most of themen to the crest of the ridge, and they took their places on the firing line.However, under pressure fromElzeyandEarly, Howards command soonbroke and fled back toward the turnpike. (Map 12)

    It was now about 1700, and everywhere McDowells army was disin-tegrating. Thousands, in large and small groups or as individuals, began

    to leave the battlefield and head for Centreville. McDowell rode aroundthe field trying to rally regiments and groups of soldiers, but most had hadenough.

    Unable to stop the mass exodus, McDowell gave orders for PortersRegular infantry battalion, near the intersection of the turnpike andManassas-Sudley Road, to act as a rear guard as his army withdrew. Theunit briefly held the crossroads, then retreated eastward with the rest ofthe army.

    A few Confederate units attempted to pursue the retreating Uniontroops, but the victorious Confederates were almost as disorganized astheir defeated counterparts. Some infantry regiments and cavalryharassed Union stragglers, while artillery firing from vantage points fur-ther prodded the Federal troops along. The Union retreat on the turnpikequickly turned into a route when an overturned wagon blocked the Cub

    32

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    STUART

    ELZEY

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    BaseSource:TheOfficia

    lMilitaryAtlasoftheCivilWar,PlateV,Map1.

    MANA

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    Doganhouse

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    ATTLEOFFIRSTBULLR

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    Note:1Ch

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    ContourInterval10feet

    Map11

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    STUART

    ELZEY

    EARLY

    8Va

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    2SC8SC

    HAMPT

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    BaseSource:TheOfficialM

    ilitaryAtlasoftheCivilWar,PlateV,Map1

    .

    MAN

    ASSAS

    -SUDLE

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    W

    ARRENTONT

    URNPIKE

    Doganh

    ouse

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    Robinsonhouse

    LewisS

    tone

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    house

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    e

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    ScaleofChains

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    ATTLEOFFIRSTBULLR

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    ain=22Yards

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    Map12

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    Junction, Johnstonhad relinquished command of the battlefield toBeauregard, but his forwarding of reinforcements to the scene of fightingwas decisive.

    Compared to later battles, casualties at First Bull Run had not beenespecially heavy. Both Union and Confederate killed, wounded, and miss-ing were a little over one thousand seven hundred each.

    Three months after First Bull Run Union forces suffered another,smaller defeat at the Battle of Balls Bluff, near Leesburg, Virginia. Theperceived military incompetence at First Bull Run and Balls Bluff led tothe establishment of the Joint Committee on the Conduct of the War, acongressional body created to investigate Northern military affairs.Concerning the Battle of First Bull Run, the committee listened to testi-mony from a variety of witnesses connected with McDowells army.Although the committees report concluded that the principal cause ofdefeat was Pattersons failure to prevent Johnstonfrom reinforcingBeauregard, Pattersons enlistment had expired a few days after the bat-tle, and he was no longer in the service. The Northern public clamored foranother scapegoat, and McDowell bore the chief blame. On 25 July 1861,he was relieved of army command.30

    First Bull Run demonstrated that the war would not be won by one

    grand battle, and both sides began preparing for a long and bloody con-flict. In the North, Lincoln called for an additional 500,000 volunteerswith three-year enlistments, and the men with ninety-day enlistmentswere sent home. In the South, once the euphoria of victory had worn off,Jefferson Daviscalled for 400,000 additional volunteers. The battle alsoshowed the need for adequately trained and experienced officers andmen. One year later many of the same soldiers who had fought at FirstBull Run, now combat veterans, would have an opportunity to test their

    skills on the same battlefield.

    36

    30 RJCCW, 1:5.

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    38

    (Al l times are approximate and are based on those given in the after

    action reports by unit commanders, in testimony before the Joint Com-

    mittee on the Conduct of the War, or in postwar reminiscences.)

    27 May 1861

    Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell is assigned command of the Department ofNortheastern Virginia and the military forces camped in and aroundWashington.

    9 July 1861

    McDowells military force, called the Army of Northeastern Virginia, is

    scheduled to march to Manassas Junction on this day, but a lack of suffi-cient supplies delays the movement.

    16 July 1861

    McDowells army begins its march toward Manassas Junction.

    By evening Brig. Gen. Daniel Tylers division has reached Vienna, Col.David Hunters and Col. Dixon S. Miles divisions have arrived atAnnandale, and Col. Samuel P. Heintzelmans division is at PohickCreek.

    17 July 1861

    Commanding the Confederate Army of the Potomacat ManassasJunction, Brig. Gen. Pierr e G. T. Beauregardinforms the ConfederateWar Department of McDowells advance and asks for reinforcements.

    Confederate authorities order the independent brigade ofBr ig. Gen.Theophil us H. Holmesat Fredericksburg to reinforce Beauregard. In

    CHRONOLOGY

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    RichmondCol. Wade Hamptons independentHampton Legionis alsoordered to Manassas Junction. At Leesburg the8th Vir ginia InfantryofCol. Philip St. George Cockes brigade is ordered to ManassasJunction.

    1130: The head of McDowells army, Tylers division, reaches FairfaxCourthouse.

    18 July 1861

    0100: At Winchester General Joseph E. Johnstonreceives a telegramfrom the Confederate War Department informing him of McDowellsadvance and directing him to go to Beauregards assistance if practica-ble.

    1100: Tylers division arrives at Centreville. Tyler moves a portion ofCol. Israel B. Richardsons brigade south of Centreville and instigates alively skirmish in what becomes known as the Battle of BlackburnsFord.

    1200: Johnstons Army of the Shenandoahdeparts Winchester forManassas Junction.

    Hunters and Miles divisions arrive near Fairfax Courthouse, andHeintzelmans division near Sangsters Station (near what is nowClifton).

    Unaware of Tylers skirmish at Blackburns Ford, McDowell personallyreconnoiters the area around Sangsters Station, searching for a locationto turn the Confederate right flank.

    In the evening Brig. Gen. Thomas J. Jacksons brigade, leadingJohnstons army, camps near Paris, Virginia, seventeen miles fromWinchester, while the remainder of the army halts along the ShenandoahRiver.

    Although the skirmish at Blackburns Ford provided McDowell withintelligence about Confederate positions and strength, he fears the skir-mish has caused the Confederates to reinforce their right flank.McDowell orders his engineers to reconnoiter north of the Stone Bridge,on the Confederate left.

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    19 July 1861

    0900: After arriving at Piedmont Station, Jacksons brigade departs forManassas Junction.

    1500: Col. Francis S. Bartows brigade departs Piedmont Station forManassas Junction.

    Johnstondirects his cavalry and artillery to continue to ManassasJunction by road.

    20 July 1861

    0700: Johnstonboards a train for Manassas Junction, along with Brig.Gen. Barnard E. Beeand portions ofBees brigade.

    Brig. Gen. E. Kirby Smithremains at Piedmont Station to expedite thetransportation of the remainder ofJohnstons army.

    1200: JohnstonandBeearrive at Manassas Junction. After Johnstonsug-gests an attack against McDowells army, Beauregardproposes to attackthe Union left flank at Centreville. Johnstonrequests thatBeauregardputthe plan in writing.

    Hunters, Heintzelmans, and Miles divisions arrive at Centreville. Brig.Gen. Theodore Runyons division guards the railroad from Alexandria.

    McDowells engineers discover the undefended Sudley Ford and PoplarFord, north of the Stone Bridge.

    McDowell plans an attack for the following day. Hunters andHeintzelmans divisions will march around the Confederate left, crossingat Sudley and Poplar fords, while other troops create diversions at theStone Bridge and Blackburns Ford.

    21 July 1861

    0230: McDowells army begins its march againstBeauregard. Tylersdivision (with the exception of Richardsons brigade), followed byHunters and Heintzelmans divisions, march west on the Warrenton

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    Turnpike. Richardsons brigade, along with Col. Thomas A. Daviesbrigade of Miles division, moves toward Blackburns Ford. Col.Louis Blenkers brigade of Miles division remains at Centreville inreserve.

    Beauregardsubmits his plan to attack the Union left flank at Centrevilleto Johnston, who approves it.

    0530: Tylers division clears the Cub Run Bridge and Hunters andHeintzelmans divisions follow. After crossing Cub Run, Hunter andHeintzelman turn north from the turnpike toward Sudley and Poplarfords.

    0600: Tyler arrives in front of Stone Bridge and opens fire with his 30-pounder rifle onCol. Nathan G. Evans brigade.

    0700: Concerned about the artillery fire near the Stone Bridge, JohnstonordersBee,Bartow, andJacksonto move closer to the Confederate left tobe able to provide support if needed. Beauregardalso sends the newlyarrivedHampton Legionto the left.

    0800: JohnstonandBeauregardplace themselves on a hill to the rear ofBrig. Gen. Mi l ledge L. Bonhams brigade in anticipation ofBeauregardsflank attack.

    0830: Signal officer Capt. E. Porter Alexanderdiscovers the Union col-umn marching toward Sudley Ford to outflank the Confederate left andreports the movement toEvansand Johnston.

    Evansmoves the bulk of his command from the Stone Bridge toMatthews Hill to block the Union flank march.

    Although Johnstonis apprehensive that the Union troops reported northof the Stone Bridge may be those of Pattersons army arriving from theShenandoah Valley, he continues with the plan to attack Centreville.

    0930: Hunters division arrives at Sudley Ford. After a short delay thecolumn crosses Bull Run and continues south. Instead of crossing atPoplar Ford, Heintzelmans division follows Hunters division.

    1030: The head of Hunters column, Col. Ambrose E. Burnsides brigade,engagesEvans command on Matthews Hill.

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    1100: As the firing increases on the Confederate left, JohnstonandBeauregardride toward Henry Hill.

    Col. Andrew Porters brigade of Hunters division arrives on MatthewsHill, moving onto nearby Dogan Ridge.

    Capt. Charles Griffins and Capt. James D. Ricketts batteries arrive onDogan Ridge.

    The brigades ofBeeand Bartow(with Beein command of both units)arrive on Henry Hill and shortly thereafter both brigades move toMatthews Hill to supportEvans.

    1130: Col. William T. Shermans and Col. Erasmus Keyes brigades ofTylers division cross Bull Run, just north of the Stone Bridge. Shermancontinues toward Matthews Hill, Keyes, accompanied by Tyler, movesto Youngs Branch, east of the Stone house.

    Col. William B. Franklins and Col. Orlando B. Willcoxs brigades ofHeintzelmans division arrive on Matthews Hill. Col. Oliver O.

    Howards brigade is close behind.

    Outflanked, Evans, Bee, and Bartoware forced to withdraw fromMatthews Hill and fall back to Henry Hill.

    TheHampton Legionarrives near the Robinson house on Henry Hill.

    Hearing the increased firing coming from the left flank, Johnston

    scraps Beauregards attack plan and rides toward Henry Hill.Beauregardfollows.

    1200: Jacksons brigade arrives on Henry Hill.

    JohnstonandBeauregardarrive on Henry Hill.

    Jacksonis slightly wounded.

    1300: Keyes is ordered to attack Henry Hill near the Robinson house. Hesends two of his four regiments forward, but they are driven back. Keyesentire brigade withdraws to the vicinity of the Stone Bridge.

    1400: Griffins and Ricketts batteries move from Dogan Ridge to Henry

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    Hill. Griffin unlimbers north of the Henry house and Ricketts south of thehouse.

    1430: Griffin moves two guns of his battery to the right of Ricketts,where the 33d Virginia Infantrycaptures the guns. The remainder ofGriffins battery withdraws from Henry Hill.

    The 14th Brooklyn recaptures Griffins two guns.

    The 4thand 27th Vir ginia Infantries, with assistance from the 49thVirginia Infantry, 6th North Carolina Infantry, and two companies of the2d Mississippi Infantry, capture Ricketts battery and Griffins two guns.

    The 1st Michigan Infantry attempts and fails to recapture Ricketts guns.

    The 11th Massachusetts Infantry recaptures Ricketts battery, and the4thand27th Vir ginia Infantriesfall back to their former positions.

    The 5th Virginia Infantry, Hampton Legion, 4th Alabama Infantry, and7th Georgia Infantryrecapture Ricketts guns. Beeis mortally wounded

    and Bartowis killed. Ricketts is wounded and captured. The 11thMassachusetts Infantry falls back to the Manassas-Sudley Road.

    1500: Shermans brigade begins an attack against Henry Hill, andHowards brigade moves to Chinn Ridge.

    The 13th New York Infantry skirmishes with theHampton Legionaroundthe Henry house.

    The 2d Wisconsin Infantry unsuccessfully assaults Henry Hill.

    The 79th New York Infantry unsuccessfully assaults Henry Hill. The reg-iment commander, Col. James Cameron, brother of the Secretary of War,is killed.

    Shermans last regiment, the 69th New York Infantry, along with the

    38th New York Infantry of Willcoxs brigade, assault Henry Hill andrecapture Ricketts and Griffins guns. Col. Wade Hamptonis severelywounded.

    The 18th Virginia InfantryofCockes brigade, along with remnants ofseveral other Confederate units on Henry Hill, recaptures the Union guns.

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    Shermans and other Union units near Henry Hill withdraw to theWarrenton Turnpike.

    1530: Two regiments of Howards brigade arrive on Chinn Ridge. Twoother regiments remain in reserve near the Warrenton Turnpike.

    1600: Col. Arnold Elzeys and Col. Jubal A. Ear lys brigades arrive onChinn Ridge. General Smithbriefly takes command ofElzeys brigadebut is wounded andElzeyresumes command.

    Howard brings forward his other two regiments to Chinn Ridge.

    With the assistance of 150 troopers ofCol. J. E. B. Stuarts cavalry, thebrigades ofElzeyandEarlyoutflank Howards brigade and drive it backto the Warrenton Turnpike.

    1700: Retreat of the Union Army begins.

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    Army of Northeastern Virginia (United States Army)Brig. Gen. Irvin McDowell

    1st Division (Brig. Gen. Daniel Tyler)1st Brigade (Col. Erasmus Keyes)

    2d Maine Infantry1st Connecticut Infantry2d Connecticut Infantry3d Connecticut Infantry

    2d Brigade (Brig. Gen. Robert C. Schenck)2d New York Infantry1st Ohio Infantry2d Ohio InfantryBattery E, 2d U.S. Artillery

    3d Brigade (Col. William T. Sherman)13th New York Infantry69th New York Infantry79th New York Infantry2d Wisconsin InfantryBattery E, 3d U.S. Artillery

    4th Brigade (Col. Israel B. Richardson)1st Massachusetts Infantry12th New York Infantry2d Michigan Infantry3d Michigan InfantryBattery G, 1st U.S. ArtilleryBattery M, 2d U.S. Artillery

    2d Division (Col. David Hunter)1st Brigade (Col. Andrew Porter