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  • Slide 1
  • STOCK MARKETS Usually organized exchange (NASDAQ an exception) Transaction costs: spread + commission ADRs (foreign stocks trading in US stock markets) Buying on Margin and Short Sales are common
  • Slide 2
  • Slide 3
  • PREFERRED STOCK (nonvoting shares usually paying a fixed stream of dividends) Fixed dividends Priority over common Can be callable, convertible, adjustable rate- dividend tied to current interest rates
  • Slide 4
  • Uses Track average returns Serve as benchmarks to compare performance Equally-weighted, value-weighted. Price indexes vs. return indexes. Stock Indexes
  • Slide 5
  • Buying on Margin When purchasing securities, investors have easy access to a source of debt financing called brokers call loans. The act of buying shares financed (at least) partly with brokers call loans is called buying on margin. Purchasing stocks on margin means the investor borrows part of the purchase of the stock from a broker. The brokers in turn borrow money from a bank at the call money rate to finance these purchases; they then charge their clients that rate plus a service charge for the loan.
  • Slide 6
  • All securities purchased on margin must be maintained with the brokerage firm as the securities are collateral for the loan. The Board of Governors of the Federal Reserve System limits the extent to which stock purchases can be financed using margin loans. The percentage margin = net worth / market value of position Example: an investor initially pays $6,000 toward the purchase of $10,000 worth of stock (100 shares at $100 per share) borrowing the remaining $4,000 from a broker. The initial percentage margin is: $6,000/$10,000 = 60%
  • Slide 7
  • And investors balance sheet will look like: Assets: Value of the stock: $10,000 Liabilities and Owners Equity: Loan from the broker: $4,000 Equity: $6,000 If the stock price declines to $70 then the percentage margin becomes $3,000/$7,000 =43% And the balance sheet will look like: Assets: Value of the stock: $7,000 Liabilities and Owners Equity: Loan from the broker: $4,000 Equity: $3,000
  • Slide 8
  • If the stock value were to fall below $4,000, investors equity would become negative, meaning that the value of the stock is no longer sufficient collateral to cover the loan from the broker. To guard against this possibility, the broker sets a maintenance margin. If the percentage margin falls below the maintenance level, the broker will issue a margin call which requires the investor to add new cash or securities to restore the percentage margin to an acceptable level.
  • Slide 9
  • Example: Maintenance margin = 30% P= price of stock Value of the investors 100 shares is: P*100 The equity in the account is: 100P $4,000 The percentage margin is (100P $4,000) / 100P Initial Margin Maintenance Margin Margin Call
  • Slide 10
  • Another example: Margin Trading X Corp$70 50%Initial Margin 40%Maintenance Margin 1000Shares Purchased Initial Position Stock $70,000 Borrowed $35,000 Equity 35,000
  • Slide 11
  • Stock price falls to $60 per share New Position Stock $60,000 Borrowed $35,000 Equity 25,000 Margin% = $25,000/$60,000 = 41.67% How far can the stock price fall before a margin call? (1000P - $35,000) * / 1000P = 40% P = $58.33 * 1000P - Amt Borrowed = Equity
  • Slide 12
  • Short sale The sale of shares not owned by the investor but borrowed through a broker and later purchased to replace the loan. Normally, an investor would first buy a stock and later sell it. With a short sale the order is reversed.
  • Slide 13
  • Example: Short Sale Z Corp100 Shares 50%Initial Margin 30%Maintenance Margin $100Initial Price Sale Proceeds$10,000 (100*$100) Margin & Equity 5,000 (initial margin) Value of Stock Owed 10,000 (100*$100)
  • Slide 14
  • Stock Price Rises to $110 Sale Proceeds $10,000 (as before) Initial Margin 5,000 Value of Stock Owed 11,000 (100*$110) Net Equity 4,000 Margin % (4000/11000) 36% How much can the stock price rise before a margin call? ($15,000 * 100P) / (100P) = 30% P = $115.38 * Initial margin plus sale proceeds
  • Slide 15
  • Short Sale - Example 2 Q: Initial Margin Requirement: 40% Maintenance Margin Requirement: 20% You borrow 1000 shares of IBM and sell short at $ 60 / share. Proceeds from short sale: $ 60,000 Cash deposit: $ 24,000 so that: % margin = net equity / value of the position = (84000 60,000) / 60000 = 40% Some time later, the stock price rises to $70. Value of the position = $ 70,000 Net equity = 84,000 70,000 = 14000 %margin = 14000 / 70000 = 20%
  • Slide 16
  • PORTFOLIO THEORY Two key concepts in finance theory: Return and Risk Risk is the variability (uncertainty) of Return. The risk of a security is measured by the variance or standard deviation of its returns. Economic Agents are risk averse (which implies that (i) Given equal return, they would prefer low-risk security (ii) To assume more risk, they require compensation in terms of higher expected returns).
  • Slide 17
  • Return Risk Relationship R = E(e) + time preference + risk premium Hence: high risk high return low price
  • Slide 18
  • Stock Valuation P 0 = = r > g As it is extremely difficult to estimate the correct discount rate r and to forecast the future growth rate g, this formula is quite useless in daily stock market practice. Stock Analysts usually use ratio comparisons: P/E Ratio = P / eps = Market Cap / Net Income Book-to-Market ratio = Market Cap / Book value = P / shareholders equity per share
  • Slide 19
  • Diversification: Forming portfolios combining many different securities. Unless the return correlation of securities included in the portfolio is +1 diversification reduces risk. PORTFOLIO RETURN AND RISK CALCULATIONS: R p = w i R i p = w i w j Cov ij Cov ij = Cor ij i j
  • Slide 20
  • Two-Security Portfolio: Return r p = w 1 r 1 + w 2 r 2 w 1 = Proportion of funds in Security 1 w 2 = Proportion of funds in Security 2 r 1 = Expected return on Security 1 r 2 = Expected return on Security 2 w i i=1n = 1
  • Slide 21
  • p 2 = w 1 2 1 2 + w 2 2 2 2 + 2w 1 w 2 Cov(r 1 r 2 ) 1 2 = Variance of Security 1 2 2 = Variance of Security 2 Cov(r 1 r 2 ) = Covariance of returns for Security 1 and Security 2 Cov(r 1 r 2 ) = Covariance of returns for Security 1 and Security 2 Two-Security Portfolio: Risk
  • Slide 22
  • Covariance 1,2 = Correlation coefficient of returns 1,2 = Correlation coefficient of returns Cov(r 1 r 2 ) = 1 2 1 = Standard deviation of returns for Security 1 2 = Standard deviation of returns for Security 2 1 = Standard deviation of returns for Security 1 2 = Standard deviation of returns for Security 2
  • Slide 23
  • 2 p = w 1 2 1 2 + w 2 2 + 2w 1 w 2 r p = w 1 r 1 + w 2 r 2 + w 3 r 3 Cov(r 1 r 2 ) + w 3 2 3 2 Cov(r 1 r 3 ) + 2w 1 w 3 Cov(r 2 r 3 ) + 2w 2 w 3 Three-Security Portfolio
  • Slide 24
  • E(r p ) = w 1 r 1 + w 2 r 2 Two-Security Portfolio (Return and Risk) p 2 = w 1 2 1 2 + w 2 2 2 2 + 2w 1 w 2 Cov(r 1 r 2 ) p = [w 1 2 1 2 + w 2 2 2 2 + 2w 1 w 2 Cov(r 1 r 2 )] 1/2
  • Slide 25
  • = 0 E(r) = 1 = -1 =.3 13% 8% 12%20% pp TWO-SECURITY PORTFOLIOS WITH DIFFERENT CORRELATIONS COEF.
  • Slide 26
  • E(r) n-security portfolios n-security portfolios Efficientfrontier Globalminimumvarianceportfolio Minimumvariancefrontier Individualassets St. Dev. Lowest risk
  • Slide 27
  • E(r) E(r M ) rfrfrfrf M CML mmmm Capital Market Line
  • Slide 28
  • A Stock has two types of risk: Market Risk and Unique Risk. Market Risk: results from economy-wide uncertainties, is non-diversifiable. Unique Risk: results from firm-specific uncertainties, is diversifiable by forming portfolios. By forming a well-diversified portfolio, it is possible to eliminate all unique risks; that is, to reduce portfolio risk to market risk. ( n: the number of stocks in the portfolio ) As n goes up, p decreases and eventually converges to market risk.
  • Slide 29
  • Diversification and Portfolio Risk Diversification can substantially reduce the variability of returns without an equivalent reduction in expected returns. This reduction in risk arises because worse than expected returns from one asset are offset by better than expected returns from another. However, there is a minimum level of risk that cannot be diversified away, and that is the systematic portion (market risk).
  • Slide 30
  • Portfolio Risk and Number of Stocks Nondiversifiable risk; Systematic Risk; Market Risk Diversifiable Risk; Nonsystematic Risk; Firm Specific Risk; Unique Risk n In a large portfolio the variance terms are effectively diversified away, but the covariance terms are not. Portfolio risk
  • Slide 31
  • Measuring Components of Risk Run the regression: R it = R f + i (R m R f ) + e t i 2 = i 2 m 2 + 2 (e i ) where; i 2 = total variance i 2 m 2 = systematic variance 2 (e i ) = unsystematic variance
  • Slide 32
  • ASSET PRICING MODELS: CAPM Because, unique risk can be eliminated via diversification, there should be no reward for it (i.e. no risk premium for unique risk). Only, market risk rewarded. The reward for 1 unit of market risk is: E(R M )

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