Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities

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<ul><li><p>Strategy Instructionfor Students with Learning Disabilities</p></li><li><p>WHAT WORKS FOR SPECIAL-NEEDS LEARNERSKaren R. Harris and Steve Graham</p><p>Editors</p><p>Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning DisabilitiesRobert Reid and Torri Ortiz Lienemann</p><p>Teaching Mathematics to Middle School Studentswith Learning Difficulties</p><p>Marjorie Montague and Asha K. Jitendra, Editors</p></li><li><p>Strategy Instructionfor Students</p><p>with Learning Disabilities</p><p>Robert ReidTorri Ortiz Lienemann</p><p>Series Editors Note by Karen R. Harris and Steve Graham</p><p>THE GUILFORD PRESSNew York London</p></li><li><p>2006 The Guilford PressA Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012www.guilford.com</p><p>All rights reserved</p><p>Except as indicated, no part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher.</p><p>Printed in the United States of America</p><p>This book is printed on acid-free paper.</p><p>Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1</p><p>LIMITED PHOTOCOPY LICENSE</p><p>These materials are intended for use only by qualified professionals.</p><p>The Publisher grants to individual purchasers of this book nonassignable permission toreproduce all materials for which photocopying permission is specifically granted in a foot-note. This license is limited to you, the individual purchaser, for use with your own clientsor students. It does not extend to additional professionals in your institution, school district,or other setting, nor does purchase by an institution constitute a site license. This licensedoes not grant the right to reproduce these materials for resale, redistribution, or any otherpurposes (including but not limited to books, pamphlets, articles, video- or audiotapes, andhandouts or slides for lectures or workshops). Permission to reproduce these materials forthese and any other purposes must be obtained in writing from the Permissions Departmentof Guilford Publications.</p><p>Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data</p><p>Reid, Robert.Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities / Robert Reid, Torri Ortiz</p><p>Lienemann.p. cm.(What works for special needs learners)</p><p>Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-10 1-59385-282-7, ISBN-13 978-1-59385-282-5 (pbk.)ISBN-10 1-59385-283-5, ISBN-13 978-1-59385-283-2 (cloth)1. Learning disabled childrenEducationUnited States. I. Lienemann,</p><p>Torri. II. Title. III. Series.LC4705.R46 2006371.9dc22</p><p>2005031508</p></li><li><p>To Karen R. Harris, who taught us what we needed to know</p></li><li><p>This page intentionally left blank </p></li><li><p>About the Authors</p><p>Robert Reid, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Special Education and Commu-nication Disorders at the University of NebraskaLincoln. He received his doctorate inspecial education from the University of Maryland in 1991. Dr. Reids research focuseson children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and on strategy in-struction. He has published more than 60 articles and book chapters and presented atnational and international conferences. Additionally, he codeveloped the ADHD-IVRating Scale (1998). Dr. Reid received the American Educational Research AssociationsSpecial Education Student Research Award in 1992 and the Balilies Child MentalHealth Award in 1996. He currently serves on the editorial boards of five journals andactively reviews for several others.</p><p>Torri Ortiz Lienemann, MEd, is a doctoral candidate at the University of NebraskaLincoln. Her work focuses on strategy instruction and self-regulation, specifically inwriting. Currently, Ms. Lienemann is involved in research on strategy instruction forstudents with ADHD and in creating new programs to assist students with specialneeds and their teachers. She has been a classroom resource teacher at both the middleand high school levels and served as a remedial teacher at an elementary school.</p><p>vii</p></li><li><p>This page intentionally left blank </p></li><li><p>Series Editors Note</p><p>Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities guides teachers and otherpractitioners through the effective use of strategy instruction, proven by researchers tobe a powerful instructional approach for students with learning disabilities, students atrisk for school failure, and other struggling learners. The reader is taken through thewhat, why, and how of a classroom-validated model of strategy instructionSelf-Regulated Strategy Developmentin conjunction with practical examples of how toteach powerful academic and learning strategies.</p><p>This volume is first in the series What Works for Special-Needs Learners. Theseries addresses a significant need in the education of learners with special needsstudents who are at risk, those with disabilities, and all children and adolescents whostruggle with learning or behavior. Researchers in special education, educational psy-chology, curriculum and instruction, and other fields have made great progress inunderstanding what works for struggling learners, yet the practical application of thisresearch base remains quite limited. This is due in part to the lack of appropriate mate-rials for teachers, teacher educators, and inservice teacher development programs. Asdemonstrated in the present volume, books in the series will present assessment, in-structional, and classroom management methods that have a strong research base, andwill also provide specific how-to instructions and examples of the use of proven pro-cedures in schools.</p><p>Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities features extensive use ofexamples drawn from classroom teachers and their students. The authors also providetools for organizing and implementing strategy instruction, guidelines for effectivestrategy modeling and scaffolding, sample lesson plans, and materials helpful in teach-</p><p>ix</p></li><li><p>ing students to use core self-regulation strategies (e.g., goal setting, self-instruction,self-assessment/self-monitoring, and self-reinforcement).</p><p>The authors, who have significant experience with strategy instruction in the class-room, provide detailed information on instruction in and the development of academicand self-regulation strategies across written language, reading, and mathematics. Eachchapter in these areas includes a discussion of the prerequisites for learning, majorproblems experienced by learners who struggle with that area of academic learning,and research-proven strategies. Strategy instruction in the areas of study skills andmemory strategies are covered as well. In addition, the authors clearly explain anddemonstrate how implementing strategy instruction in the classroom includes thedevelopment of motivation, positive attitudes toward learning, and attributions foreffort and strategy use. An invaluable resource for practitioners, this book is also suit-able for use in a methods course.</p><p>Future books in the series will cover such issues as math instruction, word learn-ing, and reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities. All volumeswill be as thorough and detailed as the present one and will facilitate implementationof evidence-based practices in classrooms and schools.</p><p>KAREN R. HARRISSTEVE GRAHAM</p><p>x Series Editors Note</p></li><li><p>Contents</p><p>1. Why Use Strategy Instruction? 1</p><p>What Is a Learning Disability? 2Causes of Learning Disabilities 3Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities 6Why a Strategy Approach? 10Putting Strategy Instruction into the Classroom 12Final Thoughts 13</p><p>2. Building Background Knowledge 16</p><p>Introduction to Strategy Instruction 17Information Processing 19The Importance of Attributions 22Metacognition 25Final Thoughts 30</p><p>3. The Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model 32</p><p>The Six Stages of the SRSD Model 33Evaluating SRSD 42Practical Considerations and Tips 45Final Thoughts 47</p><p>4. How to Implement the SRSD Model 49</p><p>Structured Strategy Example 50Unstructured Strategy Example 60Final Thoughts 70</p><p>xi</p></li><li><p>5. Self-Regulation Strategies 71</p><p>Self-Monitoring 72Self-Instruction 78Goal Setting 80Self-Reinforcement 81The Case for Self-Regulation 82Final Thoughts 83</p><p>6. Implementing Self-Regulation Strategies 86</p><p>Implementing Self-Monitoring 86Implementing Self-Instruction 94Implementing Goal Setting 102Implementing Self-Reinforcement 104Combining Strategies 107Final Thoughts 107</p><p>7. Integrating Strategies and Self-Regulation 110</p><p>Self-Monitoring, Goal Setting, and a Spelling Strategy 111Self-Monitoring and a Math Strategy 112Self-Instruction and a Writing Strategy 114Goal Setting and a Reading Comprehension Strategy 117Self-Monitoring and a Main Idea Comprehension Strategy 119Integrating Strategies to Solve Math Word Problems 121Final Thoughts 122</p><p>8. Strategies in Written Language 125</p><p>Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 126Prerequisite Skills 128Instruction in the Writing Process 129Implementation Plans 138Final Thoughts 144</p><p>9. Strategies in Reading Comprehension 147</p><p>Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 148Prerequisite Skills 149Prereading Strategies 151During-Reading Strategies 153Postreading Strategies 157Implementation Plans 160Final Thoughts 166</p><p>xii Contents</p></li><li><p>10. Strategies in Mathematics 168</p><p>Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 169Prerequisite Skills 170Instruction in Mathematics 172Basic Math Facts Strategies 172Computation Strategies 175Word-Problem-Solving Strategies 176Implementation Plans 181Final Thoughts 189</p><p>11. Study Skills Strategies 192</p><p>Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 193Prerequisite Skills 195Instruction in Study Skills 196Note-Taking Strategies 196Homework/Task Completion 200Test-Taking Strategies 202Classroom Survival Strategies 205Implementation Plans 206Final Thoughts 210</p><p>12. Mnemonics 213</p><p>Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 214Acronyms and Acrostics: The First Letter Strategies 215Mimetics 217Symbolics 218Keywords 219Pegwords 223Final Thoughts 226</p><p>Index 231</p><p>Contents xiii</p></li><li><p>This page intentionally left blank </p></li><li><p>Strategy Instructionfor Students with Learning Disabilities</p></li><li><p>This page intentionally left blank </p></li><li><p>C H A P T E R 1</p><p>Why Use Strategy Instruction?</p><p>Students with learning disabilities (LD) constitute by far the largest group of stu-dents with special needs. According to the U.S. Department of Education, in 1999 therewere 2,789,000 students from birth to age 21 served in federally supported programsfor LD. Students with LD constitute 46% of the special education population and 5.9%of the total school enrollment according to recent figures (U.S. Department of Educa-tion, 2001). Over the last 25 years the number of students identified as learning dis-abled has showed a steady increase. Since 1976 the numbers have more than tripled.Although the rate of increase has slowed, the overall numbers continue to increase.</p><p>A learning disability affects nearly every aspect of a childs life and is a lifelongchallenge (Lerner, 2000). Interventions for students with LD cover many areas (e.g.,academics, self-esteem, transition, vocation). Students with LD are often caught in avicious spiral of school failure. Their learning difficulties lead to slower development ofacademic skills and abilities, which in turn impedes new learning (Stanovich, 1986). Asa result of the repeated cycle of failure, they fall farther and farther behind. Accordingto the U.S. Department of Education, students with LD are at greatly increased risk fordropping out: nearly 70% of students with LD fail to graduate from high school with astandard diploma. The academic problems also result in a lower engagement rate inpostsecondary schooling, employment, or both, compared to typically achieving stu-dents (Murray, Goldstein, &amp; Edgar, 1997). Thus, the need to address the academicachievement of students with LD is critical in order to improve their academic out-comes.</p><p>The purpose of this chapter is to provide background information on LD, discusscharacteristics of students with LD that affect instruction in general and strategy in-</p><p>1</p></li><li><p>struction in particular, and provide a rationale for the use of strategy instruction.Readers who are interested in more in-depth information should refer to Swanson,Harris, and Graham (2003). In this chapter, we first present definitions of LD andbriefly discuss the history of LD. Next, we describe some important characteristics ofstudents with LD and how our conceptualization of LD has changed over time. Finallywe make a case for the use of strategy instruction with students with LD. Note that theuse of strategy instruction is not limited to students with LD. Research clearly indicatesthat strategy instruction is effective for the great majority of students who struggle inacademic areas.</p><p>WHAT IS A LEARNING DISABILITY?</p><p>LD has been recognized as a category of disability under federal law since 1975. Thecurrent legal definition of LD is written into the Individuals with Disabilities EducationAct (IDEA); however, as Table 1.1 shows, other organizations have proposed their owndefinitions of LD that differ substantially, and exactly how to define LD has been andcontinues to be a controversial area. This is in part due to the highly heterogeneousnature of the students who are defined as LD. Students with LD manifest a number ofdifferent problems in academic, behavioral, and social-emotional areas. However, stu-dents with LD may exhibit vastly different profiles both within and across these areas.For example, some students may have serious problem with reading but will excel atmathematics. Others may have difficulties in mathematics, but not in reading. Somestudents will have serious problem with self-esteem or depression while others havelittle or no problem in these areas but may exhibit serious behavior problems. Anotherfactor that contributes to confusion in the area of LD is that the field cuts across a num-ber of professional disciplines, such as education, psychology, medicine, and sociology.Each of these disciplines brings its own perspective on LD, and like the proverbialblind men and the elephant, each focuses on a different aspect of LD. As a result, thereare differences across professional groups on the terminology that should be used todescribe LD, and on what aspects of LD should and should not be included in the defi-nition.</p><p>While there is a lack of consensus on how to define LD, there is a practical consen-sus on how students with LD are identified. Despite the fact that all of the definitions ofLD contain references to causes of LD (e.g., disorders in basic psychological processes,neurological origins, central nervous system dysfunction) and that difficulties in aca-demic areas are often described in medical language (e.g., dyslexia, dyscalculia,dysgraphia), these factors rarely if ever play a role in diagnosis. In practice, LD is a cat-egory of underachievement, and students with LD are identified based on chronic andsevere academic difficulties. Historically, a discrepancy formula was used to determineif a child should be labeled as learning disabled. Mercer (1997) noted that over 90% ofstates include...</p></li></ul>

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