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  • Strategy Instructionfor Students with Learning Disabilities

  • WHAT WORKS FOR SPECIAL-NEEDS LEARNERSKaren R. Harris and Steve Graham

    Editors

    Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning DisabilitiesRobert Reid and Torri Ortiz Lienemann

    Teaching Mathematics to Middle School Studentswith Learning Difficulties

    Marjorie Montague and Asha K. Jitendra, Editors

  • Strategy Instructionfor Students

    with Learning Disabilities

    Robert ReidTorri Ortiz Lienemann

    Series Editors Note by Karen R. Harris and Steve Graham

    THE GUILFORD PRESSNew York London

  • 2006 The Guilford PressA Division of Guilford Publications, Inc.72 Spring Street, New York, NY 10012www.guilford.com

    All rights reserved

    Except as indicated, no part of this book may be reproduced, translated, stored in a retrievalsystem, or transmitted, in any form or by any means, electronic, mechanical, photocopying,microfilming, recording, or otherwise, without written permission from the Publisher.

    Printed in the United States of America

    This book is printed on acid-free paper.

    Last digit is print number: 9 8 7 6 5 4 3 2 1

    LIMITED PHOTOCOPY LICENSE

    These materials are intended for use only by qualified professionals.

    The Publisher grants to individual purchasers of this book nonassignable permission toreproduce all materials for which photocopying permission is specifically granted in a foot-note. This license is limited to you, the individual purchaser, for use with your own clientsor students. It does not extend to additional professionals in your institution, school district,or other setting, nor does purchase by an institution constitute a site license. This licensedoes not grant the right to reproduce these materials for resale, redistribution, or any otherpurposes (including but not limited to books, pamphlets, articles, video- or audiotapes, andhandouts or slides for lectures or workshops). Permission to reproduce these materials forthese and any other purposes must be obtained in writing from the Permissions Departmentof Guilford Publications.

    Library of Congress Cataloging-in-Publication Data

    Reid, Robert.Strategy instruction for students with learning disabilities / Robert Reid, Torri Ortiz

    Lienemann.p. cm.(What works for special needs learners)

    Includes bibliographical references and index.ISBN-10 1-59385-282-7, ISBN-13 978-1-59385-282-5 (pbk.)ISBN-10 1-59385-283-5, ISBN-13 978-1-59385-283-2 (cloth)1. Learning disabled childrenEducationUnited States. I. Lienemann,

    Torri. II. Title. III. Series.LC4705.R46 2006371.9dc22

    2005031508

  • To Karen R. Harris, who taught us what we needed to know

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  • About the Authors

    Robert Reid, PhD, is a Professor in the Department of Special Education and Commu-nication Disorders at the University of NebraskaLincoln. He received his doctorate inspecial education from the University of Maryland in 1991. Dr. Reids research focuseson children with attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and on strategy in-struction. He has published more than 60 articles and book chapters and presented atnational and international conferences. Additionally, he codeveloped the ADHD-IVRating Scale (1998). Dr. Reid received the American Educational Research AssociationsSpecial Education Student Research Award in 1992 and the Balilies Child MentalHealth Award in 1996. He currently serves on the editorial boards of five journals andactively reviews for several others.

    Torri Ortiz Lienemann, MEd, is a doctoral candidate at the University of NebraskaLincoln. Her work focuses on strategy instruction and self-regulation, specifically inwriting. Currently, Ms. Lienemann is involved in research on strategy instruction forstudents with ADHD and in creating new programs to assist students with specialneeds and their teachers. She has been a classroom resource teacher at both the middleand high school levels and served as a remedial teacher at an elementary school.

    vii

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  • Series Editors Note

    Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities guides teachers and otherpractitioners through the effective use of strategy instruction, proven by researchers tobe a powerful instructional approach for students with learning disabilities, students atrisk for school failure, and other struggling learners. The reader is taken through thewhat, why, and how of a classroom-validated model of strategy instructionSelf-Regulated Strategy Developmentin conjunction with practical examples of how toteach powerful academic and learning strategies.

    This volume is first in the series What Works for Special-Needs Learners. Theseries addresses a significant need in the education of learners with special needsstudents who are at risk, those with disabilities, and all children and adolescents whostruggle with learning or behavior. Researchers in special education, educational psy-chology, curriculum and instruction, and other fields have made great progress inunderstanding what works for struggling learners, yet the practical application of thisresearch base remains quite limited. This is due in part to the lack of appropriate mate-rials for teachers, teacher educators, and inservice teacher development programs. Asdemonstrated in the present volume, books in the series will present assessment, in-structional, and classroom management methods that have a strong research base, andwill also provide specific how-to instructions and examples of the use of proven pro-cedures in schools.

    Strategy Instruction for Students with Learning Disabilities features extensive use ofexamples drawn from classroom teachers and their students. The authors also providetools for organizing and implementing strategy instruction, guidelines for effectivestrategy modeling and scaffolding, sample lesson plans, and materials helpful in teach-

    ix

  • ing students to use core self-regulation strategies (e.g., goal setting, self-instruction,self-assessment/self-monitoring, and self-reinforcement).

    The authors, who have significant experience with strategy instruction in the class-room, provide detailed information on instruction in and the development of academicand self-regulation strategies across written language, reading, and mathematics. Eachchapter in these areas includes a discussion of the prerequisites for learning, majorproblems experienced by learners who struggle with that area of academic learning,and research-proven strategies. Strategy instruction in the areas of study skills andmemory strategies are covered as well. In addition, the authors clearly explain anddemonstrate how implementing strategy instruction in the classroom includes thedevelopment of motivation, positive attitudes toward learning, and attributions foreffort and strategy use. An invaluable resource for practitioners, this book is also suit-able for use in a methods course.

    Future books in the series will cover such issues as math instruction, word learn-ing, and reading comprehension for students with learning disabilities. All volumeswill be as thorough and detailed as the present one and will facilitate implementationof evidence-based practices in classrooms and schools.

    KAREN R. HARRISSTEVE GRAHAM

    x Series Editors Note

  • Contents

    1. Why Use Strategy Instruction? 1

    What Is a Learning Disability? 2Causes of Learning Disabilities 3Characteristics of Students with Learning Disabilities 6Why a Strategy Approach? 10Putting Strategy Instruction into the Classroom 12Final Thoughts 13

    2. Building Background Knowledge 16

    Introduction to Strategy Instruction 17Information Processing 19The Importance of Attributions 22Metacognition 25Final Thoughts 30

    3. The Self-Regulated Strategy Development Model 32

    The Six Stages of the SRSD Model 33Evaluating SRSD 42Practical Considerations and Tips 45Final Thoughts 47

    4. How to Implement the SRSD Model 49

    Structured Strategy Example 50Unstructured Strategy Example 60Final Thoughts 70

    xi

  • 5. Self-Regulation Strategies 71

    Self-Monitoring 72Self-Instruction 78Goal Setting 80Self-Reinforcement 81The Case for Self-Regulation 82Final Thoughts 83

    6. Implementing Self-Regulation Strategies 86

    Implementing Self-Monitoring 86Implementing Self-Instruction 94Implementing Goal Setting 102Implementing Self-Reinforcement 104Combining Strategies 107Final Thoughts 107

    7. Integrating Strategies and Self-Regulation 110

    Self-Monitoring, Goal Setting, and a Spelling Strategy 111Self-Monitoring and a Math Strategy 112Self-Instruction and a Writing Strategy 114Goal Setting and a Reading Comprehension Strategy 117Self-Monitoring and a Main Idea Comprehension Strategy 119Integrating Strategies to Solve Math Word Problems 121Final Thoughts 122

    8. Strategies in Written Language 125

    Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 126Prerequisite Skills 128Instruction in the Writing Process 129Implementation Plans 138Final Thoughts 144

    9. Strategies in Reading Comprehension 147

    Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 148Prerequisite Skills 149Prereading Strategies 151During-Reading Strategies 153Postreading Strategies 157Implementation Plans 160Final Thoughts 166

    xii Contents

  • 10. Strategies in Mathematics 168

    Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 169Prerequisite Skills 170Instruction in Mathematics 172Basic Math Facts Strategies 172Computation Strategies 175Word-Problem-Solving Strategies 176Implementation Plans 181Final Thoughts 189

    11. Study Skills Strategies 192

    Problems for Students with Learning Disabilities 193Prerequisite Skills 1

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