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Essential Reading Strategies for the Struggling Reader:Activities for an Accelerated Reading Program EXPANDED EDITION

www.texasreading.org

T E X A S ED UC AT ION A G E N C Y

2001 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency

www.texasreading.org

T E X A S ED UC AT ION A G E N C Y

2001 University of Texas System/Texas Education Agency These materials are copyrighted by and are the property of the University of Texas System and the Texas Education Agency and may not be reproduced or distributed without their written permission, except by Texas public school educators under the following conditions: 1) any portion reproduced or distributed will be used exclusively for nonprot educational purposes; and 2) no monetary charge is made for the reproduced materials, any document containing them, or any activity at which they are distributed; however, a reasonable charge to cover only the cost of reproduction and distribution may be charged.

ContentsAcknowledgements Introduction Fluency How to Teach Fluency: Basic Steps Partner Reading Fluency Word Cards Page Races Reading and Rereading: How Speedy Are You? Fast Phrases Listening to Fluency: Rate and Expression Cloze It Fast! Word Pattern Road Race Bingo Word Folder On Your Mark, Get Set, Go! and the Answer Is... Slap! Phonological Awareness How to Teach Phonological Awareness: Basic Steps Rhyming Tic-Tac-toe Riddle Rap Rhyming Memory Match Which Ones Share a Common Sound? Rhyming Picture Cards Jumping Syllables Syllable Counting The Name Game Riming Race M & M Phonemes Do the Phoneme Shue! Phoneme Chant Mother, May I? Smiley-Face Phonemes Discriminating Phonemes Whats the Dierence? Instructional Reading How to Teach Instructional Reading: Basic Steps The Ws of Story Comprehension Comprehension: Story Mapping 5 6 9 11 12 13 14 15 16 17 18 19 20 21 22 23 24 25 26 28 29 30 31 32 33 34 35 36 37 38 39 40 41 42 43 45 47 48 49 Decoding: Consonant Blending and Digraphs Decoding: Word Patterns Decoding: Chunking Decoding: Analogy Decoding: Sight Words Decoding: Vowel Diphthongs Decoding: Long Vowels and Vowel Digraphs Decoding: R-Controlled Vowels Decoding: Short Vowels Word Analysis/Spelling How to Teach Word Analysis/Spelling: Basic Steps Building Words with Blends Add Silent E to Make New Words Word Study Boggle Pair That Sound! Short or Long? Sticky Books Tic-Tac-toe Word Slide Change One Letter Word Pattern Match Contraction Concentration S Blends Letters and Words Stand and Be Read! Fish for Word Patterns! (or Fish for Rimes!) Word Hunt Appendix A Appendix B Appendix C Appendix D Appendix E Appendix F Appendix G Appendix H Appendix I Appendix J Appendix K References 50 51 52 53 54 55 56 57 58 59 61 62 63 64 65 66 67 68 69 70 71 72 73 74 75 76 77 79 80 81 82 83 84 87 88 89 92 93 95

AcknowledgementsWe gratefully acknowledge the support of the following individuals and agencies for their contributions to the studies and the manual.Texas Education Agency

Jim Nelson, CommissionerUniversity of Texas Center for Reading and Language Arts

Cathy Cornelius-Samos Azucena Garca Peggy Hickman-Davis Marcel LeJeune Melissa Light Sylvia Linan-Thompson Leticia Martinez Kristina Roberts Alejandra Rodrguez-Galindo Stacey Sullivan Sharon VaughnThe University of Texas at Austin, College of Education

Manuel Justiz, Dean Marilyn Kameen, Associate DeanDel Valle Independent School District

Principals, teachers, and studentsAustin Independent School District

Principals, teachers, and studentsSpecial thanks to all our reviewers for their valuable contributions.

IntroductionOverview

The activities in this manual are drawn from converging research evidence on the eectiveness of critical components to early reading success (Snow, Burns, & Grin, 998). These instructional elements include: phonological awareness; uent reading in a variety of texts; comprehension strategies and vocabulary development; decoding strategies; and word analysis. To improve their reading prociency, students who struggle with reading need intensive, systematic, and explicit instruction in these components in addition to their regular classroom reading instruction. The activities in this manual are intended to supplement the regular classroom reading program and to provide the additional practice struggling readers need to develop basic reading strategies. This manual is divided into four sections: Fluency, Phonological Awareness, Instructional Reading with Comprehension, and Word Analysis and Spelling. The two sample lesson plans on the following pages illustrate how the four sections can be organized into 3035 minute lessons over the span of a week. The original lesson plan, containing all of the elements taught in equal time frames each day, is appropriate to use with students who can read at least 5 words per minute (wpm) on grade level text and are making reading uency gains of at least two words per minute, per week. The adapted lesson plan is more appropriate for students who read less then 5 wpm in grade level text and gain less than two words per minute per week. The adapted lesson plan allows for increased time in uency building and word analysis activities to increase automatic word recognition, while continuing to provide consistent reinforcement in the areas of phonological awareness and instructional reading. Each section of the manual contains an overview of the instructional element, followed by progress-monitoring activities and modications for English language learners. The subsequent lessons and activities in each element can be used to review, practice, and reinforce the skill or skills associated with the element. Lesson plans for the activities include the objective for the lesson, a list of materials needed, and steps for completing the activity. In addition, the plans include adaptations for dierent levels of instruction and for dierent target skills, and modications for English language learners. Appendices provide directions for making materials, word pattern lists for use with many of the activities, and lists of decodable book series and teacher resources.Progress Monitoring

The section overview also discusses progress monitoring, another component of accelerated reading instruction. Weekly monitoring of student progress can be used to document student growth and to inform instruction. Timed reading and writing activities provide both teachers and students with an index of the students uency level.

6

Introduction

Monday 5 minutes Partner Reading Progress monitoring (sight words) p. 12 5 minutes Road Race p. 19 5 minutes Fast Phrases Progress monitoring (word pattern) p. 16 5 minutes Discriminating Phonemes p. 42 10 minutes Decoding long vowels in decodable book p. 56 10 minutes Word Pattern Match p. 71 34 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes 5 minutes Do the Phoneme Shue! p. 38 10 minutes Decoding long vowels in passage p. 56 10 minutes Sticky Books p. 67 34 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes 5 minutes Smiley-Faced Phonemes p. 41 10 minutes Instructional reading: Basic steps p. 47 10 minutes Decoding long vowels in decodable book p. 56 10 minutes Word Slide p. 69 34 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes 10 minutes Pair That Sound! p. 65 34 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes 5 minutes Discriminating Phonemes p. 42 5 minutes Word Folder p. 21

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday

Friday 5 minutes Partner Reading Progress monitoring (sight words) p. 12 5 minutes Riming Race p. 36 10 minutes Decoding long vowels in trade book & The Ws p. 48 10 minutes Pair That Sound! p. 65 34 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes

Fluency

Phonological Awareness

Original Weekly Lesson Plan

Instructional-level Reading Decoding words containing silent e

Word Analysis/ Spelling

Progress Monitoring

Introduction

Total Time

7

Fluency 5 minutes Road Race p. 19 10 minutes Fast Phrases Progress monitoring (word pattern) p. 16

Adapted Weekly Lesson Plan

Monday 10 minutes Partner Reading Progress monitoring (sight words) p. 12 5 minutes Riming Race p. 36 10 minutes Instructional reading: Basic steps p. 47 10 minutes Add silent e to make new words p. 63 5 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes 10 minutes Decoding long vowels in decodable book p. 56 10 minutes Short or Long? p. 66 5 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes 10 minutes Decoding long vowels in decodable book p. 56 10 minutes Word Pattern Match p. 71 5 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes

Tuesday

Wednesday

Thursday 5 minutes Word Folder p. 21

Friday

10 minutes Partner Reading p. 12 Progress monitoring (sight words) 5 minutes Do the Phoneme Shue! p. 38 10 minutes Decoding long vowels in passage p. 56 10 minutes Sticky Books p. 67 5 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes

Phonological Awareness

Instructional-level Reading Decoding words containing silent e p. 56 Word Analysis/ Spelling

10 minutes Decoding long vowels in trade book p. 56

10 minutes Fish for Word Patterns p. 76

Total Time

8

Introduction

Progress Monitoring

5 minutes One-Minute Write p. 60 35 minutes

FluencyFluent reading consists of three components: rate, accuracy, and prosody (prosody refers to intonation, stress, and pauses). The main goal of uent reading practice is to provide students with opportunities to read accurately and quickly if they are reading only words, and/or with appropriate expression if they are reading connected text. As students make gains in reading uency, they are able to focus more of their reading energy on comprehension, rather than on decoding, and are therefore better able to analyze, interpret, and draw conclusions from their reading (White,

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