Study Guide 10 Renaissance
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Mohit Agrawal (1.7)
the late Middle Ages was a time of creative fragmentation the result of patronage (paid for by wealthy families due to trade with Asia) in the Italian city states was a cultural Renaissance unmatched elsewhere The fifteenth century also saw an unprecedented scholarly renaissance in Italian humanism and northern humanism. European states progressively superseded the universal church as the community of highest allegiance, as patriotism and incipient nationalism seized hearts and minds as strongly as religion. For Europe, the late fifteenth and sixteenth centuries were a period of unprecedented territorial expansion and ideological experimentation. Newly centralized governments began to put long-range economic policies into practice, a development that came to be called mercantilism. The Renaissance in Italy There are disagreements over how much the Renaissance shifted the world into the modern age, and to what degree it was continuous with the Middle Ages. The Renaissance was a time of transition from the medieval to the modern world. Medieval Modern Feudal society Agricultural economy Growing national consensus/political centralization Urban economy based on trade and capitalism
The Western Heritage, 8th edition, by Kagan, Ozment, and Turner Chapter 10-Renaissance and Discovery
Power and leadership of Church/religion Greater lay/secular control of thought and culture The Renaissance is usually bookended between 1375 and 1527. Petrarchthe father of humanismdied in 1374. Petrarch is credited for perfecting the sonnet, making it one of the most popular art forms to date. Giovanni Boccaccio, author of the Decameron (a scandalous novel composed of 100 short stories of people as they escape an Italian city hit by the plaguethe novel shows a new realism of how people really acted and thought), died in 1375. Spanish-imperial soldiers rooted Rome in 1527 and imprisoned Pope Clement VII. The Italian City-State Italy was a natural gateway between East and West. Cities prospered with trade and grew powerful. Growth of City-States The pro-papal and pro-emperor forces constantly fought in the HRE. This left the Italian city states safe and unchallenged, and led to the rise of merchant oligarchies. Five main areas: duchy of Milan, the republic of Florence, republic of Venice, the Papal States, and the kingdom of Naples. Except for Venice (with a 300 member senate and the Council of Ten), most devolved into despotism. Social Class and Conflict There were four social classes: the old rich (grandi), the new rich (popolo grosso), the middle class, and the poor (popolo minuto). The 1378 Ciompi Revolt in Florence by the lower class was due to the feuding between the
Mohit Agrawal (2.7) upper classes, the black death, and an untenable economic situation. Class warfare was always imminent in middle-class Italy. Despotism and Diplomacy the guilds had much power in the city-states Most city-states had a revolving door of despots. The nobles and the rich would come together to select one, called a podesta. The podesta used the condottieri (mercenaries) to keep the populaces under control. The various city-states could stay abreast of foreign military developments and, if shrewd enough, gain power and advantage (especially in trade) without actually going to war. This was the development of diplomacy. Humanism A cultural and intellectual movement during the Renaissance, following the rediscovery of the art and literature of ancient Greece and Rome. A philosophy or attitude concerned with the interests, achievements, and capabilities of human beings rather than with the abstract concepts and problems of theology or science. Other interpretations: o the birth of modernity, characterized by an un-Christian philosophy that stressed the dignity of humankind and championed individualism and secular values. o Champions of authentic Catholic Christianity who opposed pagan teachings of Aristotle and the ineloquent Scholasticism that resulted. o A form of scholarship consciously designed to promote a sense of civic responsibility and political liberty. Humanists advocated the studia humanitatis, a liberal arts program of study that embraced grammar, rhetoric, poetry, history, politics, and moral philosophy. Manuel Chrysoloras was a Byzantine scholar who opened the world of ancient Greek works to a generation of young Italian humanists. He taught in Florence between 1397 and 1403. the first humanists were orators and poets who wrote in Latin and the vernacular (as opposed to Latin alone). Unlike Scholastics, humanists did not care about how the classical writings related to God. They instead wanted to answer the question why irrespective of religion. They thus ignored medieval theologians and went straight to the Bible and classical works. Petrarch, Dante, and Boccaccio Petrarch (1304-1374) wrote Letters to the Ancient Dead that celebrated ancient Rome; Africa about a famous Roman general, and Lives of Illustrious Men about famous Roman men. He also wrote love sonnets to a married Laura. Her death made him seek out the classical works, and his results didn't always jibe with modern Christianity. Dante Alighieri (1265-1321) wrote the Divine Comedy, the cornerstone of Italian vernacular literature, and the Inferno. Boccaccio's (1313-1375) Decameron was a stinging social commentary and a sympathetic look at human behavior. Educational Reforms and Goals To goal of humanist studies was to be wise and to speak eloquently, to know what is good, and to practice virtue. These goals changed education, especially at the university level. Castiglione's Book of the Courtier explains how one can be smart to rise up in court. This
Mohit Agrawal (3.7) includes a description of manners. Christine de Pisan became a famous author of The Treasure of the City of Ladies (which includes a treatise on how to handle one's husband). The Florentine Academy and the Revival of Platonism The revival of Plato's work was very important. The fall of Constantinople in 1453 led many Greek scholars to come to Florence and led to the start of the Florentine Platonic Academy. Platonism gave a flattering view of human nature. People lived in the perishable world. Human reason was instead from an eternal sphere of being. This stressed the importance of the individual human. Critical Work of the Humanists: Lorenzo Valla humanists could become critics of tradition even when that was not their intention. Lorenzo Valla defended predestination. He also showed that a 4th century document, the Donation of Constantine, was a fraud. It had said that Constantine had given the pope a large land grant. Valla also showed errors in the Bible (due to anachronisms in the Latin). His ideas would later be used by Martin Luther. The Church was not perfect. Civic Humanism Unlike scholastic humanism, civic humanists applied humanist learning to political and cultural life. Many humanists became cliquish and snobbish and were only concerned with pursuing narrow, antiquarian interests and writing pure, classical Latin in their studies. Civic humanists like Machiavelli rebelled against that. They also made contemporary history their main subject matter, not ancient history. Italy's Political Decline: The French Invasions (1494-1527) The Treaty of Lodi Italy relied on internal cooperation for its peace and safety from foreign invasion, especially from the Turks. The Treaty of Lodi in 1454 allied Milan and Naples (usually enemies) with Florence against Venice and the Papal States. Against a foreign enemy, the city-states would unite. Ludovico il Moro of Milan broke the treaty in 1494 when he made Florence and Naples angry. They were about to attack him when he asked for help from France. This was a mistake. Not only did France have dynastic claim to Naples, they had dynastic claims to Milan. Charles VIII's March through Italy Louis XI resisted attacking Italy. He died in 1483. His son, Charles VIII, had no reservations. He attacked in 1494. Florence, led by the Medici, surrendered Pisa in order to save itself. The radical Dominican preacher Savonarola convinced Florence that the French were coming because of Florence's sins and he gained power in the city. Savonarola paid a large ransom and Florence was saved. However, Savonaraola would be executed in 1498 as Florence got sick of his theology. Ferdinand of Aragon (who wanted Sicily for himself) was scared of a new powerful France. He formed the League of Venice in 1495 with Venice, the Papal States, and Emperor
Mohit Agrawal (4.7) Maximilian I. Milan joined later, and the League defeated Charles in 1498. Pope Alexander VI and the Borgia Family The French returned to Italy under Charles's successor, Louis XII. They were assisted by the Borgia pope, Alexander VI (1492-1503). Alexander VI was probably the most corrupt pope who ever sat on the papal throne. He had wives and children and had visions of a new Borgia dynasty in the Italian city-states. He thought the best way to do this was to ally with France. o Alexander annulled Louis XII's marriage so that Louis could marry a Brittany woman, and keep Brittany in France. o Alex wanted Romagna, so he had the French attack. o Alexander also left the League of Venice, opening up Italy to the French. o His son also married the sister of the king of Navarre. o Alexander and the French king did other small favors for one another. France attacked in 1499. In 1500, Louis and Ferdinand of Aragon divided Naples. The Borgias conquered Romagna. Pope Julius II (1503-1513): The Warrior Pope He was strongly anti-Borgia. He placed Romagna under papal jurisdiction by driving out the Borgias and the Venetians. This secured the Papal States. Julius became known as the warrior pope because he brought the Renaissance papacy to a peak of military and diplomatic power. Erasmus wrote a satire called Julius Excluded from Heaven after watching a bullfight in the papal palace. Julius wasnt happy. Julius, Ferdiand of Aragon, and Venice formed the Holy League in 1511 and by 1512 had the French in full retreat. The French invaded again under Francis I in 1515. The pope compromised with the Concordat of Bologna that gave the French king more power over his clergy. This helped keep France Catholic after the Reformation, and kept France out of Italy. Machiavelli The more Machiavelli saw, the more convinced he became that Italian political unity and independence were ends that justified any means. Roman rulers and citizens possessed the ability to act decisively and heroically for the good of their country. Machiavelli scolded the Italian people for the self-destruction their own internal feuding was causing. Only a strongman, Machiavelli concluded, could impose order on so divided and selfish a people. Machiavelli put his bet on the Medici, rulers of Florence and the papacy (Leo X: 1513-1521). The second Medici pope was Clement VII (1523-1534) who was imprisoned by Charles V. Revival of Monarchy in Northern Europe After 1450, there was a progressive shift from divided feudal to unified national monarchies as sovereign rulers emerged.
Mohit Agrawal (5.7) Because of the Hundred Years' War and the Great Schism in the church, the nobility and the clergy were in decline by the late Middle Ages and less able to contain expanding monarchies. The increasingly important towns began to ally with the king. In a sovereign state, the powers of taxation, war making, and law enforcement no longer belong to semiautonomous vassals, but are concentrated in the monarch and are exercised by his or her chosen agents. Monarchs were assisted by brilliant theorists like Marsilus of Padua and Machiavelli and Jean Bodin, who eloquently argued the sovereign rights of monarchy. Monarchies began to create standing national armies in the 15th century. Artillery became the backbone of armies. Mercenaries became important parts of armies. Monarchs could collect rent from their royal domains. They could levy the salt tax (gabelle) or sales tax (alcabala). They could directly tax the poor, like the French taille. In money matters, the privileged classes remained the king's creditors and competitors. France Charles VII had a strong army (Joan of Arc) and a strong economy (Jacques Coeur). His son was Louis XI (then Charles VIII, then Louis XII, then Francis I). Louis XI oversaw the defeat of the budding new power of Burgundy while allied with the Holy Roman Empire. Because Louis's successors inherited a secure and efficient government, they felt free to pursue a debilitating foreign policy. The constant attacks on Italy weakened France internally. Spain Isabella of Castile and Ferdinand of Aragon married in 1469. Ferdinand and Isabella could do together what neither could do alone o subdue their realms o secure their borders o venture abroad militarily o and Christianize the whole of Spain. Ferdinand and Isabella exercised almost total control over the Spanish church as they placed religion in the service of national unity with the Spanish Inquisition. Joanna the Mad (daughter of Ferdinand and Isabella) married Philip I of the Holy Roman Empire. Their son, Charles I (Spain)/V (HRE) would rule over a massive empire. Catherine of Aragon was married to Arthur (who died) and then Henry VIII (1st wife). Ferdinand and Isabella also sponsored Christopher Columbus. England Following the Hundred Years' War, a defeated England was subjected to internal warfare between two rival branches of the royal family: the House of York and the House of Lancaster. This conflict became known as the War of the Roses. Henry VI was Lancastrian. In 1461, he lost power to Edward IV, a Yorkshire guy. In 1470, Henry VI came back to power, only to lose it again to Edward in 1471. Richard III, Edward's brother, took over on Edward's death in 1483. He probably had Edward's children killed. This story, true or not, was made famous in Shakepeare's Richard III. Note that Richard III was written during a time when bashing Richard was popular. Henry Tudor (VII) defeated Richard in 1485 and started the Tudor dynasty. He married
Mohit Agrawal (6.7) Elizabeth of York to better secure the throne. He started the Court of Star Chamber, in which his councilors were judges in cases with nobility. This made a more equitable court system (nobles couldnt just buy justice) and gave the king more power. The Holy Roman Empire In Germany, territorial rulers resisted every effort at national consolidation and unity. Rulers continued to partition their kingdoms among their sons, making Germany hopelessly divided. In 1356, the emperor and major German territorial rulers agreed on the Golden Bull. It set up a seven-member electoral college that functioned as an administrative body (cabinet) and elected the emperor. The conditions of the emperor's power were renegotiated with every imperial elect...