Study Guide for Content Mastery - Teacher ?· Chemistry: Matter and Change • For each item in Column A, ... Chapter 17 Study Guide for Content Mastery ... Study Guide for Content Mastery - Teacher Edition

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  • Cop

    yrig

    ht

    Gle

    ncoe

    /McG

    raw

    -Hill

    ,a d

    ivis

    ion

    of th

    e M

    cGra

    w-H

    ill C

    ompa

    nies

    ,Inc

    .

    T206 Chemistry: Matter and Change Study Guide for Content Mastery Answer Key

    Nam

    eD

    ate

    Cla

    ss

    98C

    hem

    istr

    y: M

    atte

    r an

    d C

    han

    ge

    C

    hap

    ter

    17St

    ud

    y G

    uid

    e fo

    r C

    on

    ten

    t M

    aste

    ry

    For

    eac

    h it

    em in

    Col

    umn

    A,w

    rite

    the

    lett

    er o

    f th

    e m

    atch

    ing

    item

    in C

    olum

    n B

    .

    Col

    umn

    AC

    olum

    n B

    11.

    Exp

    ress

    es th

    e av

    erag

    e ra

    te o

    f lo

    ss o

    f a

    reac

    tant

    a.

    aver

    age

    reac

    tion

    rate

    12.

    Exp

    ress

    ed a

    s

    quan

    tity/

    tim

    eb

    .po

    sitiv

    e nu

    mbe

    r

    13.

    Exp

    ress

    es th

    e av

    erag

    e ra

    te o

    f fo

    rmat

    ion

    of a

    pro

    duct

    c.ne

    gativ

    e nu

    mbe

    r

    Use

    the

    fig

    ure

    belo

    w t

    o an

    swer

    the

    fol

    low

    ing

    ques

    tion

    s.

    14.

    Wha

    t mol

    ecul

    es c

    ollid

    ed in

    col

    lisio

    ns A

    ,B,a

    nd C

    ?

    15.

    Wha

    t do

    the

    arro

    ws

    repr

    esen

    t?

    The

    arro

    ws

    rep

    rese

    nt

    the

    dir

    ecti

    on

    an

    d t

    he

    amo

    un

    t o

    f en

    erg

    y o

    f th

    e

    mo

    vin

    g m

    ole

    cule

    s.

    16.

    Whi

    ch c

    ollis

    ion(

    s) f

    orm

    ed p

    rodu

    cts?

    Wha

    t wer

    e th

    e pr

    oduc

    ts?

    17.

    Exp

    lain

    why

    the

    othe

    r co

    llisi

    on(s

    ) di

    d no

    t for

    m p

    rodu

    cts.

    Co

    llisi

    on

    A d

    id n

    ot

    form

    pro

    du

    cts

    bec

    ause

    th

    e ca

    rbo

    n a

    tom

    in t

    he

    CO

    mo

    lecu

    le

    did

    no

    t co

    nta

    ct a

    n o

    xyg

    en a

    tom

    in t

    he

    NO

    2m

    ole

    cule

    . Co

    llisi

    on

    C d

    id n

    ot

    form

    pro

    du

    cts

    bec

    ause

    th

    e C

    O m

    ole

    cule

    an

    d t

    he

    NO

    2m

    ole

    cule

    did

    no

    t co

    llid

    e w

    ith

    suff

    icie

    nt

    ener

    gy.

    18.

    Whi

    ch c

    ollis

    ion(

    s) f

    orm

    ed a

    n ac

    tivat

    ed c

    ompl

    ex?

    Iden

    tify

    the

    activ

    ated

    com

    plex

    .

    Co

    llisi

    on

    B; t

    he

    acti

    vate

    d c

    om

    ple

    x is

    an

    OC

    ON

    O m

    ole

    cule

    .

    Co

    llisi

    on

    B; C

    O2

    and

    NO

    CO

    an

    d N

    O2

    Inco

    rrec

    t o

    rien

    tati

    on

    Reb

    ou

    nd

    Co

    rrec

    t o

    rien

    tati

    on

    Co

    llisi

    on

    Co

    llisi

    on

    Act

    ivat

    ed c

    om

    ple

    xPr

    od

    uct

    s

    Co

    rrec

    t o

    rien

    tati

    on

    Insu

    ffic

    ien

    t en

    erg

    y

    Reb

    ou

    nd

    Co

    llisi

    on

    A

    B

    C

    bac

    Sect

    ion

    17.1

    co

    nti

    nu

    ed

    ST

    UD

    Y G

    UID

    E F

    OR

    CO

    NT

    EN

    T M

    AST

    ER

    YCH

    AP

    TER

    17

    Nam

    eD

    ate

    Cla

    ss

    Stu

    dy

    Gu

    ide

    for

    Co

    nte

    nt

    Mas

    tery

    Ch

    emis

    try:

    Mat

    ter

    and

    Ch

    ang

    e

    Ch

    apte

    r 17

    97

    Rea

    ctio

    n R

    ates

    Rea

    ctio

    n R

    ates

    Sect

    ion

    17.1

    A M

    odel

    for

    Rea

    ctio

    n R

    ates

    In y

    ou

    r te

    xtb

    oo

    k, r

    ead

    ab

    ou

    t ex

    pre

    ssin

    g r

    eact

    ion

    rat

    es a

    nd

    exp

    lain

    ing

    rea

    ctio

    ns

    and

    thei

    r ra

    tes.

    Use

    eac

    h of

    the

    ter

    ms

    belo

    w j

    ust

    once

    to

    com

    plet

    e th

    e pa

    ssag

    e.

    Acc

    ordi

    ng to

    the

    (1)

    ,ato

    ms,

    ions

    ,and

    mol

    ecul

    es m

    ust c

    ollid

    e in

    orde

    r to

    rea

    ct. O

    nce

    form

    ed,t

    he (

    2)

    is a

    tem

    pora

    ry,u

    nsta

    ble

    arra

    ngem

    ent o

    f at

    oms

    that

    may

    then

    for

    m p

    rodu

    cts

    or m

    ay b

    reak

    apa

    rt to

    ref

    orm

    the

    reac

    tant

    s.

    Thi

    s ph

    ysic

    al a

    rran

    gem

    ent i

    s kn

    own

    as th

    e (3

    ). E

    very

    che

    mic

    al

    reac

    tion

    requ

    ires

    ene

    rgy,

    and

    the

    min

    imum

    am

    ount

    of

    ener

    gy th

    at r

    eact

    ing

    part

    icle

    s m

    ust h

    ave

    to f

    orm

    the

    activ

    ated

    com

    plex

    is th

    e (4

    ). I

    n a

    chem

    ical

    rea

    ctio

    n,th

    e

    (5)

    is th

    e ch

    ange

    in c

    once

    ntra

    tion

    of a

    rea

    ctan

    t or

    prod

    uct p

    er u

    nit

    time.

    It m

    ay b

    e ex

    pres

    sed

    usin

    g th

    e un

    its o

    f (6

    ).

    Use

    the

    ene

    rgy

    diag

    ram

    for

    the

    rea

    rran

    gem

    ent

    reac

    tion

    of

    met

    hyl i

    soni

    trile

    to

    acet

    oni-

    trile

    to

    answ

    er t

    he f

    ollo

    win

    g qu

    esti

    ons.

    7.

    Wha

    t kin

    d of

    rea

    ctio

    n is

    rep

    rese

    nted

    by

    this

    dia

    gram

    ,en

    doth

    erm

    ic o

    r ex

    othe

    rmic

    ?

    exo

    ther

    mic

    8.

    Wha

    t is

    the

    chem

    ical

    str

    uctu

    re id

    entif

    ied

    at th

    e to

    p of

    the

    curv

    e on

    the

    diag

    ram

    ?

    the

    acti

    vate

    d c

    om

    ple

    x

    9.

    Wha

    t doe

    s th

    e sy

    mbo

    l Ea

    repr

    esen

    t?

    the

    acti

    vati

    on

    en

    erg

    y

    10.

    Wha

    t doe

    s th

    e sy

    mbo

    l E

    repr

    esen

    t?

    the

    net

    en

    erg

    y re

    leas

    ed f

    rom

    th

    e ex

    oth

    erm

    ic r

    eact

    ion

    mo

    l/L

    s

    reac

    tio

    n r

    ate

    acti

    vati

    on

    en

    erg

    y

    tran

    siti

    on

    sta

    te

    acti

    vate

    d c

    om

    ple

    x

    colli

    sio

    n t

    heo

    ry

    ST

    UD

    Y G

    UID

    E F

    OR

    CO

    NT

    EN

    T M

    AST

    ER

    YCH

    AP

    TER

    17

    colli

    sio

    n t

    heo

    ryac

    tiva

    ted

    co

    mp

    lex

    tran

    siti

    on

    sta

    te

    acti

    vati

    on

    en

    erg

    yre

    acti

    on

    rat

    em

    ol/(

    L s)

    Rea

    ctio

    n P

    rog

    ress

    H3C

    N

    C

    H3C

    C

    N

    a

    Energy

    E

    E a

    H3C

    ...C N

  • Cop

    yrig

    ht

    Gle

    ncoe

    /McG

    raw

    -Hill

    ,a d

    ivis

    ion

    of th

    e M

    cGra

    w-H

    ill C

    ompa

    nies

    ,Inc

    .

    Study Guide for Content Mastery Answer Key Chemistry: Matter and Change T207

    Nam

    eD

    ate

    Cla

    ss

    100

    Ch

    emis

    try:

    Mat

    ter

    and

    Ch

    ang

    e

    Ch

    apte

    r 17

    Stu

    dy

    Gu

    ide

    for

    Co

    nte

    nt

    Mas

    tery

    Sect

    ion

    17.3

    Rea

    ctio

    n R

    ate

    Law

    sIn

    yo

    ur

    text

    bo

    ok,

    rea

    d a

    bo

    ut

    reac

    tio

    n r

    ate

    law

    s an

    d d

    eter

    min

    ing

    rea

    ctio

    n o

    rder

    .

    Use

    eac

    h of

    the

    ter

    ms

    belo

    w t

    o co

    mpl

    ete

    the

    stat

    emen

    ts.

    Equ

    atio

    n 1

    aA +

    bB

    0cC

    + d

    D

    Equ

    atio

    n 2

    k[A

    ]m[B

    ]n

    1.

    Equ

    atio

    n 1

    desc

    ribe

    s a

    .

    2.

    Equ

    atio

    n 2

    expr

    esse

    s th

    e m

    athe

    mat

    ical

    rel

    atio

    nshi

    p be

    twee

    n th

    e ra

    te o

    f a

    chem

    ical

    reac

    tion

    and

    the

    conc

    entr

    atio

    ns o

    f th

    e re

    acta

    nts.

    Thi

    s is

    kno

    wn

    as th

    e

    .

    3.

    The

    var

    iabl

    e k

    in e

    quat

    ion

    2 is

    the

    ,a n

    umer

    ical

    val

    ue th

    at

    rela

    tes

    the

    reac

    tion

    rate

    and

    the

    conc

    entr

    atio

    n at

    a g

    iven

    tem

    pera

    ture

    .

    4.

    The

    var

    iabl

    es m

    and

    nar

    e th

    e . T

    hese

    def

    ine

    how

    the

    rate

    is

    affe

    cted

    by

    the

    conc

    entr

    atio

    ns o

    f th

    e re

    acta

    nts.

    5.

    The

    squ

    are

    brac

    kets

    [ ]

    rep

    rese

    nt

    .

    6.

    The

    var

    iabl

    e t

    repr

    esen

    ts

    .

    Ans

    wer

    the

    que

    stio

    ns a

    bout

    the

    fol

    low

    ing

    rate

    law

    .

    Rat

    e

    k[A

    ]1[B

    ]2

    7.

    Wha

    t is

    the

    reac

    tion

    orde

    r w

    ith r

    espe

    ct to

    A?

    8.

    Wha

    t is

    the

    reac

    tion

    orde

    r w

    ith r

    espe

    ct to

    B?

    9.

    Wha

    t is

    the

    over

    all r

    eact

    ion

    orde

    r fo

    r th

    e ra

    te la

    w?

    10.

    Dou

    blin

    g th

    e co

    ncen

    trat

    ion

    of A

    will

    cau

    se th

    e ra

    te to

    dou

    ble.

    Wha

    t wou

    ld h

    appe

    n if

    you

    doub

    led

    the

    conc

    entr

    atio

    n of

    B?

    The

    rate

    wo

    uld

    qu

    adru

    ple

    . Th

    e sq

    uar

    e o

    f 2

    is 4

    .

    11.

    A r

    eact

    ion

    rate

    can

    be

    expr

    esse

    d as

    Rat

    e

    k[A

    ]2. W

    hat i

    s th

    e re

    actio

    n or

    der

    for

    this

    rea

    ctio

    n?

    This

    is a

    sec

    on

    d-o

    rder

    rea

    ctio

    n.

    the

    sum

    of

    1 an

    d 2

    , or

    thir

    d o

    rder

    the

    exp

    on

    ent

    to B

    , sec

    on

    d o

    rder

    the

    exp

    on

    ent

    to A

    , fir

    st o

    rder

    tim

    e

    con

    cen

    trat

    ion

    reac

    tio

    n o

    rder

    s

    spec

    ific

    rat

    e co

    nte

    nt

    rate

    law

    chem

    ical

    rea

    ctio

    n

    [A

    ]

    t

    chem

    ical

    rea

    ctio

    nra

    te la

    wsp

    ecif

    ic r

    ate

    con

    stan

    t

    reac

    tio

    n o

    rder

    sco

    nce

    ntr

    atio

    nti

    me

    ST

    UD

    Y G

    UID

    E F

    OR

    CO

    NT

    EN

    T M

    AST

    ER

    YCH

    AP

    TER

    17

    Nam

    eD

    ate

    Cla

    ss

    Stu

    dy

    Gu

    ide

    for

    Co

    nte

    nt

    Mas

    tery

    Ch

    emis

    try:

    Mat

    ter

    and

    Ch

    ang

    e

    Ch

    apte

    r 17

    99

    Sect

    ion

    17.2

    Fact

    ors

    Aff

    ecti

    ng R

    eact

    ion

    Rat

    esIn

    yo

    ur

    text

    bo

    ok,

    rea

    d a

    bo

    ut

    the

    fact

    ors

    th

    at a

    ffec

    t re

    acti

    on

    rat

    es (

    reac

    tivi

    ty, c

    on

    cen

    tra-

    tio

    n, s

    urf

    ace,

    are

    a, t

    emp

    erat

    ure

    , an

    d c

    atal

    ysts

    ).

    In t

    he s

    pace

    at

    the

    left

    ,wri

    te tr

    ueif

    the

    sta

    tem

    ent

    is t

    rue;

    if t

    he s

    tate

    men

    t is

    fal

    se,

    chan

    ge t

    he it

    alic

    ized

    wor

    d to

    mak

    e it

    tru

    e.

    1.

    Dec

    reas

    ing

    the

    conc

    entr

    atio

    n of

    rea

    ctan

    ts in

    crea

    ses

    the

    colli

    sion

    freq

    uenc

    y be

    twee

    n re

    actin

    g pa

    rtic

    les.

    2.

    A h

    eter

    ogen

    eous

    cata

    lyst

    exi

    sts

    in a

    dif

    fere

    nt p

    hysi

    cal s

    tate

    than

    the

    reac

    tion

    it ca

    taly

    zes.

    3.

    Incr

    easi

    ng th

    e co

    ncen

    trat

    ion

    of a

    sub

    stan

    ce in

    crea

    ses

    the

    kine

    ticen

    ergy

    of

    the

    part

    icle

    s th

    at m

    ake

    up th

    e su

    bsta

    nce.

    4.

    Cat

    alys

    ts in

    crea

    se th

    e ra

    tes

    of c

    hem

    ical

    rea

    ctio

    ns b

    y ra

    isin

    gth

    eac

    tivat

    ion

    ener

    gy o

    f th

    e re

    actio

    ns.

    5.

    Incr

    easi

    ngth

    e su

    rfac

    e ar

    ea o

    f a

    reac

    tant

    incr

    ease

    s th

    e ra

    te o

    f th

    ere

    actio

    n.

    6.

    Rai

    sing

    the

    tem

    pera

    ture

    of

    a re

    actio

    n in

    crea

    ses

    the

    rate

    of

    the

    reac

    tion

    by in

    crea

    sing

    the

    ener

    gyof

    the

    colli

    sion

    s be

    twee

    nre

    actin

    g pa

    rtic

    les.

    Ans

    wer

    the

    fol

    low

    ing

    ques

    tion

    s.

    7.

    A c

    hem

    ist h

    eate

    d a

    sam

    ple

    of s

    teel

    woo

    l in

    a bu

    rner

    fla

    me

    expo

    sed

    to o

    xyge

    n in

    the

    air.

    He

    also

    hea

    ted

    a sa

    mpl

    e of

    ste

    el w

    ool i

    n a

    cont

    aine

    r of

    nea

    rly

    100%

    oxy

    gen.

    The

    ste

    el-

    woo

    l sam

    ple

    in th

    e co

    ntai

    ner

    reac

    ted

    fast

    er th

    an th

    e ot

    her

    sam

    ple.

    Exp

    lain

    why

    .

    Ther

    e w

    as a

    gre

    ater

    co

    nce

    ntr

    atio

    n o

    f o

    xyg

    en in

    th

    e co

    nta

    iner

    . In

    crea

    sin

    g t

    he

    con

    cen

    trat

    ion

    of

    a re

    acta

    nt

    incr

    ease

    s th

    e ra

    te o

    f a

    reac

    tio

    n.

    8.

    Wou

    ld th

    e ch

    emis

    t hav

    e ob

    serv

    ed th

    e sa

    me

    resu

    lts if

    he

    used

    a b

    lock

    of

    stee

    l ins

    tead

    of

    stee

    l woo

    l? E

    xpla

    in y

    our

    answ

    er.

    No

    ; a b

    lock

    of

    stee

    l wo

    uld

    rea

    ct m

    ore

    slo

    wly

    bec

    ause

    it h

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