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Summer Training Report

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  • Page | 1

    King Faisal University

    College of Engineering

    Department of Electrical Engineering

    Summer Training at Saudi Electricity Company Report

    By

    Name: Hasan Saeed Al-Qadheeb

    ID#: 210003380

    15/08/2013

  • Page | 2

    Table of Contents: Page #

    1. Introduction .4

    2. Brief History of the Company 4

    3. Technical and practical information gained .5

    3-1. Power Plant (Generating Station) ...5

    3-2. Power Transmission .5

    3-3. Power Distribution ...6

    3-4. Electricity System in SEC 6

    3-5. Substation ..7

    3-6. Ring Main Units (RMU) ...8

    3-7. Low Voltage Panel ...10

    3-8. Mini Pillar 11

    4. Conclusion ...12

    5. Appendix ..13

  • Page | 3

    List of Figures Page #

    Figure 1: Power Plant .5

    Figure 2: Simple Electricity System ...6

    Figure 3 Electricity System of SEC 7

    Figure 4: Substation (Transformer + RMU) .8

    Figure 5: Example for the substation location diagram .......8

    Figure 6: oil switch (RMU) ..9

    Figure 7: Two types of SF6 switch (SF6 RMU) .9

    Figure 8: Open LVP 10

    Figure 9: Mini Pillar ...11

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    1. Introduction:

    College of Engineering in King Faisal University gives an opportunity to

    Its senior students to do summer training course in one of the industrial companies.

    Summer training offer students an opportunity to get some concrete work experience and

    be able to try out what it's actually like working in a particular career. So, I did my

    summer training in Saudi Electricity Company (SEC). Saudi Electricity Company is a

    merger of all Saudi electricity companies in the central, eastern, western and southern

    regions into a single joint stock company providing generation, transmission and

    distribution of safe and reliable electric services to customers in the Kingdom of Saudi

    Arabia.

    I spend 8 weeks working in the company from 15/06/2013 to 07/08/2013. I

    worked in 4 different departments in the company as the following:

    Two weeks at: Department of Testing and Identification of Faults.

    Two weeks at: Department of Independent Generating Stations.

    Two weeks at: Department of Operation of High Voltage (HV) Networks.

    Two weeks at: Department of Emergency and Network Failures.

    **See Appendix A for more details.

    During my summer training I learned a lot of information about the company and the

    electricity networks in Saudi Arabia, so in this report am going to show some important

    information and details that I learned.

    2. Brief History of the Company:

    The first Saudi Consolidated Electricity Companies (SCECO) was (SCECO-East)

    which created in 1976 (1396/1397 AH). This was followed in 1979 (1399/1400 AH) by

    SCECO-South. Electricity for the southwest is provided by another consolidated

    company, and the central region is served by SCECO-Central.

    The General Electricity Corporation (GEC) had overall responsibility for the

    Kingdom's electricity system and had direct responsibility for the provision of electrical

    supplies to rural areas not then covered by the consolidated companies. The GEC

    represented the government equity holdings in all the independent electricity generating

    companies and was a source of finance for those companies' capital requirements.

    In 1998, the Government announced the reorganization of the electricity sector by

    establishing a stock market company, named the Saudi Electric Company (SEC), through

    the merger of all the electricity companies operating in the Kingdom.

  • Page | 5

    3. Technical and practical information gained:

    In this section in going to present some information that I learned during the

    summer training period.

    3-1. Power Plant (Generating Station):

    A power plant is an industrial facility for the generation of electric power.

    At the center of nearly all power stations is a generator, a rotating machine that

    converts mechanical power into electrical power by creating relative motion

    between a magnetic field and a conductor. The energy source harnessed to turn

    the generator varies widely. It depends chiefly on which fuels are easily

    available, cheap enough and on the types of technology that the power company

    has access to. Most power stations in the world burn fossil fuels such as coal, oil,

    and natural gas to generate electricity. Figure 1, shows the component of a power

    plant

    Figure 1: Power Plant

    3-2. Power Transmission:

    Here in this part the generated electricity is transfers from the Power Plant

    to the main supply points throughout the eastern province by using transmission

    lines which are the connecting links between the generating stations and the

    distribution systems. Electricity is transmitted at high voltages (115 kV or above)

    to reduce the energy lost in long-distance transmission. Power is usually

    transmitted through overhead power lines. Underground power transmission has a

    significantly higher cost and greater operational limitations but is sometimes used

    in urban areas or sensitive locations. The power system looks like what shown in

    Figure 2.

  • Page | 6

    Figure 2: Simple Electricity System.

    3-3. Power Distribution:

    The objective of Power Distribution System is to deliver the Electrical

    power to Customers in safe, reliable and most economical way. This means that a

    Customer receives a supply of Electrical power required by him at the time and

    place at which he can use it. Several parameters of an Electricity supply such as

    frequency, continuity of supply, voltage level, etc. should be within allowable

    limits to ensure that the Customer obtains satisfactory performance for his

    electrical equipment while ensuring that the demands of the Customers continue

    to be met, the capital and operating costs of doing so should be reduced minimum

    as possible.

    3-4. Electricity System in SEC:

    The power plants generate a standard voltage of 13.8 kV. Then the 13.8

    kV amplified to be 230/380 kV using a step up transformer in the bulk supply

    point. The 230 kV is used in the near cities whereas the 380 kV is provided if

    necessary to be transmitted to far cities. This means that the 230 kV most exist in

    each bulk supply point. After the transmission, the 230 kV is then converted to 69

    kV using step down transformers. In the grid station, the 69 kV is converted to

    13.8 kV and in turn it is transmitted to substations through Breakers. The

    substation has a transformer which converts the 13.8 kV to low voltages of

    220V/380V or 127V/220V. The low voltage is distributed from the low voltage

    panel. Finally, the low voltage is delivered to the customer by using a mini pillar.

    See Figure 3.

  • Page | 7

    Figure 3 Electricity System of SEC

    3-5. Substation:

    The substation is a medium voltage (MV) unit. The medium voltage is

    13.8 kV coming from the grid station. This 13.8 kV is distributed to substations in which

    they have step down transformers. The low voltage starts just after the transformer in the

    substation. The substation uses a step down transformer that transforms the 13.8 kV to

    low voltages (127 V/ 220 V). Substation is formed by the ring main unit (RMU),

    transformer, and the low voltage panel. See figure 4 for example for the substation. SEC

    has a complete maps and location diagram of the substations in alhasa see figure 5 as an

    example. The substation name is taking the transformer name. In the next section I will

    talk about the RMU.

    Customer

    Meter

    Mini Pillar

    Low Voltage Panel

    Substation

    13.8 kV to 127 V / 220 V

    Breaker

    Grid Station

    69 kV to 13.8 kV

    Step Down Transformer

    230/380 kV to 69 kV

    Bulk Supply Point

    13.8 kV to 230 kV and 380 kV

    Power Plant

    13.8 kV

  • Page | 8

    Figure 4: Substation (Transformer + RMU)

    Figure 5: Example for the substation location diagram

    3-6. Ring Main Units (RMU):

    The ring main unit (RMU) is a switchgear that takes the 13.8 KV cable,

    links it to the transformer in the substation, and also links the 13.8 KV cable to another

    substation. This means that the ring main unit has an incoming 13.8 KV cable, an

    outgoing 13.8 KV cable, and a local cable. The incoming cable is a cable linked to the

    substation by another substation whereas the outgoing cable is a cable linked from the

  • Page | 9

    substation to another substation. The local cable is used by the substation from the

    incoming cable. There are two types of switchgears used at the company network. They

    differ in the used insulation substances which are the oil switch, and the Sulfur

    Hexafluoride (SF6) switch. See figure 6 for the oil switch and figure 7 for the SF6

    switches.

    Figure 6: oil switch (RMU)

    Figure 7: Two types of SF6 switch (SF6 RMU)

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    3-7. Low Voltage Panel:

    The low voltage panel (LVP) is a panel that distributes the output

    cables/circuits of the transfo