supporting people affected by the christchurch mosque attacks supporting people affected by the...
Post on 02-Jun-2020
Embed Size (px)
Released 2019 health.govt.nz
Supporting People Affected by the Christchurch Mosque Attacks
National response and recovery plan to 15 March 2020
Citation: Ministry of Health. 2019. Supporting People Affected by the Christchurch Mosque Attacks: National response and recovery plan to 15 March 2020. Wellington: Ministry of Health.
Published in July 2019 by the Ministry of Health PO Box 5013, Wellington 6140, New Zealand
ISBN 978-1-98-856899-7 (online) HP 7172
This document is available at health.govt.nz
This work is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International licence. In essence, you are free to: share ie, copy and redistribute the material in any medium or format; adapt ie, remix, transform and build upon the material. You must give appropriate credit, provide a link to the licence and indicate if changes were made.
SUPPORTING PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHRISTCHURCH MOSQUE ATTACKS: NATIONAL RESPONSE AND RECOVERY PLAN TO 15 MARCH 2020 iii
Contents Introduction 1
Support and recovery key messages 3
Key lessons from overseas experience and research 5
Key principles guiding this plan 6
Affected populations and communities 7
Roles and responsibilities 9
Goals and outcomes – 3–12 months post-event 10 Expected Outcome #1: Enable normal grieving and recovery 11 Expected Outcome #2: Support and treat mental distress 12 Expected Outcome #3: Promote wellbeing, coping, and recovery 14 Expected Outcome #4: Enhance community cohesion 15
Actions in Christchurch 16 Specific actions and interventions at the local level 16
Actions and planning at the national level 18 National Telehealth Service 1737 (run by Homecare Medical) 18 National coordination of wellbeing promotion resources 19
Next steps and communication 21
Appendix 1: Immediate and short-term actions by agencies 22
List of Tables Table 1: Roles and responsibilities 9
List of Figures Figure 1: Diagram showing the general phases of disasters and how they can
impact on survivors psychologically and socially 4
Figure 2: Tiered model of psychosocial interventions 4
iv SUPPORTING PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHRISTCHURCH MOSQUE ATTACKS: NATIONAL RESPONSE AND RECOVERY PLAN TO 15 MARCH 2020
Figure 3: The different people and communities affected by the Christchurch mosque attacks 8
SUPPORTING PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHRISTCHURCH MOSQUE ATTACKS: NATIONAL RESPONSE AND RECOVERY PLAN TO 15 MARCH 2020 1
Introduction On Friday 15 March 2019, a gunman entered two mosques in Christchurch, New Zealand. He shot 91 people, killing 51 and wounding 40. A number of other people were physically injured, and a large group of New Zealanders watched the video of the attack, which was livestreamed and shared widely on Facebook. The Ministry of Health (the Ministry) recognises responding to and recovering from these shocking and horrific attacks will take time and will require effort and resources from many parts of society.
2 SUPPORTING PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHRISTCHURCH MOSQUE ATTACKS: NATIONAL RESPONSE AND RECOVERY PLAN TO 15 MARCH 2020
Purpose This document sets out the national approach and actions the Ministry will undertake, as well as how other agencies are involved, and includes information from:
• The Ministry of Health, which is responsible for coordinating the provision of psychosocial1 support and provides the required health and disability services by funding, planning and providing services
• Canterbury District Health Board (CDHB), which is responsible for coordinating the provision of psychosocial support services at the local level, and advising non- governmental organisations and primary health organisations on the type and nature of services needed for ongoing psychosocial support.
This national plan complements the local CDHB Wellbeing and Mental Health Recovery Plan, which can be found on CDHB’s website. The Ministry continues to work with CDHB to monitor the demand for services and ensure people are able to access the support they need. The National Health Emergency Plan (Ministry of Health 2015) specifies the general roles and responsibilities of the health and disability sector (including all providers of psychosocial support services) across all components of emergency management. The Ministry has produced the Framework for Psychosocial Support in Emergencies 2016 (the Framework)2 to guide the planning and delivery of the psychosocial response and recovery from emergencies.
1 ‘Psychosocial support’ is a term used in the Framework for Psychosocial Support in Emergencies. The
Framework notes the term ‘psychosocial’ reflects the interrelationship between individual psychological and social factors.
2 Ministry of Health. 2016. Framework for Psychosocial Support in Emergencies. Wellington: Ministry of Health. https://www.health.govt.nz/publication/framework-psychosocial-support-emergencies
SUPPORTING PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHRISTCHURCH MOSQUE ATTACKS: NATIONAL RESPONSE AND RECOVERY PLAN TO 15 MARCH 2020 3
Support and recovery key messages The Christchurch mosque attacks of 15 March 2019 have been very distressing for those directly impacted. Victims, witnesses and their families and whānau are more likely to have an ongoing need for support into the future. Most people affected by the attacks in Christchurch will experience some level of distress, and all those affected are likely to benefit from some form of support. Following an emergency, distress is more prevalent than mental health disorders, and is usually short-lived. The primary objectives of psychosocial recovery are to minimise the physical, psychological and social consequences of an emergency and to enhance the emotional, social and physical wellbeing of individuals, families, whānau and communities. The Framework for Psychosocial Support in Emergencies explains that support aims to improve wellbeing, which refers to three core domains:
1. supporting and promoting human capacity (strengths and values)
2. improving social ecology (connections and support, through relationships, social networks and existing support systems of people in their communities); and
3. understanding the influence of culture and value systems and their importance alongside individual and social expectations.
Distress and grief are normal reactions and the majority of people will recover with time. Others may need a bit more support and some may be at risk of developing more severe and long-lasting symptoms. The impacts may be immediate or delayed. All could benefit from a community-wide response based on the Framework for Psychosocial Support in Emergencies in terms of faster recovery and improved wellbeing. Some are likely to benefit from a more formal or professional intervention. Figure 1 shows the phases of disasters and Figure 2 shows the range of interventions and responses required to meet the needs of those affected.
4 SUPPORTING PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHRISTCHURCH MOSQUE ATTACKS: NATIONAL RESPONSE AND RECOVERY PLAN TO 15 MARCH 2020
Figure 1: Diagram showing the general phases of disasters and how they can impact on survivors psychologically and socially
Figure 2: Tiered model of psychosocial interventions
Source: Adapted from IASC (2007).
SUPPORTING PEOPLE AFFECTED BY THE CHRISTCHURCH MOSQUE ATTACKS: NATIONAL RESPONSE AND RECOVERY PLAN TO 15 MARCH 2020 5
Key lessons from overseas experience and research • Early and proactive outreach is needed to identify and engage those directly
impacted by the event.
• Addressing barriers in access to care: The effectiveness of usual referral pathways may be limited, and a flexible referral approach is needed.
• Targeting at-risk groups is a key task. This can be achieved through screening to identify need and target interventions.3
• Research indicates that brief, trauma-focused Cognitive Behaviour Therapy (CBT) during the first few weeks after a shocking event leads to a reduction in Post- Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD) symptoms.4
• Available evidence suggests that the expression of symptoms associated with stress reactions (including PTSD) is similar in victims across cultures.4
• Culturally specific elements of a psychosocial response should include providing information in the minority group’s first language, and involving key figures from the affected community.4
• Social support and bonding are important to reduce the negative psychobiological outcomes after trauma. It is also important to recognise the value of existing and emerging support networks and the relevance of community- and family-based supports.3
• Research needs to be integrated into disaster response planning.
3 Reifels L, Pietrantoni L, Prati G, et al. 2013. Lessons learned about psychosocial responses to disaster and
mass trauma: an international perspective. European Journal of Psychotraumatology 4: 10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.22897. doi:10.3402/ejpt.v4i0.22897.
4 Te Brake H, Dückers M. 2013. Early psychosocial interventions after disasters, terrorism and other shocking events: is there a gap between norms and practice in Europe? European Jour