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  • UNIT 2

    Online Course

    How to Implement Sustainable Manufacturing in Footwear - New Occupational Profile and Training Opportunities -

    Sustainable Materials and Components for Footwear

  • Project number: 539823-LLP-1-2013-1-PT-LEONARDO-LMP

    How to Implement Sustainable Manufacturing in Footwear- New Occupational Profile and Training Opportunities

    Credits

    Title UNIT 2 - Sustainable Materials and Components for Footwear

    CoordinationCTCP Portugal

    Layout and EditorialSalto Alto CTCP criativo

    DateJanuary 2016

  • Step to Sustainability Project number: 539823-LLP-1-2013-1-PT-LEONARDO-LMP

    03

    UNIT 2 - SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS FOR FOOTWEAR

    CONTENTS

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    Summary

    1. Introduction

    2. Concepts/definitions

    3. Leather3.1. Definition and classification3.1.1. Hides and skin structure3.1.2. Types of hides and skins3.1.3. Sources and types of conservation of hides and skin3.2. Leather manufacturing3.2.1. Raw material defects3.2.2. Production Stages3.2.3. Leather tanning3.3. Finishing and categorization3.4. Environmental impact of leather Industry3.5. More sustainable leather for footwear3.6. New Leather Materials3.6.1. Chrome-free leather biodegradable and disintegrable:

    BiOnature3.6.2. Chrome-free leather with water resistance properties:

    hydroOak3.6.3. Chrome-free leather: BioLeather3.6.4. EcoLife3.6.5. Organic Leather: Organio Leather3.7. Quality control and requirements3.7.1. Leather for upper3.7.2. Leather for lining, insocks and insoles3.7.3. Leather for outsoles

  • Step to Sustainability Project number: 539823-LLP-1-2013-1-PT-LEONARDO-LMP

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    UNIT 2 - SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS FOR FOOTWEAR

    CONTENTS

    4. Textiles and Synthetics4.1. Origin and Classification4.2. Fibres4.2.1. Natural Fibres4.2.2. Man-Made Fibres4.3. More sustainable textiles and synthetics for footwear4.4. New materials4.4.1. New eco-friendly fibres and process4.4.2. New footwear products4.5. Requirements and Quality Control

    5. Soles and Midsoles5.1. Classification5.2. Natural origin materials5.3. Synthetic materials5.4. Soles and midsoles processing processes5.5. More sustainable sole materials for footwear5.6. New materials5.7. Requirements and Quality Control

    6. Miscellaneous components and accessories6.1. Components and accessories6.1.1. Toe Puffs and Stiffeners6.1.2. Metallic components6.1.3. Laces, touch and close fasteners6.1.4. Heels6.1.5. Top Piece6.1.6. Adhesives6.1.7. Products containing volatile organic compounds

    environmental issues

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  • Step to Sustainability Project number: 539823-LLP-1-2013-1-PT-LEONARDO-LMP

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    UNIT 2 - SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS FOR FOOTWEAR

    CONTENTS

    6.2. More sustainable miscellaneous components and accessories for footwear

    6.3. Requirements and Quality Control

    7. Eco labelling and eco certification of materials and footwear products

    7.1. EU footwear ecolabel7.2. Other ecolabels

    8. Quality Control and Requirements8.1. Physical Properties8.2. Chemical Properties8.3. REACH Regulation8.4. CADS - List of Restricted substances in shoes8.5. Footwear Critical Substances8.6. Footwear Performance requirements

    9. Test of Knowledge

    10. Annex

    11. Bibliography

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  • Step to Sustainability Project number: 539823-LLP-1-2013-1-PT-LEONARDO-LMP

    06

    UNIT 2 - SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS FOR FOOTWEAR

    Summary

    Unit 2 - Sustainable Materials and Components for Footwear is dedicated to the footwear materials that are actually available and may be used in footwear production, as well as their environmental impact. This manual intends to be a tool to support footwear technicians in the selection of most suitable materials to develop more ecological and sustainable footwear products.

    This manual is organized in 8 technical chapters:

    Chapter 1 Introduction, briefly describes the footwear industry in terms of worldwide production and introduces the main materials and components that may be used in footwear.

    Chapter 2 Concepts and definitions related with materials and sustainability.

    Chapters 3 to 6 describe the materials used in the footwear production, their characteristics and properties, production processes, potential environmental impact, recommendations for lower environmental impact, new more sustainable materials and quality control and requirements.

    Chapter 7 Eco labelling and eco certification of materials and footwear products, addresses the EU footwear ecolabel and other certification schemes.

    Chapter 8 Quality Control and requirements, describes briefly the most relevant tests dedicated to footwear and footwear properties.

    In Chapter 9 are presented the manual bibliographic references and in Annex I the tables with the performance requirements for footwear materials and components.

  • Step to Sustainability Project number: 539823-LLP-1-2013-1-PT-LEONARDO-LMP

    07

    UNIT 2 - SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS FOR FOOTWEAR

    1. Introduction

    In 2014 the worldwide production of footwear reached 24.3 billion pairs, up by 8% from the previous year. The distribution of footwear production by continents (quantity) in 2014 was 3% in Europe and Africa (each), 2% in North America, 5% in South America and 88% in Asia. In the same year the footwear consumption by Continents was 17% in Europe, 8% in Africa, 15% in North America, 7% in South America, 52% in Asia and 1% in Oceania. Europe is the largest importer of footwear, with a share of 40%, followed by Asia and North America with 26% and 23%, respectively. Africa, South America and Oceania represent 12% of imports.

    Currently, the population is more sensible to the topics related with sustainability and ecology, looking and demanding for more information about the materials, products and production processes impact on the environment. More than ever, consumers are conscious of the impacts that certain activities have on the planet and its resources, pressuring companies to assume their responsibilities.

    The growing population and increased consumption of footwear per capita may result in higher loads on the environment, namely on air, water and soils, associated to the production of the materials, components and footwear products. Additionally, the disposal of footwear at the use end-life needs to be taken in more account.

    Footwear products usually result from the combination of a great variety of materials and components that are selected by considering the design, application and performance required. In a simple way, a shoe can be divided in two parts:

    Upper part, consisting in the elements of shoe above the bottom.

    Lower part, which include the entire bottom of a shoe, such as, insock, insole and sole.

    F1. Scheme of shoe parts

    The most common materials actually used is footwear include namely:

    Leather, textiles and synthetic materials, in the upper part.

    Leather, vulcanized rubber, thermoplastic rubber (TPR), polyurethanes (PU), thermoplastic polyurethanes (TPU), Ethylene vinyl acetate (EVA), polyvinylchloride (PVC), among others, in the lower part.

    Metal or composite shanks, metallic nails, textile or leather laces, metallic eyelets, polymeric slide fasteners, polymeric or wood based heels, composite and polymeric toe cap.

    The adequate selection of materials and components assumes a great importance on the overall sustainability of the footwear products through its life cycle. With the goal of developing more ecological and sustainable products, in what concerns the materials and components selection and incorporation, it is essential to consider the following factors that will be detailed in the next chapters.

    Materials and components features to develop more sustainable footwear:

    Type of material & components (e.g. recycled, recyclable and/or biodegradable).

    Origin and transportation associated.

    Materials (e.g. leather, polymers) produced by eco-friendly processes and that use the minimum amount of chemicals and energy on their production process.

    Water based solvents and glues.

    Lighter, durable and good quality.

    Elimination of unnecessary materials & components.

    Minimization of hazard and restricted substances.

    Material produced with renewable sources.

    Produced by simplified manufacturing production processes.

    Produced with reduced air pollution, water consumption and generation of solid wastes and noise.

    Reused, recycle or valorised at the end of their production and of products life cycle.

  • Step to Sustainability Project number: 539823-LLP-1-2013-1-PT-LEONARDO-LMP

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    UNIT 2 - SUSTAINABLE MATERIALS AND COMPONENTS FOR FOOTWEAR

    2. Concepts/definitions

    In last years have emerged in the market various concepts associated to materials and products namely more environmentally friendly or sustainable. However, these concepts are not completely clear to the consumers and in many cases to the producers or commercial agents. It is frequent to find on the market products that have associated characteristics/properties, as a selling argument, that are not the more adequate to that case. It is also common to find products that are nominated as biodegradable, natural or recyclable, among others, without showing any evidence or tests proof. To distinguish the more environme

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