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Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Republic of Sierra Leone Sustainable Rice Production Project (SRPP) PROGRESS REPORT 3 December 2019 JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY RECS International Inc.

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  • Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Republic of Sierra Leone

    Sustainable Rice Production Project (SRPP)

    PROGRESS REPORT 3

    December 2019

    JAPAN INTERNATIONAL COOPERATION AGENCY RECS International Inc.

  • Project Location Map

  • Capacity Development of Extension Workers

    Capacity Development of FBO Farmers in IVS through FFS

    Participatory IVS Development

    FFS session in Bombali

    Lecture at Training of Trainers (TOT) in Kambia

    FFS session on raising seedlings in Kambia

    On-site TOT on judgement of panicle initiation stage in Bombali

    FFS session on harvesting (weighing) in Karene

    (カ ネ)

    On-site TOT on uprooting in Port Loko

    Repair work of main drainage in Bombali

    Construction of simple weir in Port Loko

    Second repair work of main drainage in Bombali

    Photographs on the Project Activities -1

  • Technical Training in Madagascar

    Introduction and Demonstration of Small Farm Machineries

    Visit to irrigation facilities Interaction with Madagascar farmers Visit to farm machinery center

    Technical training on pawer tiller operation in Kambia

    Technical training on thresher operation in Bombali

    Handover of power tiller in Kambia

    Photographs on the Project Activities -2

  • i

    Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    Table of Contents

    Project Location Map Photographs on the Project Activities 1. Introduction .......................................................................................................................................... 1 2. Progress of Project Activities and Results Obtained in the First Half of the Second Year .................. 2 2.1 Activities related to Output 2 .......................................................................................................... 2

    2.1.1 Capacity development of extension workers .......................................................................... 2 2.1.2 Capacity development of FBO farmers in IVS ........................................................................ 3 2.1.3 Participatory IVS development ............................................................................................... 7 2.1.4 Overseas technical training on rice development.................................................................... 12

    2.2 Activities related to Output 3 .......................................................................................................... 14 2.2.1 On-farm trial to verify or improve the TP-R ........................................................................... 14 2.2.2 Introducution and demonstration of small farm machineries ................................................. 15

    2.3 Activities related to Output 4 .......................................................................................................... 17 2.3.1 Collaboration with other development partners ...................................................................... 17 2.3.2 Nationwide dissemination of the TP-R ................................................................................... 17 2.3.3 Training of the extension officers from district other than the target areas of the Project /

    staff of partner institutions ...................................................................................................... 19 2.3.4 Rice working group ................................................................................................................. 19

    2.4 Other activities ................................................................................................................................ 19 2.4.1 Project office and Project staff ................................................................................................. 19 2.4.2 District Task Force Meetings ................................................................................................... 19 2.4.3 Procurement of equipment ....................................................................................................... 19

    3. Issues to Be Addressed ........................................................................................................................ 20 3.1 MAF staff and the Project satellite office in Karene District .......................................................... 20 3.2 Existence of "volunteer" extension workers ................................................................................... 20 3.3 Lack of mobility of the extension workers at the field level ........................................................... 20 4. Proposed Activities in the Subsequent Phase....................................................................................... 21 Appendixes

  • ii

    List of Tables

    Table 1 Schedule of TOT for the FFS on the TP-R in rainy season 2019 ........................................ 2 Table 2 Programme of the Refresher Training on the TP-R ............................................................. 3 Table 3 Results of the refresher training ........................................................................................... 3 Table 4 List of FBOs supported through FFS in 2019 rainy season ................................................. 4 Table 5 Three IVS sites for development/rehabilitation ................................................................... 8 Table 6 Summary of repair work in Mabonkani IVS ....................................................................... 9 Table 7 Summary of repair work in Gbarray Sarr IVS ................................................................... 10 Table 8 List of IVS site survey ....................................................................................................... 11 Table 9 Programme of the training in Madagascar......................................................................... 13 Table 10 Design of on-farm trial ...................................................................................................... 14 Table 11 Date of Training and number of participant ....................................................................... 16 Table 12 Training program ............................................................................................................... 16 Table 13 Training of Trainers for nationwide dissemination of the TP-R ........................................ 17 Table 14 Results of the training of extension officers for nationwide dissemination of the TP-R ... 18 Table 15 Implementation of FFS on the TP-R in 11 districts ........................................................... 18 Table 16 District task force meetings ............................................................................................... 19 Table 17 Activities for the last phase of the second period of the Project ........................................ 21

    List of Figures

    Figure 1 Location of the selected FBOs for FFS in 2018 and 2019 ................................................... 4 Figure 2 Schedule of the FFS sessions and monitoring in 2019 rainy season .................................... 5 Figure 3 Rice yield in the FFS demonstration plots in 2019 rainy season ......................................... 6 Figure 4 Rice yield in the demonstration plots of graduated FBOs in 2019 rainy season ................. 7 Figure 5 Map of targeted IVSs ........................................................................................................... 9 Figure 6 Plant height of the seedlings at the time of transplanting on the trial ................................ 15 Figure 7 Number of leaves at the time of transplanting on the trial ................................................. 15 Figure 8 Rice yield on the trial ......................................................................................................... 15

    List of Appendixes

    Appendix 1 PDM (version 3) ..................................................................................................... A-1 Appendix 2 PO ........................................................................................................................... A-3 Appendix 3 Project work flow and schedule .............................................................................. A-6 Appendix 4 Staffing and assignments ........................................................................................ A-7 Appendix 5 List of equipment procured..................................................................................... A-8

  • iii

    Acronyms and abbreviations

    BES Block Extension Supervisor BRAC Bangladesh Rural Advancement Committee DAO District Agriculture Officer FBO FEW FFS

    Farmer Based Organisation Frontline Extension Worker Farmer Field School

    GIZ German Agency for International Cooperation IVS Inland Valley Swamp JCC Joint Coordinating Committee JICA MAF MMC

    Japan International Cooperation Agency Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry Machinery Management Committee

    MOC Memorandum of Cooperation PDM Project Design Matrix PO Plan of Operation RD Record of Discussion SCADeP Smallholder Commercialisation and Agribusiness Development Project SMS Subject Matter Specialist SRPP Sustainable Rice Production Project TOT TP-R WAATP

    Training of Trainers Technical Package on Rice Production West Africa Agricultural Transformation Program

    WFP

    World Food Programme

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    - 1 -

    1. Introduction

    “The Sustainable Rice Production Project in Sierra Leone” (herein after referred to as “the Project), a technical cooperation project of the Japan International Cooperation Agency (JICA), commenced in June 2017 in accordance with the Record of Discussion (RD), which defines the framework of the Project, agreed upon and signed between the concerned Ministries of Sierra Leone and JICA on 25th May, 2016.

    The Project aims at disseminating the Technical Package on Rice Production (TP-R) to the Farmer Based Organization (FBO) farmers in Inland Valley Swamps (IVSs) of four districts of Bombali, Port Loko, Kambia and Karene, and is to be implemented by the Ministry of Agriculture and Forestry (MAF) as the counterpart (CP) agency with the technical assistance of JICA. While the Project is to be implemented according to the Project Design Matrix (PDM) and Plan of Operation (PO) presented in RD, the Project activities will be monitored using PDM and PO, both of which will be revised or updated based on the monitoring results.

    During the first period of the project (June 2017 to February 2018), the organization of the project was set up including the members of the Joint Coordinating Committee (JCC) as well as the District Task Force. Local staff of the project were employed to augment the project implementation capacity. The project main office was established at Bombali District Agriculture Office, and satellite offices were also established at the other District Agriculture Offices and MAF headquarters. Equipment and furniture necessary for the project implementation such as vehicles, bikes, PCs and office equipment were procured.

    Meanwhile, the baseline survey (literature review, focus group discussion, questionnaire survey, etc.) was conducted to grasp the present agriculture and socio-economic situation of the project area and to identify the constraints and problems on enhancing rice productivity. Based on the results of the baseline survey, the project direction and strategies were set, and indicators were determined for the project monitoring and evaluation. The results of the project activities in the first period was compiled in the Progress Report 1, which was presented in the second JCC meeting in February 2018.

    Second period of the project started in June 2018 with the activities on the dissemination of the TP-R, participatory IVS development, on-farm trial and nationwide dissemination of the TP-R. The activities from June 2018 to May 2019 were summarized in the Progress Report 2. The third and fourth JCC meetings were convened in August 2018 and January 2019, respectively, to share the progress of the Project activities made as well as results obtained in the course of the Project with the counterpart personnel. Through those meetings, the contents of PDM was revised (see Appendix 1) and PO was updated (see Appendix 2).

    This Progress Report 3 is compiled to present the Project activities carried out during the third quarter of the second period of the Project from June 2019 through December 2019.

    The main activities of the Project during this period include the followings:

    a. Dissemination of the TP-R in the Project target area, b. Participatory IVS development, c. Overseas technical training on rice development, d. On-farm trial to verify or improve the TP-R, e. Demonstration of small farm machineries, and f. Nationwide dissemination of the TP-R

    The work flow of the Project and the staffing and assignment of the JICA expert in the second period are shown in Appendix 3 and Appendix 4, respectively. Equipment procured to date by the Project are listed in Appendix 5.

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

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    2. Progress of Project Activities and Results Obtained in the Third Quarter of the Second Period

    2.1 Activities related to Output 2

    < The TP-R is disseminated to FBO farmers in the target districts.>

    2.1.1 Capacity development of extension workers

    (1) Trainings of trainers (TOT) for the Farmer Field School (FFS) on the dissemination of the TP-R

    As a continuation of the efforts to develop the capacity of the extension workers, the Project has conducted the training of trainers (TOT) for the rainy season 2019 to enable them to disseminate the TP-R to the FBO farmers in the target areas. The TOT covers the TP-R techniques, the schedule of the FFS sessions, dissemination guidelines, tips for effective extension, use of extension materials on the TP-R, monitoring, and so forth. The Block Extension Supervisors (BESs) and the selected Frontline Extension Workers (FEWs) were trained through both classroom sessions and on-site sessions as shown in Table 1, while conducting FFS in their respective areas of jurisdictions.

    Table 1 Schedule of TOT for the FFS on the TP-R in rainy season 2019

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    The extension materials produced for the FFS on the TP-R in 2018 by the Project were revised based on the feedback from the extension workers who have used them in the field. The revised extension materials were explained during the TOT and distributed for the use in the actual FFS sessions.

    In addition to the TOT on the FFS, the extension workers were also taught how to provide continuous support to the FBOs who have graduated from the FFS in rainy season 2018, since they would engage in a larger scale of production with application of the TP-R. Techniques of seed multiplication were also taught to the extension workers to guide those “graduate FBOs” to produce their own seeds with another set of extension materials on seed multiplication distributed during the TOT.

    (2) Other trainings on the TP-R

    The one-day TP-R Refresher Training was organized in June 2019 for a total of 70 extension workers in the target districts who were not trained under the TOT for FFS on the TP-R referred to in the (1) above. The programme of the Refresher Training is indicated in Table 2. After the training, FEWs are encouraged to select any FBO and/or lead farmer in their respective circles to introduce the TP-R and monitor their activities.

    No. Type of training Theme Duration Month No. of

    participants

    1 Classroom TOT for the FFS on the TP-R (Part 1) One and half (1.5) days June 2019 37

    2 Classroom Monitoring with mobile application (only for the selected FEWs) Half day June 2019 17

    3 On-site Transplanting One (1) day August 2018 35 4 On-site Identification of panicle initiation stage One (1) day September 2019 30

    5 Classroom TOT for the FFS on the TP-R (Part 2: Harvesting and post-harvest handling) One (1) day October 2019 34

    6 Classroom Season-end Wrap Up of the Rainy Season 2019 One (1) day To be organized in January 2020 -

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

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    Table 2 Programme of the Refresher Training on the TP-R

    Time Agenda Person(s) responsible 08:30 – 09:00 Registration of participants SRPP staff & participants 09:00 – 09:15 Opening remarks District Agricultural Officer (DAO) 09:15 – 09:30 Objectives and contents of the training

    Mr. T. Kimijima, Chief advisor, SRPP 09:30 – 09:45 Pre-test 09:45 – 10:15 Principle of the TP-R 10:15 – 10:45 Tea Break 10:45 – 11:15 Yield components and life cycle of rice plant

    Mr. T. Kimijima, Chief advisor, SRPP 11:15 – 11:30 Farming plan and cropping calendar 11:30 – 12:00 Exercise on cropping calendar 12:00 – 12:30 Land preparation 12:30 – 13:00 Nursery management 13:00 – 14:00 Lunch Break 14:00 – 14:30 Seedling age and transplanting

    Mr. T. Kimijima, Chief advisor, SRPP

    14:30 – 15:00 Weed management 15:00 – 15:30 Fertilizer application and water management 15:30 – 16:00 Harvesting and post-harvest handling 16:00 – 16:30 TP-R dissemination in the main cropping season 2019 16:30 – 16:45 Post-test 16:55 – 17:00 Closing remarks District Agricultural Officer (DAO) 17:00 - Logistics and departure SRPP staff & participants Source: JICA-SRPP team

    The results of the training were measured through comparison between the pre-test and post-test scores (with 25 questions) as shown in Table 3. As many of them have also participated in the TP-R training in 2018, they seemed to have accumulated the knowledge. It was noted that the scores have notably increased while some participants still repeated same mistakes.

    Table 3 Results of the refresher training

    District No. of FEWs Average Score in Pre-test Average Score in

    Post-test Average increase

    of score Average No. of same mistakes

    Bombali & Karene* 29 16.2 20.6 4.2 3.4 Port Loko & Karene* 27 15.0 18.8 3.8 4.3 Kambia 14 15.1 18.3 3.2 5.0

    Total 70 15.4 19.2 3.7 4.2 * The extension staff of the Karene district joined the training held in Bombali or Port Loko, depending on the geographical accessibility. Source: JICA-SRPP team

    2.1.2 Capacity development of FBO farmers in IVS

    (1) FFS in 2019 rainy season

    During the 2019 rainy season, FFSs on the TP-R were conducted to a total of 20 FBOs including 19 FBOs newly selected before the season and one (1) FBO who had poor performance of FFS in 2018 (Table 4 and Figure 1).

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

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    Table 4 List of FBOs supported through FFS in 2019 rainy season

    * FBO which underwent FFS in 2018, failed to establish demo-plots in the beginning of the season. It was given another chance to learn TP-R through FFS in 2019. Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Figure 1 Location of the selected FBOs for FFS in 2018 and 2019

    A set of farm tools including hoes, cutlasses, shovels, harvesting knives and head pans were procured by the Project and provided to the 19 new FBOs at the initial FFS session before the demonstration plots were established in the FBOs’ group farms. Rice seed of NERICA L19 and compound fertilizer (NPK: 15-15-15) were also procured and distributed to all twenty (20) FBOs at adequate timing along with the FFS schedule.

    The FFS demonstration plot consisted of two (2) sub-plots, the TP-R with fertilizer and the TP-R without fertilizer, to understand that the appropriate cultivation techniques bring an improvement in the rice productivity even if no

    District Extension Block Chiefdom Village Name of the FBO

    Bombali

    1 Paki Masabong Mabando Mabando Farmers Association 2 Makari Mankneh Bana One Word Farmers Association 3 Bombali Shary Konta Tamaraneh Farmers Association 4 Gbendembu Makai Makai Farmers Association 5 Safroko Limba Mabamba Mabamba Farmers Association 6 Kamaranka Rowula Tawopaneh Farmers Association

    Karene

    1 Sella Limba Kamethe Kamabom Women’s Support Group 3 Sanda Tendaren Malonto Falaka Farmers Association 3 Gbanti Makomray Kamuyu Farmers Association* 5 Dibia Konta Kargbo Tasklaneh Farmers Association 6 Romende Mankneh Mabasie Tanthokuru Farmers Association

    Port Loko

    1 Bureh Bangkro Tamaraneh Farmers Association 2 Kaftu Bullom Kalayma Kalayma Farmers Association 3 Koya Robis 2 Tamaraneh Farmers Association 4 Maforki Gbarray Sarr Tamaraneh Farmers Association 5 Makama Mabang Masempeh - Munafa Farmers Association

    Kambia

    1 Mambolo Mayaki Tamareneh Farmers Associatio 2 Dixon Masimbo Kamalaneh Farmers Association 3 Magbema Kamba Sambenty Farmers Association 4 Tonko Limba Mile 14 Masianday Farmers Association

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    - 5 -

    fertilizer. Conventional plots where farmers’ traditional rice farming techniques are practiced were also delineated for comparison of yield performances. There were 11 sessions of FFS on the TP-R, covering the topics and technical recommendations related to the farming activities to be conducted at specific time in the cropping season as shown in Figure 2.

    Figure 2 Schedule of the FFS sessions and monitoring in rainy season 2019

    The FFS sessions were conducted by the trained extension workers (BESs and FEWs) using the TP-R extension materials distributed at the TOT, and feedbacks on the FFS sessions as well as the monitoring data on the demo plots and conventional plots were reported by the FEWs through mobile applications.

    Harvesting was manually done, and after threshing and winnowing with ordinally methods of the farmers, the

       Session 1 (to be conducted during the week of 30th June – 6th July) Session 1‐1 Introduction Session 1‐2 FFS demonstration plot   Session 1‐3 Rehabilitation / construction of bunds Session 1‐4 Land preparation 

    Session 2 (to be conducted in the first half of the week of 7th ‐13th July) Session 2‐1 Formulation of farming plan Session 2‐2 Formulation of a cropping calendar   

    Session 3 (to be conducted in the latter half of the week of 7th – 13th July) Session 3‐1 Yield Components Session 3‐2 Life cycle of rice plant Session 3‐3 Various variety Session 3‐4 Seed Selection   

    Session 4 (to be conducted during the week of 14th – 20th July) Session 4‐1 Nursery preparation (Site selection)   Session 4‐2 Nursery preparation (Area and sowing)   Session 4‐3 Nursery management 

    Session 5 (to be conducted during the week of 28th July – 3rd August) Session 5‐1 Importance of puddling   Session 5‐2 Importance of leveling 

    Session 6 (to be conducted during the week of 4th – 10th August) Session 6‐1 Nursery period  Session 6‐2 Uprooting of seedlings   Session 6‐3 Fertilizer application Session 6‐4 How to apply fertilizer   Session 6‐5 Water management and fertilizer Session 6‐6 Transplanting method Session 6‐7 Water management at transplanting  Session 7 (to be conducted during the weeks between 18th ‐31st August)   Session 7‐1 Weed management Session 7‐2 Timing of weeding     Session 8 (to be conducted during the week of 22nd – 28th September) Session 8‐1 Identification of panicle initiation Session 8‐2 Topdressing Session 8‐3 Water management and fertilizer  

    Session 9 (to be conducted during the weeks of 13th – 26th October) Session 9‐1 Control of insect pests and diseases Session 9‐2 Prevention of damage from rodents Session 9‐3 Prevention of damage from birds   Session 10 (to be conducted during the week of 10th – 16th November) Session 10‐1 Timing of harvest Session 10‐2 Post harvest handling 1 Session 10‐3 Post harvest handling 2    Session 11 (to be conducted after the harvest is completed in demo plots as well as in the conventional plot)     Session 11‐1 Comparison of yield performances Session 11‐2 Evaluation of the TP‐R 

    Sowing on July 20th

    Sample of actual work in the demonstration plots

    Setting up of Demo Plot

    June

     July 

    Basal fertilizer application &

    transplanting not later than August 10th

    Topdressing in the 4th week of September

    Weeding in the 3rd to 4th week of August

    Harvesting starts from the middle of

    November

    October 

    August 

    Septem

    ber 

    November 

    December &

     afte

    r

    Field Monitoring 2: Confirmation of the

    growth of rice in the Demo plot

    Field Monitoring 1: Observation of weed

    conditions in the demo plot

    Field Monitoring 3: Yield survey in the Conventional plot

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    - 6 -

    weight and moisture contents of the grains were measured. The yield per unit area was calculated with the adjustment at 14% moisture contents. The results of yield survey in the FFS demo plots in the rainy season 2019 are as shown in Figure 3.

    *Each figure on the horizontal axis shows the extension block number of the district.

    **Yield survey of the demo plot has not yet completed in Block 4 of Port Loko District. Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Figure 3 Rice yield in the FFS demonstration plots in the rainy season 2019

    The yield of the TP-R demo plot with fertilizer is ranging from 3.6 t/ha of Block 1 in Karene District to 0.2 t/ha of Block 5 in Port Loko District with the average of 1.9 t/ha. The target yield of 3.0 t/ha has been achieved at five (5) plots out of 20.

    The yield of the TP-R demo plot without fertilizer is ranging from 3.8 t/ha of Block 3 in Bombali District to 0.1 t/ha of Block 5 in Port Loko District with the average of 1.2 t/ha. The yield of 2.0 t/ha has been achieved at three (3) plots.

    It is not clear why the yield of 3.8 t/ha was achieved at the TP-R demo plot without fertilizer in Block 3 in Bombali District, however, it has a possibility that the soil fertility of the demonstration site is exceptionally high. Because the yield was above 3.0 t/ha at the with-fertilizer sub-plot in the same site, despite this sub-plot was damaged by flooding.

    The yield of 12 sub-plots with fertilizer was less than 2.0 t/ha and the yield of nine (9) sub-plots without fertilizer was less than 1.0 t/ha. The main factors of low yield are cited that heavy rains caused flooding of IVS, escaping of fertilizer soon after transplanting, and degradation of cultivation condition in IVS. The soil and water conditions of the sites, which show low yield but an obvious gap in yield between sub-plots of with-fertilizer and without-fertilizer, are possibly poorer than those of the sites where the high yield was achieved.

    Organic soil developed in the IVS where paddy field is submerged throughout the year, has much lower specific gravity, bearing capacity and nutrient retention capacity than the soils of sandy loam or loam developed in IVS where field is submerged during rainy season but dried up for certain period of dry season. The organic soil also decreases the fertilizer utilization efficiency as well as the efficiency of field work and water management.

    In order to promote the dissemination of the TP-R as well as to enhance the effectiveness of fertilizer application, conditions of the soil and water should carefully be examined before the selection of IVS where the FFS is carried out. For the IVS where a large volume of water is discharged during the rainy season, certain measures such as shifting the cropping season towards the later part of the rainy season should be considered. It is needless to say that major IVS development works required for those IVSs.

    (2) Support for the graduated FBOs

    Total of 13 FBOs who graduated from the FFS on the TP-R in 2018 are expected to be showcases for other FBOs as well as for extension workers to exhibit the benefit from the adoption of the TP-R and to play a vital role in

    0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    1 2 3 4 5 6 1 2 3 5 1 3-a 3-b 5 6 1 2 3 4

    Bombali Port-Loko Karene Kambia

    Yie

    ld (t

    /ha)

    TP-R with fertilizer TP-R without fertilizer

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    - 7 -

    disseminating knowledge and techniques of the TP-R among farmers in the future. The following supports to those graduate FBOs were provided by the Project during 2019 rainy season; a) input supply (seeds and fertilizer) for the TP-R demonstration plot within a maximum range of one (1) acre, b) refresher training on the TP-R which also includes additional techniques of seed multiplication, and c) monitoring throughout the cropping season.

    The graduate FBOs conducted farming activities in the demonstration plot on their group work days in accordance with the TP-R recommendations, while regularly inviting some representatives from neighbouring FBOs to the group activities to disseminate the TP-R, by whom attendance of and application of the TP-R was also reported to the Project.

    Harvesting was manually done, and after threshing and winnowing with ordinally methods of the farmers, the weight and moisture contents of the grains were measured. The yield per unit area was calculated with the adjustment at 14% moisture contents. The results of yield survey are as shown in Figure 4.

    *Each figure on the horizontal axis shows the extension block number of the district.

    Source: JICA-SRPP team Figure 4 Rice yield in the demonstration plots of graduated FBOs in 2019 rainy season

    The average yield in the demonstration plot of 13 graduated FBOs was 2.2 t/ha, ranging from 1.2 t/ha to 3.2 t/ha. The target yield of 3.0 t/ha has been achieved at four (4) plots out of 13, while the yield of five (5) plots was less than 2.0 t/ha. As mentioned in the (1) above, the heavy rains with flooding were accountable for the low yield.

    It is highly appreciated that despite of the heavy rain during the season, average yield of 2.2 t/ha was obtained from the fields of 13 graduated FBOs, field of which was 8 times larger than the FFS demonstration plot. The yield of some graduated FBO obtained this season was even higher than last season. It may show that technical guidance of two consecutive cropping seasons may be necessary to confirm the adoption of rice cultivation techniques including TP-R by FBO farmers.

    Amount of seeds multiplied in the 100 m2 plot by the graduated FBO ranged from 15.2 kg to 42.5 kg with the average of 27.0 kg (adjusted at 14% moisture contents). The difference in produced seed amount among the graduated FBOs was more than double, however, all FBOs could obtain the enough amount of seeds for the next main season if they cultivate rice with the same scale as the rainy season 2019. All FBOs expressed their intention to continuously adopt the TP-R for the next main season with procuring the fertilizer by selling rice harvested in 2019.

    2.1.3 Participatory IVS development

    (1) Site survey and meeting with farmers at the developed IVS

    The site survey of the three (3) developed IVSs, where the participatory IVS development works were implemented jointly by WFP, JICA-SRPP and MAF during the last dry season between the beginning of February 2019 and the middle of May 2019 (refer to Table 5 and Figure 5), was conducted in September 2019 by the JICA

    0.00.51.01.52.02.53.03.5

    1 5 4 1 2 3 1 5 6 1 2 3 4

    Bombali Port-Loko Karene Kambia

    Yie

    ld (t

    /ha)

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    - 8 -

    expert with the local staff of the Project. The situation of the flood water flow as well as the conditions of the irrigation facilities in IVSs during the rainy season were grasped through the hearing from the FBO farmers who participated in the IVS development works.

    The collapse of the main drainage and the breakage of the head bund, etc., which were caused by the heavy rainfall and the flood water, were visually confirmed through the field inspection. The beneficiary farmers also informed the JICA expert that some embankments of the main drainage and the peripheral canal overflowed in the peak rainy season.

    Based on the survey result, the JICA expert identified the damaged portions of the irrigation facilities which need repair and considered the methods of the repair work. The meetings with the FBO farmers were organized at three (3) IVSs. In these meetings, the results of the site survey were shared and the necessity of the repair works for the damaged irrigation facilities were explained with the contents of the repair works. The JICA expert emphasized that the repair works would prolong the life of the irrigation facility in each IVS, which would maintain the productivity of rice. The JICA expert asked the FBO farmers to participate in the repair works without the food assistance etc., and the FBOs of Mabonkani IVS and Gbarray Sarr IVS finally agreed with the participation of the repair works.

    Meanwhile, the irrigation facilities in Masineh IVS were not suffered from serious damages. The FBO farmers informed the JICA expert that parts of the main drainage and the peripheral canal overflowed during the peak rainy season. To prevent the overflow, lower portion of the embankments along the main drainage and the peripheral canal need to be raised by filling with the embankment material, which could be done by the FBO farmers only. After confirming the contents of the works, it was agreed that the FBO farmers of Masineh would carry out the repair works by themselves without the supervision of the JICA expert.

    Table 5 Three IVS sites for development/rehabilitation District Chiefdom Location (village) Area of IVS (ha) Bombali Safroko Limba Mabonkani 6.7 Port Loko Maforki Gbarray Sarr 3.0 Kambia Dixon Masineh 2.1

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    - 9 -

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Figure 5 Map of targeted IVSs for rehabilitation and development

    (2) Repair work for developed IVS

    The repair works in Mabonkani IVS (Bombali District) and Gbarray Sarr IVS (Port Loko District) were conducted by the FBO farmers under the supervisions of the JICA expert, the Project local staffs in each district and the MAF district staffs. Tables 6 and 7 show the summary of these repair works in each district.

    Table 6 Summary of repair work in Mabonkani IVS

    FBO Number of Participants Summary of Repair Work 12th Sep. 13th Sep. Thaduba FBO Mabohinanday FBO One Word FBO Maloholina Association Total

    23 12 13 28 76

    26 29 21 27

    103

    (1) Repair of Main Drainage (Repair of collapsed canal embankment)

    (2) Repair of Drop Structure (Repair & protection of canal bed)

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Mabonkani IVS is located at the foot of the rock mountain and a huge amount of the seepage water wells up from the mountain in addition to the rain in the rainy season. The geology of Mabonkani IVS consists of the thin top layer (surface soil, mainly “fine sand” and “loam” etc.) and the thick second layer (subsoil, mainly “sand gravel”). Since the sand gravel is easy to be scoured, some parts of the canal bed of main drainage-1 (flows from west to east) and main drainage-2 (flows from south to north) had been scoured by the flood water, and these scourings of

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    canal bed induced the collapse of the embankments. Moreover, the scouring of the canal bed had also been occurred at some drop structures, especially at the downstream of the main drainage-1. The part of the collapsed and damaged embankment were repaired by using the local materials, such as the wooden pegs (made from the branches of the woods), grasses or rice straw, and clayey soil (collected from the borrow pits). The canal beds at the drop structures, which have been severely scoured, were also repaired by laying the sandbags as the bed protection. These repair methods are simple and manageable by farmers, therefore, the farmers themselves will be able to conduct such repair works in the future.

    Table 7 Summary of repair work in Gbarray Sarr IVS

    FBO Number of Participants

    Summary of Repair Work 9th Sept. 11th Sept. 16th Sept. 18th Sept.

    Tamaraneh FBO 22 51 42 53 (1) Construction of Simple Weir (Temporary Weir)

    (2) Repair of Peripheral Canal

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    After the construction of head bund in Gbarray Sarr IVS, the spillway was broken by the rapid increase of flood water level with high water pressure caused by a heavy rain in early August 2019. Since considerable manpower is required to restore the spillway, a simple weir using locally available wooden pegs and straw-shaped weeds was installed at the right upstream of the broken spillway as a temporary measure. To reinforce the foundation of the simple weir, sandbags were installed on the riverbed at the upstream and downstream of the weir. As a result, the water level at the upstream of the weir has been raised to allow water to flow into the both peripheral canals. However, due to the high water pressure, upstream water went through the gaps of the sandbags to form multiple water paths under the foundation ground of the simple weir, and the control of water level was made difficult.

    (3) Additional site survey and second repair work for the developed IVS

    After the completion of the repair works in September 2019, the additional site surveys for the three (3) IVSs were conducted in December 2019 to investigate the conditions of the repaired irrigation facilities. As a result, it was found that portions of the irrigation facilities needed to be repaired further.

    For the Mabonkani IVS, additional repair works were carried out because parts of embankment of the main drainages-1 and -2 repaired with revetment work have been eroded. To prevent further erosion as well as scouring, reduction of discharge volume is essential. To reduce the discharge volume of the main drainage -1 (east-west direction), flood water collected at the head bund -1 should be diverted to the peripheral canal of left bank as much as possible. Also, in order to reduce the water inflow into the main drainage-2 during the rainy season, proper maintenance of peripheral canal that extends from the upstream end of the main drainage-2 to the northwest ward is required to divert a part of drainage water. The maintenance work includes weeding along the canal embankment and removal of sedimentation, for which the FBO chairman agreed to conduct the work.

    In addition, it was confirmed from interviews with farmers that the height of the spillway crest of the head bund-3, at the upstream end of the main drainage-3 (the north-south direction), has been higher than the water level of the upstream pond as the water source, which prevented the excess water from spilling over to the drainage canal even in the peak rainy season. Therefore, the overflow section of the spillway was dug. To prevent the overflow from the head bund-2 whose function is to distribute water to downstream through peripheral canal, the embankment of the head bund was raised.

    As for Gbarray Sarr IVS, there were several water paths under the foundation ground of a simple weir which was constructed just upstream of the broken spillway, which made control the water difficult. The meeting with the

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    FBO farmers was held to discuss about the countermeasures (see next section for details).

    Irrigation facilities in Masineh IVS did not require any repair works.

    (4) Meeting with the FBO farmers at Gbarray Sarr IVS

    JICA expert team and the Tamaraneh FBO farmers who are the beneficiaries of the Gbarray Sarr IVS had a discussion session about the rehabilitation of the head bund and future IVS development on December 11, 2019. In the meeting, the FBO farmers expressed the satisfaction about the IVS development so far realized as follows:

    1) Construction of the head bund improved greatly the access between left and right banks of the IVS, the head bund of which is also used by local residents of other villages,

    2) Paddy field area was expanded as a result of IVS development including improvement of the main drainage, and,

    3) Drainage conditions of farmland was improved after the improvement of the main drainage.

    As for activities aside from the IVS development works, positive opinions were expressed on the popularization of rice cultivation technology by FFS and introduction of agricultural machineries by WFP.

    On the other hand, interruption of irrigation water supply to peripheral canal expected in the dry season, caused by breakage of spillway was pointed out as the remaining issue. The FBO farmers wanted to upgrade the weir including spillway to concrete structure. However, due to the high cost for constructing concrete structure as well as the large scale of construction work, it was left as the future issue for the FBO to consider the means for realization.

    (5) Site Survey for FFS targeted IVS

    WFP and JICA expert team held an annual planning meeting on next year's collaboration at WFP Makeni Sub-office on November 7, 2019. In the meeting WFP side requested the JICA expert team to select the FFS sites for FY2020 among the IVSs developed/rehabilitated through FFA with the list. On the other hand, JICA expert team exemplified that there are many undeveloped IVSs among which some FBOs have achieved good results in FFS. It was requested to WFP to consider the possibility to develop these IVSs through FFA because proper development of these IVSs would create large impact.

    With this background, IVS survey was conducted in parallel with the status survey/repair work on the rehabilitated IVS facing up to the activities of the third year of this cooperation. The target IVSs for survey were selected among 35 IVS sites where FFSs had been conducted so far. These IVS sites were selected from those undeveloped ones, which have shown good results in terms of cohesiveness of farmers' organizations and the yield performance (See Table 8).

    Table 8 List of IVS site survey

    District Year of FFS conducted Extension

    Block Village Name of the FBO Approximate size

    of IVS Bombali 2019 3 Konta Tamaraneh FA 3 ha Port Loko 2018 1 Maghatta Right to life FA 4 ha Kambia 2019 2 Masimbo Kamalaneh FA 3 ha

    2019 4 Mile 14 Masianday FA More than 10 ha 2018 3 Masineh Magbema Women's Coop 4 ha

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Based on the present states of undeveloped IVS and problems confirmed from the survey in the five (5) IVS shown in Table 8, points of concern for formulating development plan in undeveloped IVS are identified as shown in below.

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    a) Points of concern related to site survey

    Understanding of causes of poor drainage in IVS (confirmation of the topography, geology, existing drainage channels, and drainage flow destinations, etc.)

    Confirmation of water resource (location of discharge, discharge volume and discharge period, etc.)

    Confirmation of situation of seepage or spring (location of discharge, discharge volume and discharge period, etc.)

    Confirmation of inundation in IVS during rainy and dry seasons (to be confirmed by the interview with farmers)

    Confirmation of land use and water use in IVS (confirmation of farmer's expectation and intention for IVS development)

    In the site survey, parallel with the survey and reconnaissance, interviews with as many farmers who utilize IVS as possible should be conducted to collect information on the above items.

    b) Points of concern for formulating a participatory IVS development plan in undeveloped IVSs

    Development area, content and volume of construction works are determined based on the number of FBO farmers who could participate in the works and the construction period (maximum 3 months). (Contents of the development plan must be determined considering the construction period)

    Selection of the location and route of irrigation facilities (head bund, main drainage and peripheral canal) should carefully be done based on the results of the field survey.

    Since the scale of the main drainage (canal width and height) is determined by the flood discharge, efforts should be made to collect information in predicting the flood discharge (field survey, interviews with farmers, catchment area estimation from Google Earth image, etc.).

    Since the internal bund of paddy field in undeveloped IVS is not set, it is necessary to plan the paddy plots in an integrated manner with the irrigation facilities. The layout of the paddy fields will be carefully examined, taking the results of site survey well into account.

    For embankment of the head bund, main drainage and peripheral canal, as well as the internal bund of paddy field, clay soil should be collected from the borrow pits around IVS and used. The topsoil of paddy fields contains nutrients necessary for rice growth thus should not be used as embankment material.

    Methods of operation and maintenance of irrigation facilities such as clearing, removing sediment and repairing embankment are instructed to the FBO to let them to take their own initiatives on these activities.

    In case if the target area of development is limited to a part of the entire IVS, the development plan should be shared with the other IVS owners/users (individual or other FBO) outside of the target area, and clarify that the development activities will not create any negative impact on their area.

    2.1.4 Overseas technical training on rice development

    As a part of the activities on capacity development of Sierra Leonean counterparts, an overseas technical training was conducted in Madagascar.

    (1) Objectives of the training

    The training aims at acquiring the cultivation technology and extension method on rice development in Madagascar to stimulate the activities of the Project. Especially since the technical package for rice productivity improvement is disseminated in Madagascar by the JICA's Project for Rice Productivity Improvement and Management of Watershed and Irrigation Area (PAPRiz 2), it is quite fruitful to share the technologies developed, information and

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    experiences between PAPRiz 2 and SRPP. Through active discussions among persons involved in both projects, it is expected to exchange ideas on solving the issues faced in respective projects and adopting proper technologies and methods for effective project implementation. In addition, the learning on construction and maintenance of terraced paddy fields is expected to contribute to an appropriate IVS development in Sierra Leone.

    (2) Participants

    The number of the participants was 20. The Director of Extension (the Project Manager), four (4) District Agriculture Officers (DAOs) in the Project target districts and one (1) rice researcher were nominated by the MAF headquarters, while four (4) Subject Matter Specialists (SMSs) - Extension and four (4) BESs and six (6) FBO leaders were selected by the district nomination teams headed by DAO in each district. The participants were accompanied by two (2) Project experts who coordinated the training activities in Madagascar.

    (3) Training programme

    The training was conducted for a total of nine (9) days as shown in Table 9.

    Table 9 Programme of the training in Madagascar Sl. Date Day Activity Accommodation 1 Nov. 23 Sat Departure from Lungi On air 2 Nov. 24 Sun Arrival at Antananarivo Antananarivo 3 Nov. 25 Mon Meeting with Fy Vary Project, FOFIFA

    Meeting with PAPRiz2 Team Briefing on rice production in Madagascar Presentation on PAPRiz2 and SRPP by both project team

    members Courtesy call to MAEP

    Antananarivo

    4 Nov. 26 Tue Move to Vakinakaratra Region Observation of rice terraces on the way to Antsirabe Visit to CFFAMMA

    Antsirabe

    5 Nov. 27 Wed Visit to the site of of PAPRIZ2 in Vakinakaratra region Commune Andrianasahalombo

    Antsirabe

    6 Nov. 28 Thu Courtesy call to DRAEP Vakinakaratra Visit to the site of PAPRIZ2 in Vakinakaratra region

    Commune Ambano PF2016 Commune Manandona PF2018

    Antsirabe

    7 Nov. 29 Fri Visit to the site of PAPRIZ2 in Ambatolampy district Cooperative Tsinjo

    Rapport to JICA Madagascar office

    Antananarivo

    8 Nov. 30 Sat (Preparation for departure) Antananarivo 9 Dec. 01 Sun Departure from Antananarivo

    Arrival at Lungi

    MAEP: Ministry of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries, Government of Madagascar DRAEP: Regional Department of Agriculture, Livestock and Fisheries CFFAMMA: Center for Manufacturing, Training on Machinery and Agricultural Mechanization FOFIFA: National Center for Applied Research on Rural Development LRI: Laboratory of Radioisotopes Fy-Vary Project: The Project for Breakthrough in Nutrient Use Efficiency for Rice by Genetic Improvement and Fertility Sensing

    Techniques in Africa PAPRIZ2: Project for Rice Productivity Improvement and Management of Watershed and Irrigated Area Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Prior to the training, an orientation workshop was held in four districts as well as in Freetown for the participant to confirm the itinerary, share points to consider in the training, provide general information on Madagascar, and provide training subjects.

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    (4) Submission of an official report

    After coming back from the training in Madagascar, each of every participant are required to prepare and submit a training report. As of the end of December 2019, all but one have submitted the report.

    2.2 Activities related to Output 3

    < The TP-R is further elaborated so as to realize higher adoption among the FBO farmers.>

    2.2.1 On-farm trial to verify or improve the TP-R

    Current TP-R recommends the sowing density in the nursery with 1 kg per 10 m2, which has not been verified through field test. Other JICA project promoting rice production in other country recommends 2 kg per 10 m2. As the work load of preparing nursery bed is not negligible, if higher sowing density in the unit nursery bed is allowable, adoption of the TP-R will be enhanced.

    Based on the above background, an on-farm trial was conducted to find the optimal sowing density of rice seeds in the nursery under the TP-R . The design of the trial is as shown in Table 10.

    Table 10 Design of on-farm trial Purpose Find the maximum sowing density of rice seeds in the nursery which can maintain the

    yield Field Area 800 m2 (200 m2 x 4) Treatments (T) Different sowing density of rice seeds in nursery bed

    T-1 (Control): 1 kg of seeds/10 m2 T-2 (Double density): 2 kg of seeds/10 m2 T-3 (Triple density): 3 kg of seeds/10 m2 T-4 (Quadruple density): 4 kg of seeds/10 m2

    Replicates 4 (Konta, Bombali District; Kamethe, Karene District; Robis2, Port Loko District; and Mile14, Kambia District)

    Cultivation method Following the TP-R Items to be measured 1. Height of seedlings, and the number of leaves at the time of uprooting by treatments

    (30 seedlings of 21-days old are measured in each treatment.) 2. Yield in each plot by treatment (all cutting method)

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Four (4) nursery beds of each treatment and trial plots were set up in the respective FBO group farms under close supervision of the Project. The height of seedling and the number of leaves at the time of uprooting were measured on 30 plants in each treatment. The results of measurements are shown in Figures 6 and 7, respectively.

    The height of seedlings was higher at the treatments of the TP-R recommended seed density (T-1) and double density (T-2) , followed by the treatment of triple density (T-3) then the treatment of quadruple density (T-4). The number of leaves was the highest at T-1 and the lowest at T-3 and T-4, however, the difference in height among treatments was not significant in Robis 2 trial plot. In general, the higher seed density leads to the etiolated growth of seedlings due to high competition for light among the seedlings, however, conflicting results were found from the measurement of height of seedlings. Further, shortage of seedlings for transplanting was reported in several trial sites. It may indicate that intense competition on nutrition among seedlings occurred in the very early growth stage in the nursery, for which many seedlings in higher density treatment have stopped growing and died of nutrient deficiency.

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    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Figure 6 Plant height of the seedlings at the time of transplanting by treatments and by plots

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Figure 7 Number of leaves of the seedlings at the time of transplanting by treatments and by plots

    Yield survey was conducted in each site, however, the trial in Kamethe, Karene District was stopped due to the destroying trial plot by flooding after the transplanting. The results of yield survey in the three (3) sites are shown in Figure 8.

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Figure 8 Rice yield by treatments and by plots

    Yield gap among the trial sites possibly reflects the difference in the conditions of water and soil. The difference in yield among the treatments was not significant in any of the trial plots. It can be said that if NERICA L19 or four months-growth duration variety is used, the poor and delay in the growth of seedlings sown with the quadruple seed density in the nursery can be recovered after the transplanting and the yield will be similar to that of the TP-R recommendation.

    From the results above, it is considered that appropriate sowing density of rice seed in the nursery will be 2 to 3 kg per 10 m2.

    2.2.2 Introducution and demonstration of small farm machineries

    In line with the Memorandum of Cooperation (MOC) signed between WFP and JICA, small-scale farm machineries procured by WFP (power tillers, threshing machines and rice milling machines) were provided to the three (3) IVS

    10.0

    15.0

    20.0

    25.0

    30.0

    35.0

    Konta Kamethe Mile 14 Robis 2

    Plan

    t hei

    ght (

    cm)

    T-1: Control T-2: Double density T-3: Triple density T-4: Quadruple density

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    5.0

    Konta Kamethe Mile 14 Robis 2

    Num

    ber o

    f lea

    ves

    T-1: Control T-2: Double density T-3: Triple density T-4: Quadruple density

    0.0

    1.0

    2.0

    3.0

    4.0

    Konta Mile 14 Robis 2

    Yie

    ld (t

    /ha)

    T-1: Control T-2: Double density T-3: Triple density T-4: Quadruple density

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    sites where the participatory IVS development was implemented jointly by WFP, JICA-SRPP and MAF. Technical training on operation, maintenance and repair of the machineries, as well as training on management of the machineries were conducted by WFP, JICA-SRPP and MAF to members of the Machinery Management Committees (MMC) which has been established in each FBO following a bylaw. For the power tiller, the MMC provides the service for operation, monitors the operation and the management and provides necessary supports for both operation and management under the supervision of the Project and MAF. Based on the results of monitoring, the JICA-SRPP will make a proposal on the sustainable use of the power tiller.

    A series of training was conducted to the MMC members and operator candidates on operation, maintenance and management of small farm machineries. The outline and programme of the training are shown in Table 11 and 12, respectively. Any trainings on rice mill have not yet been conducted in two (2) FBOs in Port Loko and Kambia districts because of the delay of construction of the building which will accommodate the machinery. During the training, the dealer engineer played a role to instruct the members of MMC and the expert and the local consultant of JICA-SRPP provided supplemental technical guidance. According to WFP, machines had been kept more than one year after the procurement. Due probably to it, it was observed that the clutch plate of power tiller has been rusted, and necessary parts of thresher have been missed at the time of delivery. These problems has been solved by the joint effort made by the Project and the dealer, and the training were conducted on schedule, then machines are currently working with good condition.

    Table 11 Date of training and number of participants Village/ District Power tiller Rice mill Thresher Mabonkani/ Bombali 16-20 July 2019 (12) 12 August 2019 (12) 8 November 2019 (6) Masineh/ Kambia district 24-26 June 2019 (12) Yet to be done. 12 November 2019 (20) Gbaray Saar/ Port Loko 08 -12 July 2019 (12) Yet to be done. 26 November 2019 (22) Helebu/ Pujehun 01 – 06 July 2019 (12) 29 July 2019 (12) 13-14 November 2019 (12)

    ( ) number of participant Source: JICA-SRPP team

    Table 12 Training programme Operation Maintenance Power tiller Basic understanding

    Preparation for operation Driving of power tiller with trailer Check items before operation Start, stop and adjust speed of engine Operation on/off the field Safety measures

    Every-shift maintenance After every 100 hours of operation After every 500 hours of operation After every 1,500 – 2,000 hours of

    operation Trouble shooting

    Rice mill Preparation for operation Operation Check items before operation Name and function of thresher and engine Feeding proper amount of paddy Safety measures

    Check items before and after operation Check items before and after a season Consumable parts and timing of

    replacement Trouble shooting

    Thresher Preparation for operation Setting of a thresher Check items before operation Name and function of thresher and engine Feeding proper amount of paddy Safety measures

    Check items before and after operation Check items before and after a season Consumable parts and timing of

    replacement Trouble shooting

    Management What is operation management Operation management in accordance with

    bylaw of FBO

    Record keeping and procedure Review of business performance

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

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    Monitoring was conducted by the Project expert, the local consultant, the Project agriculture officers, and BESs or FEWs. Both ledger and operation record were not enough to manage the machinery service business. No linkage between operational record and ledger, income and expenditure were recorded as one data, and income, expenditure were recorded in not ledger but a personal memo, etc. Then, the monitoring guideline was prepared by the Project expert, which provides guidance (items to be monitored, frequency, a person in charge, check sheet, template of the ledger, and operation records) for the monitoring staff to check FBO’s activities. Periodical monitoring will be done mainly by FEWs and BESs with the Project support.

    It is the first time for most of participating farmers to operate, maintain and manage farm machinery. So, it is necessary to follow-up the situation of O&M and management, such as the provision of machinery service to FBO members, collection of the service fee, purchase of consumable parts, handling of mechanical trouble, kinds of record keeping, reserve fund for replacement. Intensive monitoring is required in the first year because FBO is not familiar with this kind of business management, but it will be a big burden for the Project.

    2.3 Activities related to Output 4

    < The TP-R is recognized by MAF as the recommended rice cultivation techniques for IVSs throughout the country >

    2.3.1 Collaboration with other development partners

    (1) WFP

    In line with the MOC, the collaboration with WFP in terms of participatory IVS development and introduction and demonstration of small farm machineries was continuously discussed between the Project and the management team of WFP staff in Freetown. An annual plan on collaboration activities in 2020 was discussed between JICA expert team and WFP at the WFP Makeni Sub-office on 7th November, 2019.

    Details of collaborative activities on participatory IVS development and introduction and demonstration of small farm machineries are described in the subsection 2.1.3 and 2.2.2, respectively.

    (2) Collaboration with World Bank

    The discussion with the person in charge of WAATP/SCADep, the programme under the World Bank, is maintained to seek the possibility of collaboration for the nationwide rice development.

    2.3.2 Nationwide Dissemination of the TP-R

    In response to the request from MAF to disseminate the TP-R to the farmers who cultivate rice in the IVSs in the districts other than the target districts of the Project, the TOT for nationwide dissemination of the TP-R was planned and implemented in April and June 2019. Three batches of training were organized for 5 days each which were attended by the total of 90 extension workers of the eleven (11) districts of the country other than the target districts of the Project, as details shown in the Table 13.

    Table 13 TOT for nationwide dissemination of the TP-R Batch Date Venue Participating district No. of

    participants

    1 April 8th - 12th, 2019 Lambayama Agricultural Training Centre, Kenema Kono, Kenema and Kailahun 25

    2 April 15th - 19th, 2019 Conference hall at District Agricultural Office, Bo Bo, Moyamba, Pujehun and Bonthe 33

    3 June 10th - 4th, 2019 Makali Agricultural Training Centre, Tonkolili Tonkolili, Koinadugu, Falaba, and Western Rural 32

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

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    In the TOT, the extension workers have learnt about the techniques of the TP-R as well as how to facilitate the FFS sessions. A set of extension materials on the TP-R was provided to each extension block. The monitoring sheets on the implementation of the FFS were also distributed to the participants at the end of the training for them to keep the records of FFS sessions and activities in the demo plots.

    The pre-and post-tests (with 25 questions) were conducted during the first two days of the TP-R training, the results of which indicated that the participants could improve their understanding on the TP-R, as summarized in Table 14. At the end of the 5 days training, the participants expressed that their learning on the TP-R was further reinforced through the following three-day TOT.

    Table 14 Results of the training of extension officers for nationwide dissemination of the TP-R

    Batch No. of partici-pants

    Minimum score Maximum score Average Score Score increase

    Average no. of same mistakes Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test Pre-test Post-test

    Batch 1 25 12 16 20 22 17.3 20.1 2.8 1.4 Batch 2 33 12 14 23 25 16.8 20.7 3.9 1.6 Batch 3 32 9 10 25 25 17.0 19.4 2.4 2.8 Source: JICA-SRPP team

    After the TOT, the participants were expected to implement the FFS on the TP-R in their areas of jurisdiction in respective districts. The officer-in-charge at the MAF headquarters has followed the roll-out in each district, the data of which was compiled once in July 2019. Based on the report derived from 11 districts, a follow-up meeting was planned and held in November 2019, inviting the SMS extension to report the undertaking in respective districts. It was then reported that 54 FFS were conducted in 46 blocks out of 57 in the 11 districts by the TOT participants as the details shown in the Table 15.

    Table 15 Implementation of FFS on the TP-R in 11 districts

    District No. of Blocks No. of FFS Remarks

    Kenema 6 6 No fertilizer provided to one of the FFS sites. Kono 5 5 Kailahun 5 5 No fertilizer provided to two FFS sites. Bo 6 1 Bonthe 5 3

    Moyamba 5 4 The mixture of urea and NPK0-20-20 was applied as NPK15-15-15 was not available. Pujehun 5 4 NPK 0-20-20 was applied to three FFS sites. Tonkolili 5 13 Koinadugu 5 3 Basal application was not done due to the flood (topdressing only).

    Falaba 6 6 The mixture of urea and NPK0-20-20 was applied as NPK15-15-15 was not available. Western Rural 4 4 Basal application was not done in one of the FFS sites (topdressing only).

    Total 57 54 Source: JICA-SRPP team

    At the occasion of this follow-up meeting, a refresher session on yield survey was conducted, where the method and procedure of the survey as well as calculation of the yield were reviewed. Prior to the distribution of paddy moisture meters to all extension blocks, exercise on the use of the gadget was also repeated to ensure the SMS extension can properly guide the BESs and FEWs who will use them to measure the yield in the FFS plots.

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    2.3.3 Training of the extension officers from district other than the target areas of the Project / staff of partner institutions

    Aside from the training for nationwide dissemination of the TP-R, by the request from WFP, thirty (30) youth contractors from across the country who are fostered through IVS development by WFP/ Food for Asset scheme were participated in the refresher training on the TP-R in June 2019.

    2.3.4 Rice working group

    An expert of the Project has participated in the regular meeting of rice working group set up in MAF to discuss on issues of the rice sector to come up with development direction and strategies since September 2018.

    The expert also attended a two-day conference, “National Stakeholders Consultative Conference on Developing Sierra Leone’s Rice Policy, Strategy and Business Plan”, organized by MAF in October 2019 at Bo. During the sessions, rice policy and business plan to achieve rice self-sufficiency were extensively discussed among the participants such as executive members of MAF and other ministries, representatives of donors, managers in private sector. A tow-day conference, “Regional Consultative Meeting on Rice Policy, Strategy and Business Plan” for the North and North-West regions, was held at Makeni in December 2019.

    2.4 Other activities

    2.4.1 Project office and Project staff

    The construction works of the Project office in Karene District was started in November 2019. Extension works of pipe to the septic tank, construction of generator house and wiring work have been completed, and well digging works is planned. One (1) local field staff was newly employed by the Project to fill the retirement staff in Port Loko.

    2.4.2 District Task Force Meetings

    District task force meetings has been held as shown in Table 16 during the third quarter of the second year period of the Project (from June to December, 2019). These meetings are supposed to be held on a regular basis at the end of every month with the initiative of its members, however, it was sometimes found difficult for the part of relevant staff of the DAO to organize the meeting at the designated time. Especially, the meeting was not be able to hold at the end of November 2019, because main members of the district task force including DAOs participated in the technical training in Madagascar.

    Because members of the District Task Force were not yet officially determined, the meeting in Karene District has not been organized.

    Table 16 District task force meetings District Jun

    2019 Jul

    2019 Aug 2019

    Sep 2019

    Oct 2019

    Nov 2019

    Dec 2019

    Bombali - - - - Port Loko - - - - - Kambia - - Source: JICA-SRPP team

    2.4.3 Procurement of equipment

    A generator was installed and a printer, a photocopy machine, a projector and office furniture were procured for the Project satellite office in Karene District. GPSs, paddy moisture meters and digital cameras were also purchased for the Project activities.

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    3. Issues to Be Addressed

    3.1 MAF staff and the Project satellite office in Karene District

    In 2018, a new delineation of district boundaries was undertaken by the Sierra Leonean Government, as the results of which two new districts were established. Since one of these new districts, i.e. Karene, is composed of some parts of previous districts of Bombali and Port Loko, it was approved by MAF to include the Karene district as a part of the target areas of the Project. However, BESs and FEWs have not fully been assigned, which could hinder the extension activities including FFS implementation and field monitoring.

    The Project office was established and one (1) Project staff was deployed at the District Agriculture Office of Karene in Kamakwie. Although, the office environment was poor, office equipment and machines have been procured and the electricity and water system are being improved with support from JICA Sierra Leone Office.

    3.2 Existence of “volunteer” extension workers

    There are a number of FEWs who have not yet acquired official status as MAF employees, despite the fact that MAF has issued a letter to JICA to acknowledge their formal recognition of these volunteer extension workers. Although the Project has trained them on the TP-R, mobilized them in the field activities as well as provided possible logistics and other supports, it is difficult for the District Agricultural Offices to keep the motivation of these volunteers without any incentives.

    3.3 Lack of mobility of the extension workers at the field level

    Mobility of extension workers has chronically been a challenge, due to the limited provision of means of transportation, wide geographical coverage, poor conditions of roads, and so forth. The Project has so far procured more than forty (40) of motorbikes to support the mobility of the extension workers in the target districts of the Project. In addition, due to the financial difficulty of the Government of Sierra Leone, the Project still shoulders the costs of fuel and maintenance of those motorbikes used for the Project activities.

  • Sustainable Rice Production Project Progress Report 3

    - 21 -

    4. Activities in the Subsequent Phase (January to March, 2020)

    The Project activities for the last phase of the second period of the Project are shown in Table 17.

    Table 17 Activities for the last phase of the second period of the Project Output Activity Contents

    Output 2: The TP-R is disseminated to FBO farmers in the target districts.

    Analysis of yield survey Analyze the yield data on the TP-R demonstration after yield measurement of conventional plot.

    FFS session 11 Support for the FFS session 11 on comparison of yield performances and evaluation of the TP-R.

    Review of FFS implementation and support to graduated FBOs

    Organize the review meeting to the extension workers on the performance and issues of 2019 FFS implementation and support to graduated FBOs

    Rice seed production for the next year

    Produce high quality rice seeds for the next main season at the group farms of three graduated FBOs.

    Output 3: The TP-R is further elaborated so as to realize higher adoption among the FBO farmers.

    Introduction and demonstration of small farm machineries

    Monitor the situation of operation and maintenance of power tillers, threshers and rice mills provided by WFP and support for FBOs on appropriate management of these machines.

    Output 4: The TP-R is recognized by MAF as the recommended rice cultivation techniques for IVSs throughout the country.

    Collaboration with WFP Discuss collaborative activities with WFP on the participatory IVS development and demonstration of small farm machineries.

    Participation in the rice working group

    Participate in the rice working group.

    Others JCC meeting Organize the 5th JCC meeting in February 2020. Preparation and submission of a report

    Prepare and submit a progress report for the second period of the Project in February 2020.

    Source: JICA-SRPP team

  • Appendixes

    1 PDM (version 3) 2 PO 3 Project Work Flow and Schedule 4 Staffing and Assignments 5 List of Equipment Procured

  • Anne

    x I

    Pro

    pose

    d Re

    visio

    n of

    Pro

    ject

    Des

    ign

    Mat

    rix (P

    DM)

    V

    ersio

    n No

    . 3

    Proje

    ct Tit

    le: S

    usta

    inable

    Rice

    Pro

    ducti

    on P

    rojec

    t (SR

    PP)

    Proje

    ct Pe

    riod:

    June

    201

    7 –

    May 2

    022

    (5 Ye

    ars)

    Ta

    rget

    Are

    a: B

    omba

    li, Ka

    rene

    , Por

    t Lok

    o an

    d Ka

    mbia

    Dist

    ricts

    Targ

    et G

    roup

    : Far

    mer

    Bas

    ed O

    rgan

    izatio

    n (F

    BO) f

    arm

    ers e

    ngag

    ed in

    rice

    farm

    ing in

    Inlan

    d Va

    lley S

    wam

    ps (I

    VSs)

    in th

    e tar

    get d

    istric

    ts Im

    plem

    enta

    tion

    Insti

    tutio

    ns: M

    inistr

    y of A

    gricu

    lture

    and

    Fore

    stry (

    MAF)

    ; Hea

    dqua

    rters

    and

    Distr

    ict A

    gricu

    lture

    Offic

    es (D

    AOs)

    in th

    e ta

    rget

    dist

    ricts

    Da

    te: A

    ugus

    t 31,

    201

    9 Na

    rrat

    ive

    Sum

    mar

    y

    Obje

    ctiv

    ely

    Verif

    iabl

    e In

    dica

    tors

    M

    eans

    of V

    erifi

    catio

    n

    Impo

    rtant

    Ass

    umpt

    ions

    Ov

    eral

    l Goa

    l (1

    ) Rice

    pro

    ducti

    vity i

    s inc

    reas

    ed

    in IV

    Ss in

    the t

    arge

    t dist

    ricts.

    (2

    ) The

    Tech

    nical

    Pack

    age

    on R

    ice

    Prod

    uctio

    n (T

    P-R)

    *1 i

    s dis

    sem

    inate

    d to

    FBOs

    in IV

    Ss

    thro

    ugho

    ut th

    e cou

    ntry.

    1-1

    In th

    e IVS

    s in

    the t

    arge

    t dist

    ricts,

    the r

    ice yi

    eld p

    er u

    nit a

    rea e

    xcee

    ds 2

    .0 to

    ns /h

    a, an

    d ric

    e pro

    ducti

    on is

    incre

    ased

    by 4

    5 %

    com

    pare

    d wi

    th th

    e ric

    e cro

    pping

    in 2

    017.

    2-1

    The T

    P-R

    traini

    ng fo

    r far

    mer

    s eng

    aged

    in ri

    ce fa

    rming

    in th

    e IVS

    s is c

    ondu

    cted

    thro

    ugho

    ut th

    e cou

    ntry

    by a

    ll (10

    0%) o

    f the

    exte

    nsion

    offic

    ers/w

    orke

    rs tra

    ined

    in th

    e na

    tionw

    ide tr

    aining

    of t

    raine

    rs (T

    OT) o

    n th

    e TP-

    R.

    2-2

    The K

    ey te

    chniq

    ues o

    f the

    TP-

    R*2 i

    s ado

    pted

    by a

    t leas

    t 50%

    of t

    he tr

    ained

    FBOs

    who

    ar

    e eng

    aged

    in ri

    ce fa

    rming

    in IV

    Ss th

    roug

    hout

    the c

    ount

    ry a

    fter t

    he co

    mple

    tion

    of th

    e Pr

    oject.

    1-

    1 St

    atist

    ical d

    ata

    on ri

    ce p

    rodu

    ction

    in

    IVSs

    in th

    e ta

    rget

    dist

    ricts

    2-

    1 Re

    cord

    s of t

    he T

    P-R

    traini

    ng fo

    r FBO

    far

    mer

    s con

    ducte

    d by

    the

    exte

    nsion

    of

    ficer

    s tra

    ined

    in th

    e nat

    ionwi

    de T

    OT

    on th

    e TP-

    R.

    2-2

    Data

    from

    DAO

    s in

    the t

    arge

    t dist

    ricts

    wher

    e th

    e TP-

    R tra

    ining

    is co

    nduc

    ted.

    Proj

    ect P

    urpo

    se

    The T

    P-R

    is ad

    opte

    d by

    FBO

    farm

    ers i

    n IV

    Ss in

    the

    targ

    et

    distri

    cts.

    1. T

    he ke

    y tec

    hniqu

    es o

    f the

    TP-

    R ar

    e ado

    pted

    by a

    t leas

    t 90%

    of th

    e tra

    ined

    FBO

    farm

    ers

    in th

    eir in

    dividu

    al far

    ms.

    2. T

    he ke

    y tec

    hniqu

    es o

    f the

    TP-

    R ar

    e ado

    pted

    in th

    e gro

    up fa

    rms b

    y at le

    ast 5

    0% o

    f the

    ne

    ighbo

    ring

    FBOs

    who

    are

    disse

    mina

    ted

    with

    the T

    P-R

    by th

    e Mod

    el FB

    Os /

    Mode

    l Fa

    rmer

    s.

    1.

    Res

    ults o

    f mon

    itorin

    g on

    FBO

    activ

    ities

    reco

    rded

    by e

    xtens

    ion w

    orke

    rs 2.

    Sam

    ple in

    terv

    iews w

    ith th

    e ne

    ighbo

    ring

    FBOs

    who

    are

    dis

    sem

    inate

    d wi

    th th

    e TP-

    R by

    the

    Mode

    l FBO

    s/Mod

    el Fa

    rmer

    s

    1.

    No

    signif

    icant

    chan

    ge is

    mad

    e in

    the n

    ation

    al po

    licy o

    n ric

    e exte

    nsion

    . 2.

    MAF

    / Dist

    rict C

    ounc

    ils co

    ntinu

    ously

    pro

    vide

    nece

    ssar

    y tec

    hnica

    l and

    finan

    cial s

    uppo

    rts

    for F

    BO fa

    rmer

    s. 3.

    The

    TP-

    R tra

    ining

    for f

    amer

    s is c

    ondu

    cted

    in ac

    cord

    ance

    with

    the M

    AF’s

    actio

    n pla

    n 4.

    Ser

    ious c

    limat

    ic pr

    oblem

    s, pe

    st an

    d dis

    ease

    do

    not

    occ

    ur.

    Outp

    uts

    (1) T

    he si

    tuat

    ion o

    f IVS

    rice

    far

    ming

    in th

    e tar

    get d

    istric

    ts is

    clarif

    ied.

    (2) T

    he T

    P-R

    is dis

    sem

    inate

    d to

    FB

    O far

    mer

    s in

    the t

    arge

    t dis

    tricts

    . (3

    ) The

    TP-

    R is

    furth

    er el

    abor

    ated

    so

    as t

    o re

    alize

    high

    er

    adop

    tion

    amon

    g th

    e FB

    O far

    mer

    s. (4

    ) The

    TP-

    R is

    reco

    gnize

    d by

    MAF a

    s the

    reco

    mm

    ende

    d ric

    e cu

    ltivat

    ion te

    chniq

    ues f

    or

    IVSs

    thro

    ugho

    ut th

    e cou

    ntry.

    *6

    1-1

    Base

    d on

    the

    resu

    lts o

    f the

    bas

    eline

    surv

    ey*3, P

    rojec

    t stra

    tegy

    *4 an

    d th

    e dir

    ectio

    n of

    th

    e Pro

    ject in

    cludin

    g Pr

    oject

    indica

    tors

    are a

    gree

    d at

    Joint

    Coo

    rdina

    ting

    Com

    mitte

    e (JC

    C).

    2-1 T

    he T

    P-R

    traini

    ng fo

    r the

    fam

    ers o

    f the

    targ

    et FB

    Os ar

    e con

    ducte

    d at le

    ast f

    or 10

    0 tim

    es.

    2-2

    At le

    ast 8

    0% o

    f the

    train

    ed B

    lock E

    xtens

    ion S

    uper

    visor

    s (BE

    Ss) a

    nd Fr

    ontlin

    e Exte

    nsion

    W

    orke

    rs (F

    EWs)

    pass

    the e

    xam

    inatio

    n of

    rice

    cultiv

    ation

    tech

    nique

    s. 2-

    3 Th

    e unit

    yield

    of t

    he g

    roup

    farm

    s of t

    he tr

    ained

    FBOs

    with

    TP-

    R is

    highe

    r at le

    ast b

    y 45

    % th

    an th

    e unit

    yield

    of t

    he p

    lots w

    ith th

    e con

    vent

    ional

    prac

    tices

    . 2-

    4 Th

    e key

    tech

    nique

    s of t

    he T

    P-R

    are d

    issem

    inate

    d to

    at le

    ast 7

    0 ne

    ighbo

    ring

    FBOs

    by

    the M

    odel

    FBOs

    / Mo

    del F

    arm

    ers.

    3-1

    Effec

    tive t

    echn

    ologie

    s of r

    ice cu

    ltivat

    ion a

    re co

    nfirm

    ed th

    roug

    h on

    -farm

    trial

    s*5.

    3-2

    The t

    echn

    ologie

    s con

    firm

    ed th

    roug

    h on

    -farm

    trial

    s are

    refle

    cted

    in th

    e TP-

    R to

    reali

    ze

    highe

    r ado

    ption

    by t

    he fa

    rmer

    s. 4-

    1 Co

    llabo

    ratio

    n wi

    th d

    onor

    s/NGO

    s for

    diss

    emina

    tion

    of th

    e TP-

    R is

    acce

    lerat

    ed.

    4-2

    The T

    P-R

    is ap

    prov

    ed b

    y MAF

    as th

    e re

    com

    men

    ded

    rice

    cultiv

    ation

    tech

    nique

    s for

    IV

    Ss.

    4-3

    MAF’s

    actio

    n pla

    n fo

    r nat

    ionwi

    de d

    issem

    inatio

    n of

    the T

    P-R

    is dr

    afte

    d an

    d dis

    tribu

    ted

    to

    the

    relev

    ant a

    utho

    rities

    of d

    istric

    ts th

    roug

    hout

    the c

    ount

    ry.

    4-4

    At le

    ast 5

    exte

    nsion

    offic

    ers/w

    orke

    rs ar

    e tra

    ined

    as tr

    ainer

    s on

    the T

    P-R

    in ea

    ch o

    f the

    dis

    tricts

    oth

    er th

    an th

    e tar

    get d

    istric

    ts of

    the

    Proje

    ct.

    1-1

    Base

    line

    surv

    ey re

    port

    1-2

    Selec

    tion

    crite

    ria o

    f tar

    get F

    BOs

    2-1

    Reco

    rds o

    f tra

    ining

    for f

    arm

    ers

    2-

    2 Re

    cord

    s of t

    raini

    ng fo

    r BES

    s and

    FE

    Ws

    2-3

    Reco

    rd o

    f the

    dem

    onstr

    ation

    farm

    ac

    tivitie

    s at t

    he tr

    ained

    FBOs

    2-

    4 Re

    cord

    of t

    he d

    emon

    strat

    ion fa

    rm

    activ

    ities c

    ondu

    cted

    by th

    e Mod

    el FB

    Os /

    Mode

    l Far

    mer

    s 3-

    1 Re

    sult p

    aper

    s of t

    he o

    n-far

    m tr

    ails

    3-2

    The T

    P-R

    docu

    men

    ts an

    d re

    levan

    t m

    ater

    ials p

    repa

    red

    with

    refle

    ction

    of

    the c

    onfir

    med

    tech

    nical

    com

    pone

    nts

    4-

    1 Pr

    ogre

    ss /

    Com

    pletio

    n Re

    ports

    of t

    he

    Proje

    ct 4-

    2 MA

    F’s d

    ocum

    ent

    4-3

    MAF’s

    dra

    ft ac

    tion

    plan

    for e

    na

    tionw

    ide d

    issem

    inatio

    n of

    the T

    P-R

    4-

    4 Re

    port

    of th

    e TOT

    Nat

    ural

    disas

    ters,

    clim

    atic

    prob

    lems,

    epide

    mic,

    pe

    sts an

    d dis

    ease

    s do

    not b

    ring

    any p

    rofo

    und

    effec

    t on

    the P

    rojec

    t.

    Appendix1 (1/2)

    A-1

  • Activ

    ities

    (1

    )-1 To

    form

    ulate

    the

    plan

    of b

    aseli

    ne su

    rvey

    . (1

    )-2 To

    cond

    uct t

    he b

    aseli

    ne su

    rvey

    . (1

    )-3 To

    set t

    he se

    lectio

    n cri

    teria

    of t

    arge

    t FBO

    s for

    TP-

    R tra

    ining

    for f

    arm

    ers.

    (1)-4

    To d

    evelo

    p th

    e Pro

    ject s

    trate

    gy in

    cludin

    g PD

    M ind

    icato

    rs ba

    sed

    on th

    e re

    sults

    of t

    he b

    aseli

    ne su

    rvey

    . (2

    )-1 To

    cond

    uct in

    trodu

    ctory

    sess

    ions o

    n th

    e TP-

    R fo

    r exte

    nsion

    offic

    ers/w

    orke

    rs to

    fam

    iliariz

    e the

    mse

    lves w

    ith te

    chnic

    al co

    mpo

    nent

    s of t

    he T

    P-R.

    (2

    )-2 To

    dev

    elop

    a pro

    gram

    of t

    he T

    P-R

    traini

    ng fo

    r far

    mer

    s. (2

    )-3 To

    cond

    uct o

    rient

    ation

    sess

    ions a

    nd T

    OT fo

    r the

    exte

    nsion

    offic

    ers/w

    orke

    rs*7 o

    n th

    e TP-

    R tra

    ining

    for f

    arm

    ers.

    (2)-4

    To se

    lect t

    he ta

    rget

    FBOs

    bas

    ed o

    n th

    e crit

    eria

    ident

    ified

    in (1

    )-3 a

    bove

    . (2

    )-5 To

    esta

    blish

    a TP

    -R d

    emon

    strat

    ion fa

    rm*8 in

    each

    targ

    et FB

    O.

    (2)-6

    To