taking photos composing a picture working with light custom settings auto settings
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Composing a picture
Working with light
Questions to consider…
• What is the purpose of taking personal (non-business) photos?
• What qualities makes a good photo?
Composing a Picture
• Take time to compose each photo as a work of art. Frame the content in a manner that focuses attention on the subject, and omits unnecessary distractions. Be creative!
www.kodak.com – “tips/advanced”
Focus, Zoom, Focal Point• Photographic lenses have varying focal points;
distances at which they are able to focus.– Normal Lense: have a "natural" perspective, focal
point of 28 mm - 35 mm– Wide Angle Lense: focal point of 24, 21, 18 and 14
mm– Telephoto Lens; Focal point of 35 mm - 1700 mm
• In digital cameras…– optical zoom provides a range of lens options from
wide angle to telephoto – Autofocus fine tunes the focal point
• Light direction has a big impact!
Sunlight on the lens creates a flare, which can be a nice effect, but is often undesirable. Shading the lens solves the problem.
Histograms• A histogram shows which parts of the
light spectrum are used in a photo.
Fill Flash• Use a flash
outdoors to brighten backlit objects, or make your foreground objects stand out.
• Indoor flash is too bright for close-ups and produces harsh shadows. Use natural light whenever possible.
Types of Light
• Different types of light effect the color quality of photos.
• White balance setting is used to compensate.
• Cameras often include settings to automatically correct lighting problems.– daylight, cloudy, tungsten,
fluorescent, flash– Some cameras allow you to custom
set the white balance by focusing on a white surface.
• The quantity of light allowed to act on the photographic material in the camera.
Petronas Twin Towers in Malaysia http://www.mir.com.my/rb/photography/fototech/apershutter/
Exposure = Shutter Speed + Aperture Size
Shutter Speed• Shutter speed refers to
the amount of time the lens shutter remains open during the photo.
• A fast shutter speed will freeze the subject and a slow shutter speed will make it look blurred as the subject moves.
Hold very still - or use a tripod
• The aperture is the lens diaphragm opening inside a photographic lens.
• The aperture size can be adjusted to regulates the amount of light that passes through the lens.
• The aperture size is adjusted in discrete steps, known as f-stops (f for focal)
• The larger the value the smaller the lens aperture, the less light intensity.
Depth of Field
• Depth of field is the amount of distance between the nearest and farthest objects that appear in acceptably sharp focus in a photograph.
• A few factors may have a direct relationship with depth of field, they are: 1) the Aperture, 2) the focal length of the lens in use, and 3) image size.
This photo has a shallow depth of field (only the foreground is in focus) and was taken using a larger
lens aperture – a low f number.
Depth of Field
These photos have a deep depth of field (the foreground and background are in focus) and were taken using a small lens aperture - high f number.
• Use larger aperture (smaller number like f/2.8, f/2.0 etc.) with a long focal length to isolate or emphasize the subject.
• Use a smaller aperture (bigger number like f/16 or f/22 etc.) to ensure pin-sharp details in both the foreground and the background.
• Depth of field increases with f-number!!
Shutter Speed + Aperture• Since both shutter speed and aperture size effect the amount
of light, they can be balanced one against the other to provide consistent light, and a wide variety of effects.
• Most digital cameras make it easy on us by providing a number of preset effects.
• Even “Kids & Pets”, “Foliage”, “Snow”, “Beach” “Fireworks”, “Aquarium”, and “Underwater”
AUTOP : Program Tv : Shutter Speed PriorityAv : Aperture PriorityM : Manual Exposure
Review• Photo Composition• Focal Point• Light Effects• Histogram• White Balance• Exposure• Shutter Speed• Aperture • Depth of Field
Taking Good Photos
• Tips from Kodak– www.kodak.com (look for “tips”)
• Photo-editing software, like Photoshop, allows you improve digital photos, and create interesting effects:– Resize and crop images– Cut and paste portions of one image on
another– Adjust brightness, contrast, hue, and
saturation– Apply special effects
• Brightness adjustments increases intensity evenly across the RGB spectrum.
• Contrast adjustments make dark colors darker and light colors lighter.
• Hue settings apply color filters to a photo to move color settings up or down the color spectrum.
• Saturation settings increase or decrease the intensity of all colors in the photo.
Cut & Paste
• Using the lasso tool, objects in a photo can be selected and copied. Once copied they can be pasted into other photos to create interesting effects, or “faked” photos.