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Bloom membagi kemampuan kognisi manusia ke dalam 6 tingkatan.1. Tingkat Pengetahuan (Knowledge Level) Berisikan kemampuan untuk mengenali dan mengingat peristilahan, definisi, fakta-fakta, gagasan, pola, urutan, metodologi, prinsip dasar, dsb. Sebagai contoh, ketika diminta menjelaskan manajemen kualitas (quality management), orang yg berada di level ini bisa menguraikan dengan baik definisi dari kualitas, karakteristik produk yg berkualitas, standar kualitas minimum untuk produk, dsb. 2. Tingkat Pemahaman (Comprehension Level) Dikenali dari kemampuan untuk membaca dan memahami gambaran, laporan, tabel, diagram, arahan, peraturan, dsb. Sebagai contoh, orang di level ini bisa memahami apa yg diuraikan dalam fish bone diagram, pareto chart, dsb. 3. Tingkat Aplikasi (Application Level) Di tingkat ini, seseorang memiliki kemampuan untuk menerapkan gagasan, prosedur, metode, rumus, teori, dsb di dalam kondisi kerja. Sebagai contoh, ketika diberi informasi tentang penyebab meningkatnya reject di produksi, seseorang yg berada di tingkat aplikasi akan mampu merangkum dan menggambarkan penyebab turunnya kualitas dalam bentuk fish bone diagram atau pareto chart. 4. Tingkat Analisis (Analythical Level) Di tingkat analisis, seseorang akan mampu menganalisa informasi yang masuk dan membagi-bagi atau menstrukturkan informasi ke dalam bagian yang lebih kecil untuk mengenali pola atau hubungannya, dan mampu mengenali serta membedakan faktor penyebab dan akibat dari sebuah skenario yg rumit. Sebagai contoh, di level ini seseorang akan mampu memilah-milah penyebab meningkatnya reject, membanding-bandingkan tingkat keparahan dari setiap penyebab, dan menggolongkan setiap penyebab ke dalam tingkat keparahan yg ditimbulkan. 5. Tingkat Sintesa (Synthesis Level) Satu tingkat di atas analisa, seseorang di tingkat sintesa akan mampu menjelaskan struktur atau pola dari sebuah skenario yang sebelumnya tidak terlihat, dan mampu mengenali data atau informasi yang harus didapat untuk menghasilkan solusi yg dibutuhkan. Sebagai contoh, di tingkat ini seorang manajer kualitas mampu memberikan solusi untuk menurunkan tingkat reject di produksi berdasarkan pengamatannya terhadap semua penyebab turunnya kualitas produk.

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6. Tingkat Evaluasi (Evaluation Level) Dikenali dari kemampuan untuk memberikan penilaian terhadap solusi, gagasan, metodologi, dsb dengan menggunakan kriteria yang cocok atau standar yg ada untuk memastikan nilai efektivitas atau manfaatnya. Sebagai contoh, di tingkat ini seorang manajer kualitas harus mampu menilai alternatif solusi yg sesuai untuk dijalankan berdasarkan efektivitas, urgensi, nilai manfaat, nilai ekonomis, dsb Diperoleh dari "http://id.wikipedia.org/wiki/Taksonomi_Bloom"

Taxonomy of Educational Objectives

Categories in the cognitive domain of Bloom's Taxonomy (Anderson & Krathwohl, 2001) The Taxonomy of Educational Objectives, often called Bloom's Taxonomy, is a classification of the different objectives and skills that educators set for students. The taxonomy was proposed in 1956 by Benjamin Bloom, an educational psychologist at the University of Chicago. Bloom's Taxonomy divides educational objectives into three "domains:" Affective, Psychomotor, and Cognitive. Within each domain are different levels of learning, with higher levels considered more complex and closer to complete mastery of the subject matter. A goal of Bloom's Taxonomy is to motivate educators to focus on all three domains, creating a more holistic form of education.

AffectiveSkills in the affective domain describe the way people react emotionally and their ability to feel another living thing's pain or joy. Affective objectives typically target the awareness and growth in attitudes, emotion, and feelings.

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There are five levels in the affective domain moving through the lowest order processes to the highest:

Receiving - The lowest level; the student passively pays attention. Without this level no learning can occur. Responding - The student actively participates in the learning process, not only attends to a stimulus, the student also reacts in some way. Valuing - The student attaches a value to an object, phenomenon, or piece of information. Organizing - Students can put together different values, information, and ideas and accommodate them within their own schema; comparing, relating and elaborating on what has been learnt. Characterizing - The student has held a particular value or belief that now exerts influence on their behaviour so that it becomes a characteristic.

PsychomotorSkills in the psychomotor domain describe the ability to physically manipulate a tool or instrument like a hand or a hammer. Psychomotor objectives usually focus on change and/or development in behaviour and/or skills. Bloom and his colleagues never created subcategories for skills in the psychomotor domain, but since then other educators have created their own psychomotor taxonomies

CognitiveSkills in the cognitive domain revolve around knowledge, comprehension, and "thinking through" a particular topic. Traditional education tends to emphasize the skills in this domain, particularly the lower-order objectives. There are six levels in the taxonomy, moving through the lowest order processes to the highest: Knowledge Exhibit memory of previously-learned materials by recalling facts, terms, basic concepts and answers

Knowledge of specifics - terminology, specific facts Knowledge of ways and means of dealing with specifics - conventions, trends and sequences, classifications and categories, criteria, methodology Knowledge of the universals and abstractions in a field - principles and generalizations, theories and structures

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Comprehension Demonstrative understanding of facts and ideas by organizing, comparing, translating, interpreting, giving descriptions, and stating main ideas

Translation Interpretation Extrapolation

Application Using new knowledge. Solve problems to new situations by applying acquired knowledge, facts, techniques and rules in a different way Analysis Examine and break information into parts by identifying motives or causes. Make inferences and find evidence to support generalizations

Analysis of elements Analysis of relationships Analysis of organizational principles

Synthesis Compile information together in a different way by combining elements in a new pattern or proposing alternative solutions

Production of a unique communication Production of a plan, or proposed set of operations Derivation of a set of abstract relations

Evaluation Present and defend opinions by making judgments about information, validity of ideas or quality of work based on a set of criteria

Judgments in terms of internal evidence Judgments in terms of external criteria

Bloom TaxonomyTaxonomy simply means lassification so the well-known taxonomy of learning objectives is an attempt (within the behavioural paradigm) to classify forms and levels of learning. It identifies three Domains of learning (see below), each of which is organised as a series of levels or pre-requisites. It is suggested that one cannot effectively or ought not try to address higher levels until those below them have been covered (it is thus effectively serial in structure). As well as providing a basic sequential model for dealing with topics in the curriculum, it also suggests a way of categorising levels of learning, in terms of the expected ceiling for a given programme. Thus in the Cognitive domain, training for technicians may cover knowledge, comprehension and application, but not concern itself with analysis and above, whereas full professional training may be expected to include this and synthesis and evaluation as well.

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Cognitive: the most-used of the domains, refers to knowledge structures (although sheer nowing the facts is its bottom level). It can be viewed as a sequence of progressive contextualisation of the material. (Based on Bloom,1956)

The model above is included because it is still common currency, but Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) have made some apparently minor but actually significant modifications, to come up with:

Revised taxonomy of the cognitive domain following Anderson and Krathwohl (2001) Note the new top category, which is about being able to create new knowledge within the domain, and the move from nouns to verbs.In higher education, "understand" is still in my view problematic in its positioning. There is a higher, contextualised level of "understanding" which comes only with attempting to evaluate ideas and to try them out in new ways, or to "create" with them. It is what I expect at Master's level. The taxonomy is an epistemological rather than psychological hierarchy, but it also has a basic

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chronological element: you achieve certain levels before others. This higher, Gestalt, level of understanding comes last, in my experience: my principal evidence is in the use of research methods. The "real", intuitive, contextualised, critical, strategic understanding only happens when you have tried to be creative within the field... Argue with me (use the "comments welcome" link below).

Affective: the Affective domain has received less attention, and is less intuitive than the Cognitive. It is concerned with values, or more precisely perhaps with perception of value issues, and ranges from mere awareness (Receiving), through to being able to distinguish implicit values through analysis. (Kratwohl, Bloom and Masia (1964))

Psycho-Motor: Bloom never completed work on this domain, and there have been several attempts to complete it. One of the simplest versions has been suggested by Dave (1975): it fits with the model of developing skill put forward by Reynolds (1965), and it also draws attention to the fundamental role of imitation in skill acquisition.

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Bloom's Taxonomy *Benjamin Bloom created this taxonomy for categorizing level of abstraction of questions that commonly occur in educational settings. The taxonomy provides a useful structure in which to categorize test questions, since professors will characteristically ask questions within particular levels, and if you can determine the levels of questions that will appear on your exams, you will be able to study using appropriate strategies. Competence Knowledge

Skills Demonstrated

observation and recall of information knowledge of dates, events, places knowledge of major ideas mastery of subject matter Question Cues: list, define, tell, describe, identify, show, label, collect, examine, tabulate, quote, name, who, when, where, etc.

Comprehension

understanding information grasp meaning translate knowledge into new context interpret facts, compare, contrast order, group, infer causes predict consequences Question Cues: summarize, describe, interpret, contrast, predict, associate, distinguish, estimate, differentiate, discuss, extend

Application

use information use methods, concepts, theories in new situations solve problems using required skills or knowledge Questions Cues: apply, demonstrate, calculate, complete, illustrate, show, solve, examine, modify, relate, change, classify, experiment, discover

Analysis

seeing patterns organization of parts recognition of hidden meanings identification of components

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Question Cues: analyze, separate, order, explain, connect, classify, arrange, divide, compare, select, explain, infer

Synthesis

use old ideas to create new ones generalize from given facts relate knowledge from several areas predict, draw conclusions Question Cues: combine, integrate, modify, rearrange, substitute, plan, create, design, invent, what if?, compose, formulate, prepare, generalize, rewrite

Evaluation

compare and discriminate between ideas assess value of theories, presentations make choices based on reasoned argument verify value of evidence recognize subjectivity Question Cues assess, decide, rank, grade, test, measure, recommend, convince, select, judge, explain, discriminate, support, conclude, compare, summarize

From Benjamin S. Bloom Taxonomy of educational objectives. Published by Allyn and Bacon, Boston, MA. Copyright (c) 1984 by Pearson Education. Adapted by permission of the publisher.

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BLOOM'S TAXONOMY

In 1956, Benjamin Bloom headed a group of educational psychologists who developed a classification of levels of intellectual behavior important in learning. Bloom found that over 95 % of the test questions students encounter require them to think only at the lowest possible level...the recall of information. Bloom identified six levels within the cognitive domain, from the simple recall or recognition of facts, as the lowest level, through increasingly more complex and abstract mental levels, to the highest order which is classified as evaluation. Verb examples that represent intellectual activity on each level are listed here.

1. Knowledge: arrange...