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<p>Innovation Investigation</p> <p>Teachers as innovative professionals</p> <p>ionce results tsa valuait en rch daic eact ev d sea dards etr m p e tanim</p> <p>r</p> <p>s</p> <p>ContentsForeword 4 6 9 9 10 11 13 14 15 18 19 21 23 25 26 30 31 33 1.Background</p> <p>2.Summaryoffindings </p> <p>Whatdoteachersmeanbyinnovation? Whyinnovate? Creatingtheconditionsforinnovationsinteaching Sourcesofideas Evaluation Conclusions </p> <p>3.Objectivesandmethodology Methodology </p> <p>4.Whatdoteachersmeanbyinnovation? </p> <p>WiderschoolInnovations Differencesbetweensubjectsandpupilages Comparisontoothersectorsapproachtoinnovation </p> <p>5.Whyinnovate? </p> <p>Whyteachersinnovate Whyschoolsinnovate</p> <p>02</p> <p>6.Creatingtheprocessesandconditionsforinnovationsinteaching Theconditionsforleaderledinnovation Creatingtheenvironmenttosustainand encourageinnovation Thebuildingblocks:forbothsuccessfulleaderledand practitionerledinnovation Theinnovationprocess Wholeschoolinnovation Classroombasedinnovation </p> <p>36 37 39 41 57 57 58 60 62 64 65 65 66 66 67</p> <p>7.Sourcesofideas </p> <p>Ownschool Otherschools Thewidereducationsystem Thewiderenvironment </p> <p>8.Evaluation </p> <p>Evaluatingclassroombasedinnovation Evaluatingwiderschoolinnovation </p> <p>ForewordAnne DiackDirectorofMedia,CommunicationsandResearch,TheInnovationUnitThistwopartreportfromThe InnovationUnitandtheGeneral TeachingCouncilforEngland(GTCE) waspreparedbytheOfficeofPublic Management(OPM).TheInnovation UnitandGTCEcommissionedthis independentstudytoinvestigatewhat laybehindthefindingsoftheannual GTCESurveyofTeachersin2006that theoverwhelmingmajorityofteachers thinkthattheyhavetheopportunityto innovateintheclassroom. TheInnovationUnitandGTCEwere keentofindoutwhatlaybehindthis headline.Whatdoteachersunderstand byinnovation?Howdoesthismanifest itselfintheiractualpractice? TheGTCEcommissionsalargescale surveyofitsteacherseachyear.The surveyreflectsonteachersviews, specificaspectsandkeychallenges intheirwork,andtheiraspirationsfor thefuture.In2006,theGTCEsurvey foundthat84%ofteachersbelieve theyhavetheopportunitytoinnovate intheclassroom.TheGTCEandThe InnovationUnitcommissionedOPMto carryoutapieceofanalyticalfollow-up researchtoexplorewhatliesbehindthis highfigure. Inparticular,theresearchsetoutto provideevidencethatwillhelpto addressthefollowingpolicyquestions: Whatstepsshouldbetakenby nationalbodiesconcernedwith teaching,byprofessionalbodies andbyschoolleaders,toencourage teacherstooptimisetheuseand valueoftheirprofessionaljudgment aboutthemeritsofdeveloping, implementingandevaluating innovationinteaching? Whatparticularstepsneedtobe takentocreatetheconditionsfor innovationinteaching,particularly inthosecontextswhichare characterisedbysometeachersas leadingtoover-accountabilityand riskaversion?</p> <p>04</p> <p>Thisbookletdrawsonin-depth telephoneinterviewswith35 representativeteachersdrawnfroma cross-sectionofschools.Theresearchers exploredanumberofissueswiththe sampleofteachers: Whatdoteachersmeanbyinnovation? Whyinnovateatall?Whatarethebest processesforinnovation?Whatarethe necessaryconditionsforinnovation? Whataboutpractitioner-ledinnovation orleader-ledinnovation?</p> <p>Headsandotherseniormanagers addedotherreasonsforintroducing innovation.Toimproveresults particularlyinfailingschools;toopen uppossibilitiesinpupilsmindsand increasetheirself-belief;torespondtoa changingworldandtomakebestuseof newevidenceaboutwhatworkswell,as wellasrespondingtotheexpectations oftheirpupilsandparentswere additionalreasonscited.</p> <p>Innovationinteaching,asfaras teachersareconcerned,isaboutpupils Teachersgavedifferingreasonsfor andtheiropportunitiesinthefuture.If whyinnovationasimportant.For theschooldevelopsagoodorbetter some,itwastorespondtotheneeds reputationasaresult,thatisobviously oftheirpupilswhichalsogavethem agoodthing;butthepurposeisnot jobsatisfaction.Forothers,meeting tobecomeknownasinnovatorsor pupilsneedsandproducinginteresting, attractpotentialpupilsandparentswith successfullessonsinspiresand attractiveoffers. motivatesthem.Somefelttheexternal demandtomeettheexpectationsof Keytotheinnovationprocess, theirheadorseniormanager,orin accordingtothereport,isstrongand responsetopeerencouragement.And reflectiveleadership.Whilstnotingthat somegaveawidermoregeneralview somesmallscaleinnovationdoestake abouttheimportanceofpedagogy placeinteachersownclassrooms reflectingthechangingworld,and mostlyalongthelinesofnon-traditional thechangingpatternsoflearningthat waysofdeliveringcurriculummaterial pupilswillface. foranythingmoreradicalonalarger scale,leadershipsupportisnecessary. Buttheresearchersdidnotfindone</p> <p>05 05</p> <p>particulartypeofleadershipwasany moresuccessfulintermsofencouraging andenablinginnovation.Theydid, however,begintodrawtogethersome commonthemesthatseemedtobe important: Headsdeliberatelyspenttime outsideoftheirownschool searchingfornewideasand reflectingonthepracticeswithin theirschool. Whereaskingtheirteachersto implementnewwaysofdoing things,theyoftenhadtobeboth inspirationalandpersuasive, demonstratingpersonalpassion, butalsobeingsensitivetothefears ofsometeacherstotrynewthings. Inordertosustaininnovationand encouragefurtherinnovation, thecreationofadeeplevelof ownershipseemedtobenecessary, somanyheadshadsetupdifferent modelsofdistributiveorcollegiate typeleadership.</p> <p>Wheretheywishedtoencourage practitioner-ledinnovation,the headsandwidermanagementteam workedtoinstilacultureinwhich teachersfeelfreetotrynewthings, andthereisnofearoffailureaslong asinappropriaterisksarenottaken. Linkedtotheabove,creatinga cultureoftrustwithintheschool thatencouragestakingrisksand allowsforfailurewasclosely associatedwithtrustingthe professionalismofteachersand givingthemthepsychological freedomtotrynewthings. Headteachersandothersenior managerswhomodelinnovative practicesthemselvesalso encouragedacultureofinnovation.</p> <p>Theresearchershaveminedarichseam ofengagementwithinnovationinthis reportandprovideinsightswhichareof interesttoallsectorsoftheeducation system.Acomplementarypublication containingcasestudiesoftheschools, whichcanalsobedownloadedfrom TheInnovationUnitswebsite.TheUnit andtheGTCEaregratefultoOPMfor thepreparationofthesereports.</p> <p>06</p> <p>Thisreportdrawsonevidencegathered duringthefirsthalfof2007.Itreports</p> <p>1. Backgroundinsomedetailwhatwefoundinseveral schoolsandtheexperiencesofover 30teachers,whenaskedabouttheir personalexperienceofinnovatinginthe classroom. Thefirstsectionofthisreportisa summaryanalysisofourfindings, andincludesourrecommendations. Theremainderisafullaccountofthe definitions,methodologiesandnuances wefoundinourfieldwork.Thereis agreatdealofrichdetailandmany casestudies,whichareofferedbothas evidencetosupportourconclusions andforthepurposeofsharingthese experiences. Weseetheaudienceforthisreport asprimarilypolicymakersandothers interestedinsupportingandpromoting innovationinteaching.</p> <p>08</p> <p>2. Summary of findingsWhat do teachers mean by innovation?Weobservedadifferenceinresponse tothewholenotionofinnovation betweenthoseclassroomteacherswho Foraminority,itmeansfreedomfrom donotfeelpartofawholeschoolpush followingasetcurriculum.Formost, forinnovation;andthoseteacherswho however,itiseither(i)respondinginthe workinanenvironmentwherethere momenttoeventsandtotheparticular isasystemic,whole-schoolapproach. needsofthepupilsintheroominaway Whilebothsetsofteachersbelieved thatenablesorenhancestheirlearning; innovationwasimportantandindeed or(ii)tryingsomethingnewortaking anessentialpartofteaching,andwould risksintheplanningandexecutionof probablysharetheviewsoftheother lessonsaspartofasystemicapproach group,itwasinterestingtoseethat tocontinuouslyimprovingteaching theirinitialresponsewasdifferent.The andlearning.Experiencedteachersare formergroup(teachersinnovatingina moreconfidentwiththeformer,more nonsystemicway)wasmorelikelyto spontaneous,approach. readilynamethingssuchasroleplays, bringingexternalspeakersintothe Thisdistinctionbetweensystemicand classroomandorganisingdaytripsas nonsystemicapproachestoinnovation examplesofinnovativepractice.Their seemstobeimportantinanyanalysis exampleswereaboutencouraging ofwhatinnovationinteachinglooks creativity,respondingtotheneedsin like,whenithappens;andhowitcan theclassroom,keepingthingsfreshand benurturedandsustained.Inorder interesting.Theysaid:Ofcoursewe tomovebeyondthespontaneous, innovateitsessentialtothejob. opportunistapproachtoinnovation thatdoesnotgobeyondthemoment Thoseteacherswhofeltthatinnovation teachersneedtobeabletodiscuss, waspartoftheethosoftheirschool shareandpromoteexamplesof talkedaboutinnovativetimetabling innovationattheindividual,aswellas andcurricula;peermentoringamong thesystemic,orschoollevel. pupils;nontraditionalmanagement structures,professionaldevelopment</p> <p>0</p> <p>andinvolvementofpupilsinthe designofphysicalschoolplaces.Their conceptofinnovationwasmoreoneof managedcontinuousimprovementand necessarychangeandtheysaid:Its notreallyaboutinnovationitsabout doingwhatworksbestforthechildren andtheirlearning.Theystruggledabit tothinkofthingstheyhaddonewhich weregenuinelyinnovative.</p> <p>2. Referencesmustberelevantand learningdesignedtoequippupils fortheworldtheywillinhabit. Atabroaderschoollevel,headsand otherseniormanagersspokeof themainreasonsforintroducing innovationasbeinginorderto: improveresultsparticularlyin failingschools useeducationandtheskillsofall stafftoopenuppossibilitiesin pupilsmindsandincreasetheirselfbelief respondtoachangingworld,ie recognisingthatschoolsneeded toconstantlychangetokeep pacewithchangingneedsoftheir pupilsandtomakebestuseofnew evidenceaboutwhatworkswell respondtotheexpectationsoftheir pupilsandparents.</p> <p>Why innovate?1. Interviewswithteachersand explorationofinnovationsatour casestudyschoolsshowedthat teachersinnovatedwithintheirown classroomprimarily: torespondtotheneedsoftheir pupils(amajorpartofmaintaining theirowninterestandincreasing theirjobsatisfaction) becausemeetingpupilsneedsand producinginteresting,successful lessonsinspiresandmotivatesthem tomeettheexpectationsoftheir headorseniormanager inresponsetopeerencouragement becausetheworldischangingand pedagogymustreflectthat.</p> <p>Thisdiffersfromtherationalefor innovationinthecommercialworld, whereitisusedtogetorstayaheadof thecompetition,attractabiggermarket shareandattractandretainthebest staff.Innovationinteaching,asfaras teachersareconcerned,isaboutpupils andtheiropportunitiesinthefuture.</p> <p>10</p> <p>Iftheschooldevelopsagoodorbetter reputationasaresult,thatisobviously agoodthing;butthepurposeisnot tobecomeknownasinnovatorsor attractpotentialpupilsandparentswith attractiveoffers.</p> <p>toimplementitbybuildingteachers confidenceintheirabilitytoinnovateis aboutschoolimprovement. Whereinnovationisnotsystemic,many intervieweessaidthatthedegreeof supportfromtheirheadteacherorother seniorhasaverysignificantimpacton theirmotivationandthelikelihoodof themcontinuingtoinnovateinthat school. Anumberofotherbuildingblockswere commonacrossourcasestudyschools. Whilststrongandreflectiveleadership wasstillatthecore,thecreationof differentformsofdistributiveleadership, whereleadershipissharedwidelyacross theschool,werealsoeitheracommon featureorbeingdevelopedaspartofa programmeofsupportedchange:</p> <p>Creating the conditions for innovations in teachingThemostfundamentalbuildingblock isleadership.Wherethereisawholesystemapproachtoinnovation,the headteacherandseniormanagement teamusuallydisplaystrongand reflectiveleadership,principallythrough aclearvisionofwhattheschoolis tryingtoachieve,andcommunicate thiseffectivelythroughlearningand collaboration.Oftenthoughnot alwaysthisvisionandthedecision</p> <p>strong pupil voice</p> <p>structures for internal sharing and reflection</p> <p>commitment to continuing professional development</p> <p>time and space to innovate</p> <p>strong and reflective leadership</p> <p>OK to fail</p> <p>some focus on skills and competencies</p> <p>well-run organisations</p> <p>teachers professionalism</p> <p>11 11</p> <p>The Innovation ProcessExternal stimulus Previouspersonal experience Creative thinking</p> <p>championingandroll-out</p> <p>Ideasgeneration</p> <p>Reflectingandevaluating</p> <p>Sharingandrefining</p> <p>Implementingonasmall-scaletrial</p> <p>Whetherinnovationisprimarily practitionerledandclassroombasedor partofabroaderinitiative,theprocess depictedaboveandtheskillsand aptitudesassociatedwitheachstage areanessentialpartoftrueinnovation. Althoughwedidfindevidenceof individualteachersworkingthrough thiscycleontheirown,clearlyitisa hugeundertakingwithoutstructured support,andnodoubtexplainswhy theseteachersalsotalkaboutthe demotivatingeffectofnothavingthe necessarysupport.Often,unsupported innovationisprimarilyaboutideas12</p> <p>generation;wealsoheard,though rarely,aboutindividualteachers refining,testingandevaluatingtheir owninnovations. Inthesystemicinnovationmodel,the skillsrequiredtoplanandevaluatenew approaches,tostimulatepeers,and cruciallydiscussandreflectnew approachesandtalktonewaudiences aboutthemandwhenandhowthey work,areactivelydeveloped,tosupport thewholeschoolethosofencouraging andlearningfrominnovationand continuousimprovement.</p> <p>Wefoundthatindividuallyinspired innovationwasprimarilythedomain ofexperienced,confidentteachers whopossessedmanyoftheskills neededtotest,refine,evaluateand promulgatenewapproaches.Where theydidnothavetheseskills,however, theywereessentiallydevelopingtheir ownpractice.Thenonsystemicmodel dependsonteachersenthusiasm; andtheirabilitytoinspirecolleagues, whetherthereisoftennoincentiveto offerinsightsandexperiences.</p> <p>o o o o </p> <p>withintheirownschool otherschools theeducationsystemmore broadly thewiderenvironment. Schoolsthatwereparticularly innovativetendedtohavesome formalstructuresforteachers toshareideasandshowcase innovativepracticeinplacerather thanrelyingonthistohappen informally.Theyalsooftenhad structuresthatweresetupwith theexpresspurposeoffocusing onparticularproblemsorissuesto comeupwithsolutions.Theseoften involved,orindeedwereledby, pupils. Headteachersanddeputieswere generallymorelikelythanclassroom teacherstodrawinspirationfrom attendingexternalconferences, networkingandobservingpractices withinotherschools.Thosefrom ourcasestudyschoolsinparticular tendedtobehighlyknowledgeable aboutcurrentgoodpracticeand emergingthinking.Theyactively soughtoutnewideasfromawide rangeofsourcesandwereskilled atadaptingideastosuittheirown13</p> <p>Beingabletotalkcompellinglyabout innovationisveryimportant.Schools whohaveadoptedinnovationasan ethoshavedonesobecauseithelps teachersreflectontheirpracticeand invariablyrediscoverthattheyarevery goodindeedatgeneratingenthusiasm forlearningandbeingcreativeintheir lessons,andmoraleimprovesasaresult. Inthesystemicmodel,availabilityofthe necessaryskillsisnotlefttochance.</p> <p>Sources of ideas Ideasforinnovationatbotha classroomandschoollevelare drawnfromawiderangeofplaces andspheresofinfluencewith teachersandheadsexchanging ideasanddrawinginspirationfrom anumberoflevels:</p> <p>context.Acommonfeatureof se...</p>