teaching and learning principles

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  1. 1. Teaching and Learning Principles By Lisa Ridgway
  2. 2. Always Learning As an advocate for learning and teaching I am continuing my quest of knowledge through pursuit of a masters degree. The goal of all teaching and education is the acquisition of student knowledge.
  3. 3. Foundational Theories Teaching and Learning Styles
  4. 4. Foundational Theories 3 key teaching theories: Behaviorism Cognitivism Social Constructivism These theories can be applied to Benjamin Blooms Taxonomy of Student Learning (Reeves, 2011) Blooms Taxonomy (revised)
  5. 5. Behaviorism Key educational theorist: Skinner Goal is for learners to correctly respond to stimuli (Ertmer & Newby, 1993) Operational conditioning furthers effectiveness (Skinner, 1993) Positive reinforcement Negative consequences Simple recall of information Does not require higher thinking skills
  6. 6. Cognitivism Key educational theorist: Piaget Increases rigor, higher-order thinking skills required Requires problem solving and reasoning (Ertmer & Newby, 1993) Prior knowledge is important to form new connections
  7. 7. Social Constructivism Key educational theorist: Vygotsky Focuses on the needs of society (Shiro, 2013) Learners become involved (Ertmer & Newby, 1993) Students seek greater social purpose
  8. 8. Manifestation of Theories in Education Learning Theories Elementary education students remember and understand often through a behaviorism approach Secondary education students apply and analyze knowledge through cognitivism Tertiary education - addresses social purpose through constructivism Levels of Education Tertiary Secondary Elementary
  9. 9. Interdisciplinary Learning and Teaching Merges disciplines Increases problem-solving approaches Improves educational outcomes Initiatives, such as STEM and STEAM, are evidence of an interdisciplinary trend emerging
  10. 10. Meeting the Needs of All Learners Our nations diversity continues grows
  11. 11. Diverse Learners Meeting the Needs of All Learners Bilingual English language learners Students with Disabilities Transgendered individuals
  12. 12. Bilingualism 1906: Nationality Act (Texas) 1923: Meyer v. Nebraska 1954: Brown v. Board of Education 1964: Civil Rights Act 1965: Elementary & Secondary Education Act 1968: Bilingual Education Act The Nationality Act required students to speak English Meyer v. Nebraska decided that foreign language education cannot be restricted Brown v. Board of Ed desegregated schools The Civil Rights Act outlawed discrimination, requires schools to improve language deficiencies Elementary & Secondary Education Act was part of the War on Poverty to fund schools The Bilingual Education Act was the first federal legislation to recognize needs of ELLs
  13. 13. Students with Disabilities 1973: 504 1975: IDEA 1990: ADA 2002: NCLB 2004: RTI Section 504 was part of the Rehabilitation Act to accommodate students IDEA made public education for students with disabilities possible ADA prohibits discrimination based on disability NCLB increased accountability to include students with special needs for adequate yearly progress RTI aims to increase interventions and decrease special education referrals
  14. 14. Transgenderism Bathroom laws continue discriminative practices San Antonio is one of over 200 cities to protect gender identity discrimination (sanantonio.gov) Sexual orientation discrimination laws do not currently protect most citizens (ACLU) Curriculum should challenge heteronormative practices to expand insight (Sumara & Davis, 1999)
  15. 15. Segregation Segregation was outlawed over 50 years ago Efforts of desegregation have improved education for many minority groups Unfortunately, segregation can still be found within most large school districts Self-contained special education classrooms exists in most schools ESL classrooms are a form of segregation Reference: SJEPmoviemiento. (2010, February 18). Questions for Answers part 1.mov [Video file]. Retrieved from https://www.youtube.com/watch?v=woFuUPKUfII I encourage you to watch this video about a school district in Arizona. It is a mirror example of what I have seen in San Antonio.
  16. 16. The Education Enterprise in the U.S. A Work in Progress Public schooling has existed in the U.S. since the 1600s Secondary and tertiary education became more prevalent in the 1900s The Progressive Movement increased awareness of relevancy and student experiences Education standards vary by state with similarities across the country Despite efforts to end inequalities, discrimination and segregation continue to exist
  17. 17. Plan of Action Teachers must be advocates for students Students should be advocates for communities Therefore, a teachers role should be to teach students how to advocate for themselves and their communities
  18. 18. References ACLU (n.d.). Know your rights: Transgender people and the law. Retrieved August 5, 2016 from https://www.aclu.org/know-your-rights/transgender-people- and-law. Arias, M. B. (2007). The educational implications of linguistic isolation and segregation of Latino English Language Learners.https://civilrightsproject.ucla.edu/legal-developments/court-decisions/the-educational-implications-of-linguistic-isolation-and-segregation- of-latino-english-language-learners-ells. Bloom, B. S., & Sosniak, L. A. (1981). Talent Development vs. Schooling. Educational Leadership, 39(2), 86-94. Retrieved July 31, 2016 from www.ascd.org/ASCD/pdf/journals/ed_lead/el_198111_bloom.pdf Blumenfeld, S.L. (2008). Pavlovs dog and American education. The New American, 24(20), 33. Reeves, A.R. (2011). Where Great Teaching Begins: Planning for Student Thinking and Learning. Alexandria, VA: ASCD. Ertmer, P. A., & Newby, T. J. (1993). Behaviorism, cognitivism, constructivism: Comparing critical features from an instructional design perspective. Performance Improvement Quarterly, 6(4), 50-72. Freire, P. (2000). Pedagogy of the Oppressed. New York: Bloomsbury Publishing. Goldin, C. (1999). A brief history of education in the United States. Greeno, J., Collins, A., & Resnick, L. B. (1992). Cognition and learning. In B. Berliner & R. Calfee (Eds.), Handbook of Educational Psychology (pp 15-46), New York, NY: Simon & Schuster MacMillan. Hoffman, L., & Sable, J. (2006). Public elementary and secondary students, staff, schools, and school districts: School year 2003-2004. Washington, DC: National Center for Educational Statistics. Nieto, D. (2000). A brief history of bilingual education in the United States. Urban Ed Journal, 61, 61-65. San Antonio (n.d.). City of San Antonio Non-Discrimination Ordinance facts. Retrieved August 5, 2016 from http://www.sanantonio.gov/Portals/0/Files/NDO/ndo-fact-sheet.pdf. Schiro, M. (2013). Curriculum Theory: Conflicting Visions and Enduring Concerns (2nd ed.) Thousand Oaks, CA: Sage. Skinner, B. F. (1990). Can psychology be a science of mind? American Psychologist, 45(11), 1206-1210. Steinmetz, K. (2015). Everything You Need to Know About the Debate Over Transgender People and Bathrooms. Retrieved July 3, 2016 from http://time.com/3974186/transgender-bathroom-debate. Sumara, D. & Davis, B. (1999). Interupting heteronormativity: Toward a queer curriculum theory. Curriculum Inquiry, 29 (2), 191-208.

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